View More View Less
  • * PhD student. Department of Urban Planning and Design, BME Műegyetem rkp. 3, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary
  • ** PhD, associate professor. BME Műegyetem rkp. 3, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary
  • *** PhD, associate professor. Department of Sociology and Communication/Department of Urban Planning and Design, BME, Egry J. u. 1, H-1111, Budapest, Hungary
  • **** PhD, habil. associate professor. Department of Urban Planning and Design, BME Műegyetem rkp. 3, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary

The European urban areas are growing fast, with many contemporary housing forms. Among these, co-housing forms related to sharing have become a key issue for urban housing development. These housing forms are analysed (their physical and social characteristics or effects) in more and more publications, without a common terminology of this interdisciplinary research field. In our study, based on the overview of existing definitions, characteristics we introduce a comprehensive sharing based categorization that could be valuable for terms and projects, as well. With the note, that the social dimension of sharing methods would not exist without the physical ones, because in co-housing the shared space is the basic criteria. In this paper, we focus on three groups of the social fields of sharing related to housing: the shared creation, the shared tenure, and the shared activities. We conclude the structural approach of our overview unravels new perspectives for the classification of housing forms. Based on our categorization and methodology, we recommend the development of a sharing based scalable classification that measures projects consistent and comparable.

Összefoglaló. A városias, beépített területek aránya Európa szerte folyamatosan növekszik, ennek következtében kortárs városi lakhatási formák is teret nyernek. A megosztáshoz kötődő, úgynevezett co-housing formák a kortárs városi lakófejlesztések jelentős részét képzik. Éppen ezért egyre több elemzés és publikáció születik a témában (például a fizikai és társadalmi jellemzőikről vagy azok hatásairól), azonban a lakhatás kutatási területén nincs egyetértés a kifejezések és definíciók használatában. A következő tanulmányban egy, a lakhatási formákat megosztás alapján rendszerező kategorizáció kerül bemutatásra, melynek elméleti és gyakorlati haszna is lehet. A kategorizáció a meglévő kifejezésekre, definíciókra és jellemzőkre egyaránt épít. A co-housing lakhatás alapvető feltétele a – változó méretű és minőségű – megosztott tér, így a társadalmi dimenziók minden esetben kötődnek egy fajta tériséghez is. A lakhatási formákban jelenlévő társadalmi és fizikai dimenziók együttes vizsgálata nem képezi jelen kutatás tárgyát, a társadalmi típusúakra koncentrál: a megosztott létrehozásra, tulajdonlásra és a tevékenységekre. Megállapítható, hogy a kutatás során alkalmazott rendszerezett áttekintés új irányvonalakra mutatott rá a lakhatási formák osztályozásának területén. A tanulmányban tárgyalt megosztás-alapú kategorizálásra és módszertanra alapozva egy, a megosztásra épülő és skálázható osztályozás kidolgozása javasolt, melyben a projektek mérése és összehasonlítása egységes módon történhet.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Arc en reve Centre d’Architecture 2009 Arc en reve Centre d’Architecture: New Forms of Collective Housing in Europe. Birkhauer, Basel 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkinson–Blandy 2005 Atkinson, R – Blandy, S: Introduction: International Perspectives on the New Enclavism and the Rise of Gated Communities. Housing Studies 20 (2005) 2. 177186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Babos 2019a Babos, Annamária: COLLECTIVE REUSE – Co- housing Developments in the Service of Preservation of the Built Heritage. In: Places and Technologies. Ed.: Molnár, Tamás Pécsi Tudományegyetem Műszaki és Informatikai Kar, Pécs 2019. 117127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Babos 2019b Babos, Annamária: Werkpalast CoHousing: Case Study of Collective Reuse of a Prefabricated School Building. In: Facing Post-Socialist Urban Heritage Conference Proceeding. Ed.: Benkő, Melinda. Urb/ bme, Budapest 2019. 3437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Babos–Horogh–Theisler 2018 Babos, Annamária – Horogh, Petra – Theisler, K Katalin: Co-housing. Példák Bécsben és a közösségi együttélés lehetőségei Budapesten. Utóirat. A Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet melléklete 18 (2018) 101. 6976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bamford 2001 Bamford, Greg: Bringing Us Home. Cohousing and the Environmental Possibilities of Reuniting People with Neighbourhoods. Situating the Environment at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck 2020 Beck, A. F.: What Is Co-Housing? Developing a Conceptual Framework from the Studies of Danish Intergenerational Co-Housing. Housing Theory and Society 37 (2020) 1. 4064.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker 2015 Becker, Annette – Kienbaum, Laura – Ring, Kristien – Cachola Schmal, Peter: Building and Living in Communities – Ideas-Processes-Architecture . Birkhauser, Basel 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bengtsson 1998 Bengtsson, B: Tenant’s Dilemma – on Collective Action in Housing. Housing Studies 13 (1998) 1. 99120.

