Author:
Kata Dévai HUN-REN–ELTE Research Group for Interdisciplinary Archaeology, Hungarian Research Network–Eötvös Loránd University, Múzeum krt. 4/B, H-1088 Budapest, Hungary

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Abstract

This paper covers the mould-blown scallop bowls from Late Roman Pannonia (Hungary), which merit a discussion because compared to other regions of the Roman Empire, scallop bowls have a relatively dense distribution in this province (Fig. 6). All the bowls described and discussed here were part of the grave goods recovered from burials, providing a good context for these vessels.

Abstract

This paper covers the mould-blown scallop bowls from Late Roman Pannonia (Hungary), which merit a discussion because compared to other regions of the Roman Empire, scallop bowls have a relatively dense distribution in this province (Fig. 6). All the bowls described and discussed here were part of the grave goods recovered from burials, providing a good context for these vessels.

Glass vessels in Pannonia

The Pannonian glass industry played a significant role and was a melting pot between the West and the eastern part of the Empire.

Due to its unique association with Roman culture, blown glass played an important role in bringing Roman culture to the new provinces in Europe, but their function and the numbers of forms available differed considerably in West and East.

The use of glass vessels appears in mid first century CE and was popular until the end of Roman rule. Even after the abandonment of the province, the use of glass vessels in the area is still significant.

Pannonia's trade links with both the West and the East part of Roman Empire and the Balkans were noteworthy, and its glass style was influenced from both directions. The influence from the west seems to be more active in the earlier imperial period, than in the late. In the late period Pannonia tends to orientate versus eastern parts of the world. Groups of eastern military troops and eastern civilians came and settled in the province in several waves. This may be the presumed reason why several types of vessels with eastern origins are popular and produced in Pannonia. Several artisans of oriental origin may have worked in the province, as we can see for example in the case of snake thread glass tradition of Pannonia.1 There are many similarities between the Pannonian limes and Cologne in terms of the style of glassware. Since Fremersdorf, this has traditionally been ascribed to the fact that Syrian glassmakers moved to both places and with them the production of the special glassware.2 However, this is often difficult to prove.

Late Roman glass

A full study of the glass, including fragmentary pieces, from the settlements of Pannonia is still lacking and thus there is an immense research potential in looking at the finds from the burials, from which most of the intact vessel glass was recovered. Inhumation burials became increasingly widespread from the turn of the second and third centuries onward and although the reason for this change in the burial rite continues to elude us, the glass vessels deposited as grave goods from this time onward provide a good corpus of finds for analytical studies. In contrast to the relatively few burials known from the third century, there is an abundance of vessel glass from the fourth century. Vera Lányi wrote a comprehensive overview and assessment of the burials published until 1972.3 I have studied in my PhD thesis the glass grave goods from the last decades of the third and the early fourth centuries to the middle/close of the fifth century CE, which covers roughly a thousand pieces. In other words, I did not take the abandonment and evacuation of Pannonia as chronological boundary but have also looked at the possible survival of Roman-type glass manufacture in the fifth century. There is no abrupt end in Pannonia, a lot of people stayed, sometimes maybe in precarious circumstances, but a continuity which sometimes is not very well visible.4

Different types and shapes of vessels were in use along the limes, in military camps and in the cities of the interior of the province, while other vessels appeared in villas and vicus. The vessel glass surveyed here offers important insights into the glass consumption of Late Roman Pannonia and sheds light on the different use of glass on various settlement types: for example, different types were preferred in the military forts along the limes and in the settlements in the province's interior.

The stretch of the limes between Arrabona and Intercisa, within the area of which the Danube Bend was the most remarkable since more than half of the vessels (53%) were found in this region. The other zone was the city of Sopianae and its vicinity, where 20% of the studied glass finds were found.5

In the late Roman period, the areas along the limes played a significant role due to the Barbarian attacks along the borders of the Empire. Since the provision of troops was the responsibility of the empire, large numbers of glass vessels were used on these military settlements. Similarly, glass objects were frequently used in both cities and villas of importance, while the usage of glass vessels dramatically decreased in the countryside. Sopianae's role must be emphasised as it was the source of a remarkable variety of glass objects, which were known throughout the province for their quality, form, and decoration.6

By examining the temporal and spatial distribution of the types used, the glassware trade links between different areas of the Roman Empire can be studied, and by examining the quantitative distribution and diffusion, the role of workshops and the economic history of ancient Roman glassmaking can be outlined.

