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  • 1 Technical University of Łódź, Institute of Polymer and Dye Technology, Łódź, Poland
  • | 2 Department of Management and Protection Environment, Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences, Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

This article presents the effect of the method of NBR cross linking on the thermal properties, flammability and fire hazard of its nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite (NanoBent or Nanofil), using test results obtained by means of a derivatograph, oxygen index and cone calorimetry. It has been found that the thermal stability and flammability of the nanocomposites investigated depend on both the rubber network structure and the type of montmorillonite. The nanoadditives used reduce the flammability of cross-linked nitrile rubber and considerably limit its fire hazard.

Abstract

This article presents the effect of the method of NBR cross linking on the thermal properties, flammability and fire hazard of its nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite (NanoBent or Nanofil), using test results obtained by means of a derivatograph, oxygen index and cone calorimetry. It has been found that the thermal stability and flammability of the nanocomposites investigated depend on both the rubber network structure and the type of montmorillonite. The nanoadditives used reduce the flammability of cross-linked nitrile rubber and considerably limit its fire hazard.

Introduction

Recent years have witnessed a great interest in polymeric materials of special properties such as resistance to considerably lowered or elevated temperature, flame-retardation and appropriate mechanical strength. The most important of them seems the issue of reduced flammability of polymeric products, which results, first of all, from health and life protection and also from economical reasons. Thus, the processes by which polymers are affected at elevated temperatures, phenomena that accompany their combustion such as emission of heat, toxic substances and smoke as well as flame propagation and glowing [1, 2] are considered to be very significant.

Considerable opportunities to obtain flame-retardant polymeric materials result from the development of nanotechnology. A growing interest is focused on inorganic nanofillers, i.e. nanosilica, and natural layered silicates such as kaolinite, halloysite, illite, endelite, smectite and the most commercially important montmorillonite belonging to the group of 2:1 phylosilicates [3, 4].

The resistance of polymeric nanocomposites to the action of flame can be improved by the intercalation of organically modified layered silicates (OLSs) in the polymer matrix. A small addition of this kind of filler, about 3–5 parts by wt. per 100 parts by wt. of rubber appropriately dispersed in the polymeric matrix, creates a considerably larger surface of polymer–filler interaction than that of conventional fillers. As a result, the oscillation amplitude of polymeric chain segments is reduced and consequently the temperatures of degradation and destruction of the filled polymer are increased [4].

The increase in the thermal stability of nanocomposites is connected also with the formation of a boundary carbon layer whose insulating properties considerably limit the flow of mass and energy between sample and flame. It inhibits the thermal decomposition of polymer, radical combustion processes and the emission of toxic products of thermal decomposition and combustion of the filled composite. This is extremely important from the point of view of environmental protection.

This article presents the investigation results of the effect of montmorillonite modified by means of various organic compounds on the thermal stability and flammability of cross-linked nitrile rubber.

Experimental

Materials

We investigated nanocomposites of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), Perbunan 2255V from Lanxess Deutschland GMBH, containing 22% of combined acrylonitrile. The rubber was cross linked with the use of:

  1. dicumyl peroxide, DCP, (0, 3 parts by wt.) in the presence of zinc oxide, ZnO, (5 parts by wt.) and stearic acid (1 part by wt.)—peroxide vulcanizate denoted with N.

  2. elementary sulphur (1, 5 parts by wt.) with a vulcanization accelerator: N-cyclohexyl-2-benzoylsulfenamide, Tioheksam CBS (2 parts by wt.) in the presence of zinc oxide, ZnO, (5 parts by wt.) as vulcanization activator and stearic acid (1 part by wt.)—sulphur vulcanizate denoted with S.

The following nanobentonites were used as fillers of elastomer blends: NanoBent ZS-1 (ZS), NanoBent ZR-2 (ZR), NanoBent ZW-1 (ZW) from ZGM “Zębiec” and Nanofil 2 (N2), Nanofil 5 (N5), Nanofil 15 (N15) from Süd-Chemie. Their characteristics are given in Table 1.