  • Bouma–Voorbij 2009 Bouma, J. – Voorbij, L.: Factors in Social Interaction in Cohousing Communities. ‘Include’ Conference, London. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/ 228748628_Factors_in_Social_Interaction_in_Cohousing_Communities (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brasson–Sylvette 2015 Bresson, Sabrina – Sylvette Denefle: Diversity of Self-Managed Cohousing Initiatives in France. Journal of Urban Research and Practice 8 (2015) 1.516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canadian Cohousing Network Canadian Cohousing Network – What is Cohouing? Available at: https://www.cohousing.ca/about- cohousing/what-is-cohousing/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan 2010 Chan, Winnie Yuen-Pik: The Phenomenon of Building Groups (Baugruppe) in Berlin: What Changes When a Community Starts Building? Dessau Institute of Architecture 2010. Available at: https://issuu.com/ winnie/docs/thesis_book/27 (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatterton 2013 Chatterton, Paul: Towards an Agenda for Post-carbon Cities: Lessons from Lilac, the UK’s First Ecological, Affordable Cohousing Community. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (2013) 5. 16541674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiodelli 2015 Chiodelli, Francesco: What is Really Different between Cohousing and Gated Communities? European Planning Studies 23 (2015) 12. 25662581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiodelli– Baglione 2014 Chiodelli, Francesco – Baglione Valeria: Living Together Privately: for a Cautious Reading of Cohousing. Urban Research and Practice 7 (2014) 1. 2034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins Dictionary’s definition Collins Dictionary –Definition of Commune . Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/ dictionary/english/commune (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohousing Association of the US Cohousing Association of the US Website – What is Cohousing? Available at: https://www.cohousing.org/ what-cohousing/cohousing/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoHousing Budapest Association 2019 Cohousing Budapest Association Website. Available at: https://www.cohousingbudapest.hu/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Community Living Hungary 2012 Community Living Hungary Website. Available at: http://kozossegbenelni.blogspot.com/p/english.html (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Czischke 2018 Czischke, Darinka: Collaborative Housing and Housing Providers: Towards an Analytical Framework of Multi-stakeholder Collaboration in Housing Co-production. International Journal of Housing Policy 18 (2018) 1. 5581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly 2017 Daly, M: Quantifying the Environmental Impact of Ecovillages and Co-Housing Communities. A Systematic Literature Review. Local Environment 22 (2017) 11. 13581377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DASH 2013 DASH-Delft Architectural Studies on Housing:Building Together – The Architecture of Collective Private Commissions . nai010 publishers, Belgium 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fedrowitz–Gailing 2003 Fedrowitz, M. – Gailing, L.: Zusammen Wohnen–Gemeinschaftliche Wohnprojekte als Strategie sozialer und ökologischer Stadtentwicklung . Institut für Raumplanung Universität Dortmund Fakultät Raumplanung, Dortmund 2003. 1925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fenster 1999 Fenster, M.: Community by Covenant, Process, and Design. Cohousing and the Contemporary Common Interest Community. Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law 15 (1999) 1. 354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández 2015 Fernández, Per Aurora et al.: Why Ddensity?–Debunking the Myth of the Cubic Watermelon . a+t architecture publishers, Vitoria-Gasteiz 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández–Mozasa+t research group 2016 Fernández, Per Aurora – Mozas, Javier – a+t research group: Form and Data – Collective Housing Projects. An Anatomical Review . a+t architecture publishers, Vitoria-Gasteiz 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández–Mozas–Ollero 2013 Fernández, Per Aurora – Mozas, Javier – Ollero, Álex S.: 10 Stories of Collective Housing – Graphical Analysis of Inspiring Masterpieces . a+t architecture publishers, Vitoria-Gasteiz 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Field 2004 Field, Martin: Thinking about CoHousing. The Creation of Intentional Neighbourhoods . Diggers & Dreamers, London 2004.