The typological classification of about 1000 late Roman glass finds comprising the main results of the analysis, as well as the chronological and geographical backgrounds of the objects is summarized as follows. Mainly tableware was produced in Late Roman Pannonia; 57.9% of the finds belong to this category. Within this group, drinking vessels dominate (45.5% of the total). Bowls and dishes appear to have lost the importance they had in previous periods, as they were found only sporadically (2.2% of the total). The number of jugs – used mainly for serving liquids – is higher than the number of bowls (10.1% of the total). Among the storage and container vessels, only bottles are present in significant numbers (20.2% of the total). Their primary purpose was for storing liquids, which is indicated by the more closed shape of their mouths. Unguentaria also occur less frequently in comparison to previous centuries, although they remain fairly common in late Roman times (18.8% of the total number of finds).7

Relatively few bowls, plates and small dip bowl-like vessels have been recovered from among the grave goods of late Roman burials and neither was their proportion particularly high in the vessel glass of the early Roman period. These vessels comprise the open vessel forms whose rim diameter exceeds the vessel height.8 Of the roughly one thousand glass objects from burials discussed here, no more than 24 are bowls (accounting for some 2.5%). This is consistent with the general tendency observed on late Roman settlements.9

Among these 24 bowls are the five scallop bowls discussed below. The five bowls do not seem like a lot, but they represent about a fifth of the total number of bowls found.

Scallop-shaped bowls

Scallop-shaped glass bowls have been discussed in detail by Eva Marianne Stern;10 in László Barkóczi's catalogue of Roman vessel glass from Pannonia, the type appears as Form 189.11 The majority of mould-blown decorated glass vessels are bottles, sprinklers, and smaller jars.12 The reason for this was in part that unlike cut and facetted designs imitating the elegant, engraved designs on crystal, a point noted by Pliny the Elder,13 the imprints of the moulds were not particularly attractive on the colourless tableware that became fashionable from the late first/early second centuries. The predilection for these vessels remained significant until the later fourth century, up to the century's end. Tableware was predominantly produced from colourless glass, frequently decorated with attractive cut and facetted motifs. From the second century onward, mould-blown vessels were usually restricted to storage and transport vessels (such as square and hexagonal bottles and flagons), although small globular bottles with relief decoration and head bottles remained popular, too.

Scallop bowls represented an appealing novelty among these vessels. These mould-blown vessels were made of colourless or pale green glass, more rarely of opaque blue glass in the third–fourth century.14 The production of quality glassware adorned with designs in high relief of the first century declined and the patterns were less carefully executed, shallower, and often barely visible. Scallop bowls were made using dip moulds. Their base is smooth, without any pontil scars, suggesting that they were left to cool together with the mould after the rim was cracked off. The vessels were then removed from the mould by breaking the clay and the rim was perhaps reheated and rounded.15 These bowls imitated scallops, a popular form produced also in glass since the Hellenistic period, although with casting. Scallop bowls were often also made in silver and bronze.16 A silver shell-shaped bowl from Pompeii was possibly used as a finger bowl during dinners and banquets.17 A bronze scallop bowl dating from the first century, also from Pompeii, was found in the house of Fabio Rufo.18 Bronze versions may have been used for serving food or, alternately, for drawing water for bathing, or for holding unguentaria. Representations of Venus often show her holding a basin in the shape of a shell.19 The exact use of the bronze, silver, and glass bivalve mollusc bowls remains open to speculation. However, the glass versions are too small and shallow to be used as washing fingers.

The glass variety of scallop bowls can be divided into two main types. The first was current before 79 and was made by sagging,20 while the second was mould-blown and began to be produced during the fourth century. The early type is far more realistically modelled, with particular attention to the curving lines of the shell and the scalloped rim. The findspots would suggest that this vessel form had evolved in Italy. The more stylised fourth-century vessels are made of delicate colourless glass and three main groups can be distinguished based on their rim diameters: the largest ones have rim diameters of 15.5–16 cm, the medium-sized ones of around 13.5 cm, while the smallest ones of roughly 9.5–10.5 cm. Their distribution shows a concentration in the Cologne and Intercisa areas, suggesting that their workshops lay in these areas.21

Barkóczi's catalogue lists the three scallop bowls from Intercisa as his Form 189. All three were recovered from burials dated to the later or the final third of the fourth century. Although Barkóczi notes that they may have been produced in the Cologne area, given their frequent presence there, he considers an eastern, Pontic origin more likely.22 However, there is nothing to confirm an origin from that region.

