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  • 1 Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastow 42, 71-065, Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

The phase equilibria in the solid state in the system FeVO4–Cu3V2O8 and FeVO4–CuO have been determined. Based on the obtained DTA and XRD analysis results and some additional research, a phase diagram in the whole subsolidus area of the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 has been worked out. Eighteen subsidiary subsystems can be distinguished in this ternary system. Basic properties of the obtained phases with howardevansite- and lyonsite-type structure have been investigated by DTA, IR, and SEM methods.

Abstract

The phase equilibria in the solid state in the system FeVO4–Cu3V2O8 and FeVO4–CuO have been determined. Based on the obtained DTA and XRD analysis results and some additional research, a phase diagram in the whole subsolidus area of the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 has been worked out. Eighteen subsidiary subsystems can be distinguished in this ternary system. Basic properties of the obtained phases with howardevansite- and lyonsite-type structure have been investigated by DTA, IR, and SEM methods.

Introduction

It is known that the components of the ternary systems MO–V2O5–Fe2O3 as well as the compounds existing in their lateral systems catalyze a lot of chemical reactions [13]. Therefore, it can be expected that new phases forming with an involvement of all components of such systems will be active in catalytic processes, too. Searching for these new potential catalysts is very often conducted through the investigation of phase relations in subsolidus areas of the multicomponent oxide systems. Such studies enable to establish the composition of the new compounds, while in the case of phases with variable composition allow to determine the range of their homogeneity. Taking into consideration the possibility of application of the obtained phases, very important is the knowledge of the range of their coexistence with the other compounds formed in a given multicomponent system.

Compounds forming in the lateral systems of the ternary system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 as well as their properties are known [46]. Recently, as a result of the research on phase relations in the limited concentration range of the components of this ternary system, unknown till now compound with the formula Cu13Fe4V10O44 has been obtained [7]. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system and melts incongruently at 790 ± 5 °C [7]. In the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 also are formed another two phases: one with howardevansite-type structure and the other with lyonsite-type structure. Lyonsite is a mineral with the formula α-Cu3Fe4V6O24, which was discovered in the summit crater fumarole of the Izalco volcano (El Salvador) [8]. This vanadate, when synthesized in the laboratory by the conventional method of sintering or by the method of coprecipitation, crystallizes in a different form that is as β-Cu3Fe4V6O24 with a structure closely related to mineral howardevansite, i.e., NaCuFe2V3O12 [912]. However, the other authors [13] did not obtained β-Cu3Fe4V6O24. They have obtained the howardevansite-type phase as well as the lyonsite-type phase, but the composition of both phases differs from that corresponding to the formula Cu3Fe4V6O24. Moreover, both phases have ranges of homogeneity as expressed by Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 (−0.333 ≤ x ≤ −0.167 for howardevansite-type phase and 0.667 ≤ x < 0.778 for lyonsite-type phase) [13].

It is known from the literature data that phases with the lyonsite-type structure catalyze oxidative dehydrogenation of propane [14]. Investigation of phase formation in the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 and their properties are therefore interesting not only because of the cognitive value of the obtained results, but also from the catalytic point of view.

The objective of this study was to conduct the verifying study relating to formation of the howardevansite- and the lyonsite-type phase as well as to investigate the phase equilibria establishing in the whole subsolidus area of the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3. Furthermore characterization of basic properties of the obtained phases has been presented.

Experimental

For the experiments the following were used: CuO (p.a., Fluka), V2O5 (p.a., Riedel-de Haën), α-Fe2O3 (p.a., POCh) and vanadates, FeVO4 and Fe2V4O13, obtained by the procedures given in the studies [4, 15].

The syntheses were carried out by the standard solid-state reaction method [1620]. The reagents in suitable weighed portions were homogenized by grinding in a mechanical agate mortar and then they were calcined in air atmosphere for several stages. On completion of each heating stage the samples were cooled down in furnace to room temperature and, after grinding, they were examined by XRD method, whereas some selected samples by the DTA as well. The heating temperatures of the samples were chosen based on their DTA curves to avoid their melting. The melting temperatures of the samples were determined as the onset temperature of the first endothermic effect recorded in their DTA curves. Samples, whose composition did not change after two consecutive heating stages, were considered to be at equilibrium.