  • Field 2017 Field, Martin: Models of Self-build and Collaborative Housing in the United Kingdom. In: Self-Build Homes – Social Discourse, Experiences and Directions. Ed.: Benson, Michaela – Hamiduddin Iqbal. JSTOR, UCL Press. 2017. 3855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flender 2019 Flender, Simona Joscha: Do It Together – Cohousing as a Tool for Finding Better Ways of Living. Master thesis report, Lund University, 2019. Available at Issue. https://issuu.com/simonjflender/docs/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Franck–Ahrentzen 1991 Franck, Karen A. – Ahrentzen, Sherry: New Households, New Housing . Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1991.

  • Fromm 1991 Fromm, Dorit: Collaborative Communities. Cohousing, Central Living, and Other New Forms of Housing with Shared Facilities . Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fromm 2000 Fromm, Dorit: American Cohousing. The First Five Years. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 (2000) 2. 94109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gehl–Svarre 2013 Gehl, Jan – Svarre, Brigitte: How to Study Public Life . Island Press, Washington 2013.

  • Giorgi 2020 Giorgi, Emanuele: The Co-Housing Phenomenon – Environmental Alliance in Times of Changes . Springer – The Urban Book Series, Switzerland 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Global Ecovillage Network Global Ecovillage Network–What is an Ecovillage? Available at: https://ecovillage.org/projects/ what-is-an-ecovillage/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heath 2018 Heath, S. – Davies, K. – Edwards, G. – Scicluna, R. M.: Shared Housing, Shared Lives–Everyday Experiences across the Lifecourse . Routledge Advances in Sociology, New York 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hemmens–Hoch–Carp 1996 Hemmens, George C. – Hoch, Charles J. – Carp Jana: Under One Roof – Issues and Innovations in Shared Housing . State University of New York Press, Albany 1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henilane 2016. Henilane, Inita: Housing concept and analysis of housing classification. Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management 4 (2016) 1. 168178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • id22 2012 id22: Institute for Creative Sustainability: Experimentcity: CoHousing Cultures –Handbook for Self-organized, Community-oriented and Sustainable Housing. JOVIS, Berlin 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Insee’s definitions Institut national de la statistique et des etudes economiques – Individual or Collective Building Definitions . Available at: https://www.insee.fr/en/ metadonnees/definition/c1808 (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jabareen 2006 Jabareen, Y. R.: Sustainable Urban Forms. Their Typologies, Models, and Concepts. Journal of Planning Education and Research 26 (2006) 1. 3852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jakobsen–Larsen 2019 Jakobsen, Peter – Larsen, Henrik Gutzon: An Alternative for Whom? The Evolution and Socioeconomy of Danish Cohousing. Urban Research and Practice 10 (2019) 4. 414430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lang–Carriou–Czischke 2020 Lang, R. – Carriou, C. – Czischke, D.: Collaborative Housing Research (1990–2017). A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Field. Housing, Theory and Society 37 (2020) 1. 1039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarvis 2011. Saving Space, Sharing Time: Integrated Infrastructures of Daily Life in Cohousing. Environment and Planning A 43 (2011) 3. 560577.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarvis 2015. Jarvis, H.: Towards a Deeper Understanding of the Social Architecture of Co-Housing: Evidence from the UK, USA and Australia. Urban Research and Practice 8 (2015) 1. 93105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lapuerta 2007 Lapuerta, Jose Maria de: Collective Housing: A Manual. Actar Publishers, 2007.