I identified five scallop bowls during my examination of Late Roman Pannonian vessel glass. Three come from the western cemetery of Intercisa (Graves 38, 494, and 570, Figs 13), one from Esztergom-Bánomi-dűlő (Grave 262, Fig. 4) and one from Aquincum (269 Bécsi Road, Fig. 5). Four are made of colourless glass, while the fifth, the piece from Esztergom-Bánomi-dűlő, has a moss green colour. All five are good-quality pieces largely devoid of bubbles and streaks. Two of the bowls from Intercisa fall into the medium-sized category with their rim diameters of 12.7 and 13 cm, the other three can be assigned to the large type with their rim diameters of over 14 cm. Three bowls have curved, cracked-off, and ground rims. The rims of two bowls from Intercisa were carefully re-heated and rounded.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Glass scallop bowl. Intercisa, Grave 570, Intercisa Museum, inv. no. 67.2.157.1.  (photo: Tamás Keszi)

Citation: Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 74, 2; 10.1556/072.2023.00020

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Glass scallop bowl. Intercisa, Grave 38, Intercisa Museum, inv. no. 65.11.24.7.  (photo: Tamás Keszi)

Citation: Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 74, 2; 10.1556/072.2023.00020

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Glass scallop bowl. Intercisa, Grave 494, Intercisa Museum, inv. no. 67.2.107.5. (photo: Tamás Keszi)

Citation: Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 74, 2; 10.1556/072.2023.00020

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Glass scallop bowl. Esztergom-Bánomi-dűlő, Grave 262, Balassa Bálint Museum, inv. no. 95.207.2.  (Photo: Orsolya Horváth)

Citation: Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 74, 2; 10.1556/072.2023.00020

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Glass scallop bowl. Aquincum, Grave 1/ I 7, Aquincum Museum, inv. no. 87.2.1.  (photo: Kata Dévai)

Citation: Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 74, 2; 10.1556/072.2023.00020

Intercisa

Intercisa (present-day Dunaújváros, County Fejér) was a military fort and civilian settlement near the limes in Pannonia inferior. The auxiliary fort of Intercisa and the adjacent vicus were prospering settlements. The most famous unit garrisoning the fort was the Syrian cohors I milaria Hemesenorum sagittariorum equitatia civium Romanorum, which had originally been stationed in the Syrian town of Hemesa, whence many others of its population may have moved to Intercisa. The Syrian archers brought their families with them, who in turn were followed by Syrian merchants and various craftsmen, glassmakers among them. Intercisa's glass production was quite outstanding. Intercisa flourished from the late second century until the barbarian devastation of 259/60, but a garrison was stationed in the area until the early fifth century.23

Between 1963 and 1967, Eszter B. Vágó conducted an excavation south-east of the Intercisa fort and uncovered 600 graves. The Late Roman burials lay in the area west of the one-time limes road.24 The cemetery's use began in the final third of the third century and many burials date from the first decade of the fourth century. The cemetery's use continued during the fourth century, up to the early fifth century.25

The three scallop bowls were recovered from the following graves in the western cemetery of Intercisa (Figs 13).

It must here be noted that a bronze version of these glass bowls was also current in the Late Roman period in Pannonia. The grave goods of Grave 54 of the western cemetery of Intercisa included a bronze scallop bowl.26

  1. Grave 570

    • Child's inhumation burial. Grave goods: a clay pot and a glass scallop bowl beside the feet.27

    • Glass scallop bowl: Dish in the shape of a scallop shell, blown into an open, one-part, cup-shaped mould. Flaring, cracked-off rim, lightly ground. Body modelled in the shape of a bivalve marine mollusc (scallop) with ribs in relief and rounded base. Colourless, good quality glass with few bubbles. H. 4.70 cm, dR. 12.70 cm, dB(base). 8.80 cm. Dunaújváros, Intercisa Museum, inv. no. 67.2.157.1 (Fig. 1).

  2. Grave 38

    • Disturbed coffin burial. Grave goods: a copper-alloy arm-ring, three coins (1. Constantinus Caesar, Siscia, RIC 173-321-324. 2. Helena Augusta, Thessalonica, RIC 159-326-328. 3. Constantinopolis, Thessalonica, RIC 330-333), an iron casket, and two glass vessels, one a scallop bowl, the other disintegrated, both deposited near the feet.28

    • Glass scallop bowl, blown into an open, one-part, cup-shaped mould. Body modelled in the shape of a bivalve marine mollusc (scallop) with ribs in relief and rounded base. No pontil scar, ground. Colourless, good quality glass with few bubbles. H: 4.70 cm, dR. 13.00 cm, dB(base). 8.90 cm. Dunaújváros, Intercisa Museum, inv. no. 65.11.24.7 (Fig. 2).

  3. Grave 494

    • Disturbed brick grave. Grave goods: a glass scallop bowl near the right shin bone, an iron knife, and two coins.29

    • Glass scallop bowl, blown into an open, one-part, cup-shaped mould. Fire-rounded rim. Body modelled in the shape of a bivalve marine mollusc (scallop) with ribs in relief and rounded base. No pontil scar, ground. Colourless, excellent quality, bubble-free glass. H. 4.50 cm, dR. 14.28 cm, dB(base). 9.50 cm. Dunaújváros, Intercisa Museum, inv. no. 67.2.107.5 (Fig. 3).

Esztergom-Bánomi-dűlő

The cemetery of the Solva castellum lay in the area known as Bánomi-dűlő. The fortlet itself was established on Mt. Várhegy, the site of a late Celtic settlement. The vicus of the fortlet extended along the western and southern foot of the mountain, and on the plain to its south-east. The fortlet's burial grounds lay on the western and eastern slopes of Bánom Hill opposite Mt. Várhegy.30 The cemetery was discovered in 1822, when about 800 graves were disturbed.31 Additional graves came to light in 1892 during clay extraction. Albin Balogh, director of the Museum of the Esztergom Archaeological and Historical Society, uncovered seven graves in 1927 and another two in 1929.32 House construction on the south-eastern slope of Bánom Hill in the 1930s brought to light yet other graves. The site was excavated by Márta H. Kelemen: she uncovered 68 graves in 1986, 47 graves in 1987, 40 graves in 1988, 113 graves in 1989, and 61 graves in 1990.33

The Solva 1 fort was established on Mt. Várhegy in the first century and was garrisoned by the cohors I Augusta Ituraeorum, transferred there from Germany, which in 89 was replaced by the cohors III Brittonum equitata.34 The fort was next manned by the cohors I Batavorum milliaria civium Romanorum pia fidelis in 118–119. Until the 270s, the cohors I Ulpia Pannoniorum milliaria equitata remained in garrison,35 after which nothing more is known about the cohort or the fort, suggesting that it had perished. In the fourth century, the equites Mauri and the cuneus equitum scutariorum were transferred to Solva.36 It seems likely that these troops only rebuilt and occupied a smaller part of the former fort. The fort's cemetery probably lay on Bánom Hill from the second century onward.37

  1. Grave 262

    • Vaulted brick grave, mature, disturbed burial. Grave goods: a coin (Constantinus Gallus, 351–364), a bronze finger-ring, a glass jar, a glass scallop bowl, and a long pipette-shaped unguent bottle.38

    • Glass scallop bowl, blown into an open, one-part, cup-shaped mould. Flaring, cracked-off rim, lightly ground. Body modelled in the shape of a bivalve marine mollusc (scallop) with ribs in relief and rounded base. No pontil scar, ground. Moss green, good quality glass with few bubbles. H. 4.41 cm, dR. 14.30 cm, dB. 8.90 cm. Esztergom, Balassa Bálint Museum, inv. no. 95.207.2 (Fig. 4).

Aquincum

At Aquincum, the military and the civilian town both had their own cemeteries, whose investigation was begun in the late nineteenth century.39 The southern and western cemeteries of the civilian town40 were still in use during the fourth century. However, most of the large Late Roman cemeteries can be linked to the military town. The overwhelming majority of the graves was uncovered in the Aquincum-Bécsi út cemetery that lay west of the canabae. The western cemetery of the military town extended along Bécsi Road. The burials of this cemetery were published by Judit Topál.41

  1. Grave 1/ I 7

    • Small stone coffin, poorly-preserved skeleton of an infant boy.42 Grave goods: a bronze cross-bow brooch, a glass unguent bottle, a fragmentary glass beaker, the base and rim fragment of a toilet bottle, and a glass scallop bowl.43

    • Glass scallop bowl, blown into an open, one-part, cup-shaped mould. Flaring, cracked-off rim, lightly ground. Body modelled in the shape of a bivalve marine mollusc (scallop) with ribs in relief and rounded base. No pontil scar, ground. Colourless, good quality glass with few bubbles. H: 4.80 cm, dR. 14.70 cm, dB. 8.90 cm. Budapest, Budapest History Museum-Aquincum Museum, inv. no. 87.2.1 (Fig. 5).