Table 1

Characteristics of aluminosilicates (producer's data)

Trade mark (symbol)ProducerModifying agentAverage size of grains/μmInterlayer spacing/nm
NanoBent ZS-1 (ZS)ZGM “Zębiec” and Technical University of Szczecin4° ammonium salt containing OH groups20–60 (81%) ≤ 20 (19%)3.8–3.9
NanoBent ZR-2 (ZR)ZGM “Zębiec” and Technical University of Szczecin4° ammonium salt with two short and two long carbon-chain substituents20–60 (56%) ≤ 20 (44%)2.0–2.4
NanoBent ZW-1 (ZW)ZGM “Zębiec” and Technical University of Szczecin4° ammonium salts derivative of 3-dimetyloaminopropylo-amide of fatty acid20–60 (54%) ≤ 20 (46%)1.8–1.9
Nanofil 2 (N2)Süd-ChemieAmpholytic compound SBMAC81.8
Nanofil 5 (N5)Süd-ChemieAmpholytic compound SMAC82.8
Nanofil 15 (N15)Süd-Chemie252.8

Methods

The nanobentonites were incorporated into the elastomer blend in a quantity of 3, 5 or 8 parts by wt. per 100 parts by wt. of rubber. The elastomer blends were prepared at room temperature with the use of a laboratory rolling mill with roll dimensions: D = 150 mm, L = 300 mm. The rotational speed of the front roll was 20 rpm, and the friction ratio was 1.1.

The blends were vulcanized in steal moulds placed between electrically heated press shelves. The optimal vulcanization time (τ0.9) at a temperature of 160 °C was determined by means of a WG-2 vulcameter according to standard PN-ISO 3417:1994.

The thermal properties of nanobentonites and nanobentonite-containing vulcanizates were tested under air atmosphere within the temperature range of 25–800 °C, by means of a Paulik, Paulik, Erdey derivatograph, using Al2O3 as a reference substance. The weight of a sample was 90 mg, heating rate was 7.9 °C/min, and then the sensitivities of thermal curves were as follows: TG = 100, DTA = 1/5, DTG = 1/30.

The flammability of nanocomposites was determined by the method of oxygen index (OI) using an apparatus of our own construction [5] and shaped samples with dimensions 50 × 10 × 4 mm. With a constant nitrogen flow rate of 400 L/h, the oxygen flow was selected so that the sample tested was totally burned, including flame decay, within t = 180 s. The sample top was ignited for 15 s by means of a gas burner using a propane–butane mixture [1, 6]. The value of OI was expressed in the form of a quotient of oxygen concentration to the concentration of oxygen–nitrogen mixture flowing through the measuring column.

Flammability tests were also carried out in air using the same samples as in the case of OI tests. A vertically situated sample was ignited as previously for 15 s followed by measuring the time of its combustion or the time after which the sample was extinguished; the length of unburned sample was also often measured [1, 6].

The flammability of the nanocomposites under investigation was also determined by the method of a cone calorimeter using an apparatus from Fire Testing Technology LTD. The tests were performed according to standard PN-ISO 5660 using 100 × 100 × 2 mm plates, which were conditioned in air at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °C and RH 50 ± 5%, and then horizontally exposed to the action of heat radiation with an intensity of 50 kW/m2.

Results and Discussion

From the derivatographic analysis of NanoBents (ZS, ZW, ZR) and Nanofils (N2, N5, N15), it follows that they are characterised by a high thermal stability determined with coefficient T5 as well as a considerable residue resulted from thermal decomposition, P800 (Table 2). The montmorillonites tested undergo partial, four-stage decomposition taking place within the temperature range of 50–650 °C (Fig. 1) [7].