  • Larousse definition Larousse – Definition of Ecoquartier or Eco-quartier. Available at: https://www.larousse.fr/dictionnaires/ francais/%C3%A9coquartier/10910366 (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larsen 2019. Larsen, H. G.: Three Phases of Danish Cohousing: Tenure and the Development of an Alternative Housing form. Housing Studies 34 (2019) 8. 13491371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Law Insider Law Insider–Definitions of Communal Housing, Condominium and Commune . Available at: https:// www.lawinsider.com/dictionary/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leafe Christian 2003 Leafe Christian, Diana: Creating Life Together – Practical Tools to Grow Ecovillages and Intentional Communities. New Society Publishers, 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee 2013 Lee, Ann Nicol: Sustainable Collective Housing – Policy and Practice for Multi-family Dwellings . Routledge, New York 2013.

  • Lietaert 2010 Lietaert, M.: Cohousing’s Relevance to Degrowth Theories. Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010) 6. 576580.

  • Marckmann–Gram-Hanssen–Toke 2012 Marckmann, Bella Margrethe Mørch – Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten – Christensen, Toke Haunstrup: Sustainable Living and Co-Housing. Evidence from a Case Study of Eco-Villages. Built Environment 38 (2012) 3. 413429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCamant–Durrett 1988 McCamant, Kathryn – Durrett, Charles: Cohousing – A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves . Habitat Press/Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California 1988.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McIntosh–Gray–Maher 2010 McIntosh, J. – Gray, J. – Maher, S.: In Praise of Sharing as a Strategy for Sustainable Housing. Journal of Green Building 5 (2010) 1. 155163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mehl 2019 Mehl, Bernhard: The Rising Trend of Co-living Spaces . Available at: https://www.coworkingresources. org/blog/coliving-spaces (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meltzer 2005 Meltzer, Graham: Sustainable Community. Learning from the Co-housing Model . Trafford Publishing, Victoria BC 2005. 117.

  • Miethauser Syndikat Miethauser Syndikat – Self-organized Living – Solidarity-based Economy! – Website. Available at: https://www.syndikat.org/en/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NaCSBA 2011 National Custom and Self-Build Association. An Action Plan to Promote the Growth of Self-Build Housing. 2011. Available at: https://nacsba.org.uk/ wp-content/uploads/ 2018/08/nacsbadocs_2011_07_ anactionplanto.pdf (Acces sed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neufert 1980 Neufert, Ernst: Architect’s data. Second English Edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford 1980.

  • Orbán 2006 Orbán, Annamária: Community Action for Collective Goods – An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Internal and External Solutions to Collective Action Problems – The case of Hungarian condominiums . Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2006. 7277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ring–Eidner 2013 Ring, Kristien – Eidner, Franziska: Self made city – Berlin: Self-initiated Urban Living and Architectural Interventions. JOVIS, Berlin 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruonavaara 2018 Ruonavaara, Hannu: Theory of Housing, from Housing, about Housing, Housing. Theory and Society 35 (2018) 178192.

  • Ruiu 2014 Ruiu, L. Maria: Differences between Cohousing and Gated Communities. A Literature Review, Sociological Inquiry 84 (2014) 2. 316335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandu Publications Co 2014 Sandu Publications Co: Collective Housing. Gingko Press, Berkeley CA 2014.