Discussion

Scallop bowls were made of silver, bronze, and glass in the Roman period. The bronze varieties of scallop bowls are also attested in Pannonia, although they are less naturalistic and more stylized44. The glass versions were small sizes with a diameter of 9–13 cm, while the silver and bronze examples are much larger.45 It seems to be the large metal basins in form of scallops cannot be taken as related with glass version, different in size and design. The function of glass scallop bowls remains uncertain. They evoke the natural form of scallop shells.

If we take into account the shell-shaped glass bowls found in the Roman Empire, the following can be established about their distribution: six specimen known from Cologne, these bowls are colourless.46 The scallop bowl of Jakob Strasse doesn't come from a grave.47 Danièle Foy also mentioned five from Gallia, one from Hispania and one from Rome examples of these bowls, but these appear to be the earliest, dating mostly from the 3rd century, and it is questionable whether they were new when they were buried or whether they may have been in use for a longer period.48 One bowl in Carthage were known last.49 The spread of the form suggests that these bowls were widespread in parts of the western part of the empire. The examples from Gaul and Germania, however, appear to be earlier and made of decolourised glass. By comparison, the Pannonian pieces clearly late, dating from the 4th and 5th century, it seems special.

This type of glass bowl has much in common with the similar pieces known mainly from the Rhine and Danube frontiers, suggesting that they were most likely produced in that region. All five scallop bowls presented here are finely made, good-quality pieces, reflecting a high level of craftsmanship. They are of exceptional beauty among Late Roman bowls. Given their larger concentration in Pannonia, a local production cannot be excluded (Fig. 6). If not made locally, they were most likely produced in Cologne, where a scallop motif appears on the handle of a snake-thread decorated patera.50 Scallop bowls were current during the later fourth century in Pannonia; however, their use up to the early fifth century is evidenced by the exemplar from Esztergom-Bánomi-dűlő.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distribution of glass scallop bowls in Late Roman Pannonia

Citation: Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 74, 2; 10.1556/072.2023.00020

Four of these bowls are colourless, the fifth and latest one is moss green. The associated coin finds indicate that the first four scallop bowls were deposited in their respective burials in the later fourth century. The glass bowl from Esztergom-Bánomi-dűlő most likely dates from the earlier fifth century. The regional distribution of scallop bowls in Pannonia reflects their occurrence along the limes, in a few spots in the Danube Bend, mainly near military sites. The bowls are also quite uniform in terms of their size, rim finish, and decoration, raising the possibility that the four colourless bowls had perhaps been made in the same workshop. Given that there was a thriving glass industry in Pannonia during the Late Roman period, this workshop may have been active in the province, although there is no conclusive evidence for this. Drawing from and blending the traditions of the eastern and western parts of the Roman Empire, the glass industry of Pannonia was also important in the Late Roman period. Looking at the position of glass scallop bowls in the burials, they were mainly placed beside the feet. Two bowls were placed in child burials, one in a male burial.

The brief description given above may give some insight into the history of glass scallop bowls in the Roman period. Although it is not possible to explain the popularity of the bowls, data has been collected. It is interesting that parallels of this rare, mould-blown vessels from Gallia and Germania seems to be earlier, dating rather to the 3rd century, while in Pannonia they are known from a late 4th–5th century context in a small area along the limes. It is likely that in Pannonia province the role of the military was prominent in the limes region, because the defence of the province was very important, so the welfare of the military and its leaders was considered an imperial interest. In the case of the shell-shaped bowls, it is interesting to note that three of the five bowls were found in Intercisa, where we can always expect an oriental influence. Even though Intercisa was only a military fortress and a vicus, never having been given the rank of a municipium, Intercisa's glass production was quite outstanding.

Acknowledgement

This paper was written as part of a research project generously funded by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Grant BO/00163/21/2) and the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (Grant ÚNKP-23-5-ELTE-70).

The author is very grateful to Sylvia Fünsfschilling and Marianne Stern for their advice in writing this article.