Table 2

The results of thermal analysis of montmorilonites

Symbol /%T5/°CTR/°Cdm/dt/mmP800/%
ZS3.3190 190 7 60 
ZR2.8235 215 1.572.2
ZW2.2235 210 3 72.2
N20.0205 170 5.078.0
N52.2230 210 3.063.3
N151.7210 195 5.056.1

physically bounded water

T 5 temperature of montmorilonite, 5% mass loss

T R initial temperature of nanoadditive thermal decomposition

dm/dt maximum rate of nanofiller thermal decomposition

P 800 residue after heating up to T = 800 °C

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal curves of NanoBent ZS-1

Citation: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry J Therm Anal Calorim 103, 3; 10.1007/s10973-010-1282-y

The first stage of thermal decomposition of modified nanoclays, taking place at ΔT1 = 50–180 °C, accompanied by a broadened exothermic process recorded in DTA curve, is due to the desorption of water and low-molecular substances present on the surface of nanoadditives. The thermal tests of montmorillonites have shown that all of them, with the exception of Nanofil N2, contain physically combined water in a quantity up to 3.3% by wt. (Table 2).

Although the modifiers of montmorillonite (MMT) in the form of ammonium compounds have been used in preparation of polymer/MMT nanocomposites, their common shortcoming is the poor thermal stability, which is connected with their thermal degradation. The thermal degradation of ammonium salts generally proceeds either by Hofmann's elimination or an SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction.

The thermal decomposition of montmorillonite modifiers takes place at ΔT2 = 180–300 °C. The maximal rate of the thermal decomposition of the OLS takes place at about 240 °C (Fig. 1) and proceeds according to the Hofmann's degradation mechanism [4, 8]. The initial step includes the formation and desorption of olefin and amine, leaving acidic proton on the surface of the MMT at the site of the ammonium cation (Reactions 1, 2). The existence of acidic proton, H+, may influence the chemical reactions of polymer at elevated temperature (Tables 3 and 4).

Table 3

The results of thermal analysis of peroxide vulcanizates of nitrile rubber

SampleMMT phr.T5/°CT50/°Cdm/dt/mmTRmax/°CPw/%Ts/°CP800/%
N0 350 420 70 410 23 545 7 
NXZS3 370 420 48 390 29 545 11 
5 365 420 49 390 25 555 11 
8 360 415 45 395 28 555 12 
NXZW3 365 415 39 395 39 540 9 
5 330 415 41 395 41 545 11 
8 375 420 46 390 46 545 13 
NXZR3 375 415 49 390 27 550 10 
5 370 415 50 390 25 545 11 
8 380 420 48 390 28 560 13 
NXN23 340 410 65 400 23 545 7 
5 325 410 49 405 25 540 8 
8 325 410 77 410 25 520 9 
NXN53 340 410 78 410 22 550 7 
5 350 410 69 410 24 550 9 
8 345 410 56 405 24 550 10 
NXN153 335 415 64 405 21 580 7 
5 340 415 83 404 23 535 7 
8 315 410 63 400 23 530 7 

N peroxide vulcanizate

NXZS vulcanizate N containing X parts by wt. of NanoBent ZS per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

NXZW vulcanizate N containing X parts by wt. of NanoBent ZW per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

NXZR vulcanizate N containing X parts by wt. of NanoBent ZR per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

NXN2 vulcanizate N containing X parts by wt. of Nanofil 2 per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

NXN5 vulcanizate N containing X parts by wt. of Nanofil 5 per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

NXN15 vulcanizate N containing X parts by wt. of Nanofil 15 per 100 parts by wt. of NB, where X = 3, 5, 8

T 5 and T50 temperature of sample 5 and 50% mass loss, respectively

T Rmax temperature of maximum rate of thermal decomposition of vulcanizate

P w residue after the thermal decomposition of vulcanizate

T s temperature of residue burning after the thermal decomposition of vulcanizate

Table 4

The results of thermal analysis of sulphur vulcanizates of nitrile rubber

SampleMMT phr.T5/°CT50/°Cdm/dt/mmTRmax/°CPw/%Ts/°CP800/%
S0 315 405 52 395 23 540 7 
SXZS3 370 415 38 390 31 540 13 
5 350 415 31 390 31 525 12 
8 365 415 29 400 30 540 14 
SXZW3 350 420 38 390 29 545 12 
5 345 415 36 390 32 530 14 
8 345 410 38 400 28 535 13 
SXZR3 360 410 38 385 28 545 13 
5 350 415 42 400 31 530 13 
8 340 415 39 400 33 530 16 
SXN23 320 415 44 395 27 545 8 
5 270 405 33 390 26 550 8 
8 300 410 41 395 28 540 10 
SXN53 310 405 46 390 25 555 9 
5 330 415 39 400 24 565 11 
8 275 405 34 390 23 555 9 
SXN153 290 405 30 395 21 535 7 
5 320 400 38 395 23 525 8 
8 310 405 26 400 23 520 9 