  • Sanguinetti 2014.Sanguinetti, A.: Transformational Practices in Cohousing; Enhancing Resident’ Connection to Community and Nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology 40 (2014) 8696.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sargisson 2012 Sargisson, Lucy: Second-Wave Cohousing – A Modern Utopia? Utopian Studies 23 (2012) 1. 2856.

  • Schill–Voicu–Miller 2007 Schill, M H. – Voicu I. – Miller, J: The Condominium versus Cooperative Puzzle. An Empirical Analysis of Housing in New York City. The Journal of Legal Studies 36 (2007) 2. 275324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scotthanson–Scotthanson 2005 Scotthanson, Chris – Scotthanson, Kelly: The Cohousing Handbook – Building Place for Community. New Society Publishers, Canada 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith 2012. Smith, J. Susan: Preface and Acknowledgements. In: International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home . Ed.: Smith, J. Susan. Elsevier, Cambridge 2012. 67.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevenson–Baborska-Narozny–Chatterton 2016. Stevenson, F. – Baborska-Narozny, M. – Chatterton, P.: Resilience, Redundancy and Low Carbon Living: Co-producing Individual and Community Learning. Building Research & Information 44 (2016) 7. 789803.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Student Co-op Homes Student Co-op Homes – the UK Federation of Student Housing Co-ops. Website, Available at: https://www. studenthomes.coop/ (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szabó– Babos 2019 Szabó Julianna – Babos Annamária: Co-housing: Kortárs városias közösségi lakóházak innovatív építészeti megoldásai. Utóirat. A Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet melléklete 19 (2019) 103. 5665.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szabó–Kissfazekas–Babos 2019 Szabó, J. – Kissfazekas, K. – Babos A.: Co-housing és városi fenntarthatóság. Piaci és közösségi többlakásos fejlesztések helyválasztása a fenntarthatóság tükrében. Építés – Építészettudomány 47 (2019) 3–4. 383403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tummers 2015a Tummers, Lidewij: Understanding Co-housing from a Planning Perspective: Why and How? Urban Research and Practice 8 (2015) 1. 6478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tummers 2015b Tummers, Lidewij: Towards a Long-term Perspective of Self-managed Collaborative Housing Initiatives. Journal of Urban Research and Practice 8 (2015) 1. 516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tummers 2016 Tummers, Lidewij: The Re-emergence of Selfmanaged Co-housing in Europe: A Critical Review of Co-housing Research. Urban Studies 53 (2016) 10. 20232040.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tummers 2017 Tummers, Lidewij: Learning from Co-housing Initiatives–Between Passivhaus Engineers and Active Inhabitants . TU Delft, Delft 2017. 66–70, 204244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UK Cohousing Network UK Cohousing Network Website – About Cohousing . Available at: https://cohousing.org.uk/about/about- cohousing (Accessed 20 March 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vestbro 1998 Vestbro, Urban Dick: The Study of Collective Housing: A Swedish Perspective. In: The Meaning and Use of Housing: International Perspectives, Approaches and Their Applications . Ed.: Arias, Ernesto G. Taylor and Francis Ltd, Avebury 1998. 405424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vestbro 2000 Vestbro, Urban Dick: From Collective Housing to Cohousing – A Summary of Research. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 (2000) 2. 164178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vestbro 2010 Vestbro, Urban Dick: Concepts and Terminology. In: Living Together – Cohousing Ideas and Realities around the World. Proceedings from the International Collaborative Housing Conference in Stockholm. Ed.: Vestbro, Urban Dick. Div of Urban and Regional Studies, 2010. 2129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams 2005a Williams, J: Designing Neighboorhoods for Social Interaction: The Case of Cohousing. Journal of Urban Design 10 (2005) 2. 195227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams 2005b Williams, J: Sun, Surf and Sustainable Housing – Cohousing, the Californian Experience. International Planning Studies 10 (2005) 2. 145177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation