View More View Less
  • 1 Yangzhou University Key Laboratories of Crop Genetics and Physiology of the Jiangsu Province and Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education Yangzhou 225009 China
Restricted access

Cross Mark

The objective of the present study was to understand the developmental regularity of wheat endosperm cells at different Days After Pollination (DAP) using microscopic and histochemical methods. Resin semi-thin sections of the endosperm and the enzymatically dissociated Starchy Endosperm Cells (SECs) were observed under a light microscope. The results showed that: (1) SECs were irregular-shaped and had two types of starch granules: large oval-shaped A-type starch granules and small spherical B-type starch granules. (2) The growth shape of SECs was referred to as S-curve and the fastest cell growth period was at 16–24 DAP. (3) The largest increase and growth of A-type starch granules were mainly at 4–16 DAP. B-type starch granules increased rapidly after 16 DAP and made up over 90% of the total starch granules in SEC during the late stage of endosperm development. (4) The nuclei of SEC deformed and degenerated during the middle and late stages of endosperm development and eventually disappeared. However, starch granules still increased and grew after the cell nuclei had degenerated. The investigations showed the development regularity of starch endosperm cells and starch granules, thereby improving the understanding of wheat endosperm development.

  • Becraft, P.W. 2001. Cell fate specification in the cereal endosperm. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 12:387–394.

    Becraft P.W. , 'Cell fate specification in the cereal endosperm ' (2001 ) 12 Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. : 387 -394.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Becraft, P.W., Gutierrez, M.J. 2012. Endosperm development: dynamic processes and cellular innovations underlying sibling altruism. WIREs Dev. Biol. 1:579–593.

    Gutierrez M.J. , 'Endosperm development: dynamic processes and cellular innovations underlying sibling altruism ' (2012 ) 1 WIREs Dev. Biol. : 579 -593.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, Y.F., Zhang, J., Xie, P.S., Zhou, W.D., Chen, J.M., Wei, C.X. 2012. Programmed cell death in wheat starchy endosperm during kernel development. Afr. J. Agr. Res. 7:6533–6540.

    Wei C.X. , 'Programmed cell death in wheat starchy endosperm during kernel development ' (2012 ) 7 Afr. J. Agr. Res. : 6533 -6540.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hong, S.Y., Park, J.H., Cho, S.H., Yang, M.S., Park, C.M. 2011. Phenological growth stages of Brachypodium distachyon: codification and description. Weed Res. 51:612–620.

    Park C.M. , 'Phenological growth stages of Brachypodium distachyon: codification and description ' (2011 ) 51 Weed Res. : 612 -620.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Liu, Z., Wang, L.L., Zhou, W.D., Chen, Y.F., Wang, Z. 2011. The surface of the geometric characteristics analysis for rice endosperm starch granules by using Image J. J. of Chinese Electron Microscopy Society 30:466–471. (in Chinese with English abstract)

    Wang Z. , 'The surface of the geometric characteristics analysis for rice endosperm starch granules by using Image J ' (2011 ) 30 J. of Chinese Electron Microscopy Society : 466 -471.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Olsen, O.A. 1998. Endosperm developments. Plant Cell 10:485–488.

    Olsen O.A. , 'Endosperm developments ' (1998 ) 10 Plant Cell : 485 -488.

  • Olsen, O.A. 2004. Nuclear endosperm development in cereals and Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 16: 215–227.

    Olsen O.A. , 'Nuclear endosperm development in cereals and Arabidopsis thaliana ' (2004 ) 16 Plant Cell : 215 -227.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sabelli, P.A., Larkins, B.A. 2009a. The development of endosperm in grasses. Plant Physiol. 149:14–26.

    Larkins B.A. , 'The development of endosperm in grasses ' (2009 ) 149 Plant Physiol. : 14 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sabelli, P.A., Larkins, B.A. 2009b. The contribution of cell cycle regulation to endosperm development. Sex. Plant Reprod. 22:207–219.

    Larkins B.A. , 'The contribution of cell cycle regulation to endosperm development ' (2009 ) 22 Sex. Plant Reprod. : 207 -219.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sabelli, P.A., Liu, Y., Dante, R.A., Lizarraga, L.E., Nguyen, H.N., Brown, S.W., Klingler, J.P., Yu, J., Labrant, E., Layton, T.M., Feldman, M., Larkins, B.A. 2013. Control of cell proliferation, endore duplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110:1827–1836.

    Larkins B.A. , 'Control of cell proliferation, endore duplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm ' (2013 ) 110 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA : 1827 -1836.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uhlmann, N.K., Beckles, D.M. 2010. Storage products and transcriptional analysis of the endosperm of cultivated wheat and two wild wheat species. J. Appl. Genet. 51:431–447.

    Beckles D.M. , 'Storage products and transcriptional analysis of the endosperm of cultivated wheat and two wild wheat species ' (2010 ) 51 J. Appl. Genet. : 431 -447.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, W.H., Guo, W.S., Fang, M.K., Feng, C.N., Zhu, X.K., Peng, Y.X. 2003. Endosperm cell proliferating and grain filling dynamics in wheat. Acta Agronomica Sinica 29:779–784. (in Chinese with English abstract)

    Peng Y.X. , 'Endosperm cell proliferating and grain filling dynamics in wheat ' (2003 ) 29 Acta Agronomica Sinica : 779 -784.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, Z., Gu, Y.J., Wang, H.H., Zheng, Y.K., Chen, Y.H., Zhang, W.H., Wu, X.M. 2012. Investigation of the wheat endosperm cell development. Highlights of Sciencepaper Online 5:1815–1832. (in Chinese with English abstract)

    Wu X.M. , 'Investigation of the wheat endosperm cell development ' (2012 ) 5 Highlights of Sciencepaper Online : 1815 -1832.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wei, C.X., Zhang, J., Chen, Y.F., Zhou, W.D., Xu, B., Wang, Y.P., Chen, J.M. 2010. Physicochemical properties and development of wheat large and small starch granules during endosperm development. Acta Physiol. Plant. 32:905–916.

    Chen J.M. , 'Physicochemical properties and development of wheat large and small starch granules during endosperm development ' (2010 ) 32 Acta Physiol. Plant. : 905 -916.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yang, J.C., Zhang, J.H., Huang, Z.L., Wang, Z.Q., Zhu, Q.S., Liu, L.J. 2002. Correlation of cytokinin levels in the endosperms and roots with cell number and cell division activity during endosperm development in rice. Annals of Botany 90:369–377.

    Liu L.J. , 'Correlation of cytokinin levels in the endosperms and roots with cell number and cell division activity during endosperm development in rice ' (2002 ) 90 Annals of Botany : 369 -377.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Young, T.E., Gallie, D.R. 1999. Analysis of programmed cell death in wheat endosperm reveals differences in endosperm development between cereals. Plant Mol. Biol. 39:915–926.

    Gallie D.R. , 'Analysis of programmed cell death in wheat endosperm reveals differences in endosperm development between cereals ' (1999 ) 39 Plant Mol. Biol. : 915 -926.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Young, T.E., Gallie, D.R. 2000. Programmed cell death during endosperm development. Plant Mol. Biol. 44:283–301.

    Gallie D.R. , 'Programmed cell death during endosperm development ' (2000 ) 44 Plant Mol. Biol. : 283 -301.

    • Search Google Scholar