S sulphur vulcanizate

SXZS vulcanizate S containing X parts by wt. of NanoBent ZS per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

SXZW vulcanizate S containing X parts by wt. of NanoBent ZW per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

SXZR vulcanizate S containing X parts by wt. of NanoBent ZR per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

SXN2 vulcanizate S containing X parts by wt. of Nanofil 2 per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

SXN5 vulcanizate S containing X parts by wt. of Nanofil 5 per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

SXN15 vulcanizate S containing X parts by wt. of Nanofil 15 per 100 parts by wt. of NBR, where X = 3, 5, 8

Reactions 1, 2. (LS represents the MMT layers in OLS).

From the analysis of the results obtained as well as from a literature review it follows that in the temperature range of 180–300 °C, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are released first, which is accompanied by a considerable weight loss amounting from 11% in the case of montmorillonites ZR and ZW up to 23% in the case of montmorillonites ZS and N15, whilst the high-molecular-weight organic species are still trapped by OLS matrix. With the increase in temperature to 300–500 °C, ΔT3, the high-molecular organic compounds are not only decomposed but also released from OLS [7, 9, 10].

The final stage of the thermal decomposition of OLS, taking place at ΔT4 = 500–650 °C, is connected with dehydration processes, i.e. with the release of water chemically combined with the montmorillonite surface.

The comparative analysis of DTA curves leads to a conclusion that the thermal transitions of nitrile rubber nanocomposites are of a similar character regardless of the network structure and the type and content of nanoadditive and the modification of MMT. The modifiers of MMT influence the thermal processes of cross-linked elastomer to a small extent (Fig. 2a,b,c; Tables 3 and 4).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal curves (a) peroxide vulcanizate, N, (b) peroxide vulcanizate containing 8 phr. Nanofil 2, N8N2, (c) sulphur vulcanizate containing 8 phr. Nanofil 2, S8N2

Citation: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry J Therm Anal Calorim 103, 3; 10.1007/s10973-010-1282-y

The chemical transitions of the cross-linked nitrile rubber begin at T ≈ 170 °C. The thermal cross-linking processes take place within two temperatures ranges. At ΔT1 = 170÷270 °C they are due to the decomposition of hydroperoxide groups present in the polymer and formed in it by thermo-oxidative processes, whilst at ΔT2 = 295÷370 °C due to the thermal polymerization of butadiene polymers. The thermal decomposition of vulcanizates proceeds at ΔT3 = 370÷465 °C, whilst at ΔT4 = 465÷580 °C the residue of elastomer destruction is burned. The thermal stability of elastomers depends on the method of their cross linking and consequently on their spatial lattice structure [11].

The use of sulphur as cross linker results in the formation of sulphide crosswise bonds that are considerably weaker than the crosswise carbon–carbon bonds formed during cross linking with DCP. The thermal stability of the peroxide vulcanizate (N) determined with coefficients T5 and T50 (Table 3) is therefore considerably higher than that of the sulphur vulcanizate (S) (Table 4).

The results of derivatographic analysis given in Tables 3 and 4 show that the nanoadditives used do not unmistakably influence the thermal stability of the vulcanizates under investigation. NanoBents ZS, ZW and ZR used do not significantly change the thermal stability of peroxide vulcanizates determined with coefficients T5 and T50, whilst they clearly increase the values of these coefficients in the case of sulphur vulcanizates (Tables 3 and 4). The presence of Nanofils N2, N5 or N15 does not exert any positive influence on the thermal stability of the cross-linked butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomer, especially in the case of peroxide vulcanizates (Tables 3 and 4).