References

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1

Dévai (2019) 325–342. From the Severan Era, there was a spectacular immigration from east in Pannonia, mainly affecting the settlements of Aquincum, Brigetio and Intercisa until the 4th century. The fact of relocation is attested by the inscriptions on the gravestones, but in the case of Aquincum and Brigetio, the Syrians were the members of local assemblies (ordo decurionum). Some Pannonian cities were almost overrun by Syrians in the early 3rd century; This was also reflected in the wealth of Intercisa, which is perhaps the reason why the glass vessels excavated in Intercisa are fascinating and wealthy, with many types of oriental origin. Although in many cases the specific origin or affiliation cannot be proven, Intercisa's glass vessels are outstandingly exquisite.

4

Dévai (2016) 255–286; Dévai (2017) 222–230.

6

Dévai (2016) 255–257.

7

Dévai (2016) 255–286.

8

Van Lith and Randsborg (1985) 417. I assigned a vessel to the category of bowls if the rim diameter was at least 60% greater than the vessel height.

10

Stern (1995) Cat. no. 137.

13

Plin, Nat. Hist. 36.37.198.

16

Kunina (1997) 127, Cat. no. 92. Mould-blown flask with scallop-shaped body from the first century.

17

https://www.pompeiiinpictures.com/pompeiiinpictures/R5/5%2001%2018.htm. Pompeii, House of the Epigrams. Naples Archaeological Museum, inv. nos 110863 and 110864.

20

Stern (1995) 199; Maiuri (1932) Pl. 62; Goldstein (1979) 139–140, no. 288.

27

Based on Eszter B. Vágó’s field documentation of the excavation, Intercisa Museum.

29

Based on Eszter B. Vágó’s field documentation of the excavation, Intercisa Museum.

38

Kelemen (2008) 271, 351, Taf. VII/27.

40

Topál (2003) 162. Aranyárok (first–second centuries), Csillaghegy (second century), southern cemetery of the civilian town (second to fourth centuries) and its eastern cemetery (second to fourth centuries).

45

Follmann-Schulz (1989) 57–58, no. 24, Fig. 4. A silver bowl with a diameter of 23,6 cm was excavated in a fourth century sarcophagus at Zülpich-Enzen.

46

Feremersdorf (1961) 73–74, Taf. 134. The six bowls mentioned in Fremersdorf are not dated.

48

Foy (2018) 124–125.

49

Tatton-Brown (1984) 194, Cat. 1 and 196, fig. 65.1.

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  • Barkóczi, L., Erdélyi, G., Ferenczy, E., Fülep, F., Nemeskéri, J., R. Alföldi, M., and Sági, K. (1954). Intercisa, 1: Dunapentele–Sztálinváros. Geschichte der Stadt in der Römerzeit. Archaeologia Hungarica, Series nova, 33. Budapest.

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  • Dévai, K. (2016). Glass vessels from late Roman times found in Pannonia. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 67/2: 255286.

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  • Dévai, K. (2017). Glass vessels from Late Roman graves in the Hungarian part of the Roman province Pannonia. In: Wolf, S. and de Pury-Gysel, A. (Eds), Annales du 20e Congrès de l'Association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre. Fribourg–Romont 7–11 septembre 2015. Romont, pp. 222229.

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  • Dévai, K. (2019). The tradition of snake-thread glass in Pannonia. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 70 (2): 325342.

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  • Follmann-Schulz, A.-B. (1989). Ein römischer Grabfund des 4. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. aus Zülpich-Enzen, Rheinland. Kölner Jahrbuch für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, 22: 4968.

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  • Foy, D. (2018). Verres incolores de l'Antiquité romaine en Gaule et aux marges de la Gaule, 2: Typologie, analyses. Archaeopress Roman archaeology, 42. Oxford.

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  • Fremersdorf, F. (1959). Römische Gläser mit Fadenauflage in Köln (Schlangenfadengläser und Verwandtes). Die Denkmäler des römischen Köln, 5. Köln.

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  • Fremersdorf, F. (1961). Römisches geformtes Glas in Köln. Die Denkmäler des römischen Köln, 6. Köln.

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  • Lányi, V. (1972). Die spätrömischen Gräberfelder von Pannonien. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 24: 53213.

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  • Stern, E.M. (1995). Roman mould-blown glass. The first through sixth centuries. Rome.

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  • Topál, J. (1993). Roman cemeteries of Aquincum, Pannonia. The western cemetery (Bécsi Road), I. Aquincum nostrum. Budapest.

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