An important parameter that decides about the thermal stability of a polymeric material as well as its flammability is the rate of its thermal decomposition (dm/dt). The decrease in the destruction rate of polymeric composites or nanocomposites exerts a positive influence on the reduction in their flammability. This is due to the formation of lower quantities of volatile, including flammable, products of pyrolysis passing to flame, which reduces the rate of free-radical reactions proceeding in this combustion zone. The nanoadditives used show different effects on the thermal decomposition rate depending on their network structure. NanoBents ZS, ZW and ZR do not exert any significant influence on the destruction rate of peroxide vulcanizates, whilst Nanofils N2, N5 and N15 clearly increase this rate (Table 3). The results of thermal analysis show that the nanoadditives used decrease the thermal decomposition rate of nitrile rubber cross linked with sulphur (Table 4).

The flammability of polymeric materials depends also on the quantity of thermal decomposition residue (Pw) (Tables 3 and 4). The increase in this thermal parameter results in lower quantity of destruction products passing to flame. The presence of ZS, ZW or ZR clearly increases the value of Pw in the case of elastomers cross linked with sulphur as well as with DCP (Tables 3 and 4). Thus, it can be concluded that the NanoBents used increase the capability of nitrile rubber to participate in the processes of thermal cyclization and carbonization. During the combustion of a thermally stable sample, this facilitates the formation of a boundary layer, which inhibits the flow of mass and energy between flame and sample. The insulating properties of the carbon layer are of course the better, the higher is the content of exfoliated structure in the investigated composite [12, 13]. Taking into account the values of Pw (Tables 3 and 4), one should assume that the exfoliation of Nanofils used in the elastomer matrix under investigation proceeds to a considerably lesser extent than that in the case of NanoBents.

The analysis of flammability test results leads to a conclusion that both NanoBents and Nanofils decrease the flammability of cross-linked NBR, as determined with the value of OI and the longest combustion time in air. From amongst the sample investigated the vulcanizates containing NanoBent ZS and Nanofil N2 are characterised by the highest value of OI and the longest combustion time in air (Tables 5 and 6).

Table 5

Flammability test results of peroxide vulcanizates

SampleMMT phr.OITime of burning in air/s
N0 0.205276 
NXZS3 0.342285 
5 0.365289 
8 0.375394 
NXZW3 0.355295 
5 0.371358 
8 0.368328 
NXZR3 0.353317 
5 0.371351 
8 0.340344 
NXN23 0.291340 
5 0.296305 
8 0.303337 
NXN53 0.293323 
5 0.291330 
8 0.282310 
NXN153 0.283303 
5 0.278243 
8 0.269237 
Table 6

Flammability test results of sulphur vulcanizates

SampleMMT phr.OITime of burning in air/s
S0 0.215288 
SXZS3 0.315344 
5 0.317445 
8 0.333407 
SXZW3 0.200271 
5 0.174273 
8 0.168296 
SXZR3 0.283284 
5 0.288290 
8 0.293306 
SXN23 0.298311 
5 0.301318 
8 0.304360 
SXN53 0.286321 
5 0.283301 
8 0.283300 
SXN153 0.288312 
5 0.290319 
8 0.265282 

The test results show no systematic effect of the nanoadditive quantity on the flammability of cross-linked nitrile rubber. The complex mechanism of processes taking place during both thermal decomposition and combustion of polymeric composites and nanocomposites makes it difficult to determine accurate effects of particular thermal stability parameters on their flammability. Nevertheless, in the case of the sulphur vulcanizates, one can observe clear effects of decreased thermal decomposition rate of elastomer in the presence of nanoaditives and increased decomposition residue on the significant reduction in their flammability. The test results indicate that it is the barrier properties of nanoadditive used, which play an important role in reducing the flammability of the elastomer under investigation. Aluminosilicates are impermeable for vapours and gases, so during the thermal decomposition of nanocomposite, low-molecular products of its thermal decomposition can diffuse outside elastomer only through closely defined “ducts” by-passing the randomly situated aluminosilicate plates (so-called “labyrinth effect”). A considerable portion of diffusing destruction products is additionally trapped between montmorillonite layers, where it undergoes sequent processes, first of all, such as cross-linking and cyclization, which facilitates the formation of a carbon insulating layer. Also the diffusion of oxygen into the nanocomposite is considerably retarded, which limits the yield of radical reactions of degradation, destruction and polymer depolymerisation during combustion to increase its resistance to the action of flame [4].

The flammability tests of NBR composites comprise also fire hazard (Table 7).

Table 7

Mean values of the parameters of NBR rubber vulcanizates determined by means of cone calorimeter

ParameterNN5ZSN5N5SS5ZSS5N5
TTI: Time to ignition/s38 36 40 32.740 38.5
HRR: Average heat release rate/kW m−2174.5357.5354.21218.06309.1341.2
HRRMAX: Peak heat release rate/kW m−22270.11187.91317.82378.51184.71289 
THR: Total heat release/MJ m−270.167.270.169.864.969.2
HOC: Average effective heat of combustion/MJ m−235.328.929.336.428.628.7
MLR: Average mass loss rate/gs m−218.112.512.1522.0610.7911.93
Average CO yield/kg kg−10.06740.07420.07670.07550.07330.0736
Average CO2 yield/kg kg−12.422.272.322.422.302.28
SEA Average specific extinction area/m2 kg−1869.21017.11074 992.351014.81077.3
1/tflashover/kW m−2 s−159.7332.9932.9472.7329.2533.48
0.01430.01060.00970.02200.00830.0096

N5ZS vulcanizate N containing 5 parts by wt. of NanoBent ZS per 100 parts by wt. of NBR

N5N5 vulcanizate N containing 5 parts by wt. of Nanofil 5 per 100 parts by wt. of NBR

S5ZS vulcanizate S containing 5 parts by wt. of NanoBent ZS per 100 parts by wt. of NBR

S5N5 vulcanizate S containing 5 parts by wt. of Nanofil 5 per 100 parts by wt. of NBR

From the comparative analysis of fire hazard parameters determined by means of a cone calorimeter, it follows that a significant influence on their values is exerted by the method of nitrile rubber cross-linking, i.e. the network structure (Table 7). The montmorillonites used do not exert any unmistakable influence on the fire hazard of the vulcanizates containing these nanoadditives. In the case of nitrile rubber cross linked with sulphur in the presence of nanoadditive, the time to sustained ignition (TTI) is significantly lengthened, which considerably reduces the fire hazard. Under the influence of nanofillers, the average heat release rate (HRR) and the smoke emission (specific extinction area) are increased, which is decidedly disadvantageous from the point of view of fire hazard. At the same time, however, under the influence of the montmorillonites used, the peak heat release rate (HRRmax), total heat release (THR), the average effective heat of combustion (HOC) and the average mass loss rate (MLR) are decreased. The decreased values of these parameters show a positive effect of the nanoadditives on the limitation of fire hazard. This also results from the analysis of 1/tflashover parameters and toxicometric indicators (Table 7).

Conclusions

The thermal stability of the nanocomposites investigated depends on both the elastomer network structure and the type of montmorillonite.

The nanoadditives used reduce the flammability of cross-linked nitrile rubber and considerably limit its fire hazard. The barrier properties of the nanofillers under investigation play an important role in the limitation of butadiene-nitrile rubber flammability.

This study was partly financed as research projects: NN508 398637, NN508 438136 and UDA-POIG 01.03.01-00-044/08-00.

References

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  • 1. Janowska, G, Rybiński, P, Helwig, M, Dąbrowski, W, Majewski, K 2004 Flammability of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber. J Therm Anal Calorim 75:249256 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Rybiński, P, Janowska, G, Antkowicz, W, Krauze, S 2005 Thermal stability and flammability of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber cross-linked with iodoform. J Therm Anal Calorim 81:913 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Janowska G , Przygocki W, Włochowicz A. Palność polimerów i materiałów polimerowych WNT, Warszawa 2007, ISSBN: 978-83-204-3299-2, 340 stron.

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  • Impact Factor (2019): 2.731
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.415
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 87
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.471
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.634
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 78
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)