Differential thermal analyses were performed using the Paulik–Paulik–Erdey type derivatograph (MOM, Hungary). Conditions of the measurements were the following: air atmosphere, mass of each sample 500 mg, heating rate 10 °C min−1, quartz crucibles, Al2O3 as reference material, temperature range 20–1,000 °C.

The phase composition of the samples was checked by XRD method using a diffractometer HZG-4/A2 (Carl Zeiss, Germany) with Cu-Kα/Ni radiation. The identification of phases occurring in the samples was conducted based on their XRD characteristics contained in the PDF cards and in the study [7].

The IR spectra were obtained with the use of an IR Specord M80 spectrometer (Carl Zeiss Jena, Germany), by applying the technique of pressing pastilles of the investigated sample together with KBr in a ratio 1:300 by weight.

The morphology as well as the size of the crystals was observed by means of scanning electron microscope (JSM-1600, Jeol, Japan).

Results and discussion

Phase formation in the system FeVO4–Cu3V2O8

The research was begun with the investigations of phase relations in one of cross-sections of the CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 system, i.e., in the system FeVO4–Cu3V2O8. These investigations included verifying study relating to the howardevansite-type phase (hereafter H-type phase) as well as the lyonsite-type phase (hereafter L-type phase) forming in this system. Seventeen mixtures of oxides (Table 1) were prepared and then heated in the following stages: 560 °C (20 h) + 600 °C (20 h) + 670 °C (20 h) × 2. The final heating stage of all the samples was performed at 670 °C, according to the temperature of syntheses carried out by authors [13]. The composition of the initial mixtures, their composition expressed as Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 (the formula proposed in [13]), and XRD analysis results for all the samples after their final heating stage are presented in Table 1. Samples marked with asterisk have the compositions corresponding to the samples investigated by Belik et al. [13]. Based on the obtained results the existence of two subsidiary subsystems in the CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 system was stated. In both of them the new compound Cu13Fe4V10O44 [7] occurs. This compound was unknown earlier, therefore in the samples 12–15 described by Belik et al. [13], apart from Cu2V2O7 and L-type phase, the presence of an unidentified phase was reported. The data presented in Table 1 indicate furthermore that the H-type phase has the homogeneity range with the formula Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 (−0.5 < x <0.041), whereas the homogeneity range of the L-type phase can be described as Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 (0.551 < x < 0.778). These ranges are bigger with comparison to those given by Belik et al. [13]. The synthesis of β-Cu3Fe4V6O24 was successful (sample 6). The results of XRD analysis, performed after each heating stage of sample 6, have proved that after any heating stage L-type phase was not identified. For comparison, an interesting fact is that the mechanochemical synthesis of double vanadate Cu3Fe4V6O24 leads to α-Cu3Fe4V6O24 instead of β-Cu3Fe4V6O24 [11].

Table 1

The system FeVO4–Cu3V2O8

No.Composition of initial mixtures/mol%Value of x in composition expressed as Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24Phases identified after the final heating stage
CuOV2O5Fe2O3
113.0445.6541.31−1.429H-type phase, FeVO4
223.0842.3134.61−0.909H-type phase, FeVO4
3a30.0040.0030.00−0.500H-type phase, FeVO4b
4a32.6139.1328.26−0.333H-type phase
5a35.1138.3026.59−0.167H-type phase
6a37.5037.5025.000 H-type phase (β-Cu3Fe4V6O24)
738.0837.3124.610.041H-type phase, L-type phaseb
8a42.0036.0022.000.333H-type phase, L-type phase
944.7535.0820.170.551L-type phase, H-type phaseb
10a45.3534.8819.770.600L-type phase
11a46.1534.6219.230.667L-type phase
12a47.4734.1818.350.778L-type phase, Cu2V2O7b, Cu13Fe4V10O44b
13a50.0033.3316.671.000L-type phase, Cu2V2O7, Cu13Fe4V10O44
14a55.2631.5813.161.500L-type phase, Cu2V2O7, Cu13Fe4V10O44
15a60.0030.0010.002.000L-type phase, Cu2V2O7, Cu13Fe4V10O44
1665.6328.126.252.667Cu2V2O7, Cu13Fe4V10O44
1767.5027.505.002.909Cu2V2O7, Cu13Fe4V10O44, Cu3V2O8

Composition of the investigated samples and XRD analysis results for samples after their final heating stage

Samples with compositions corresponding to the samples investigated by Belik et al. [13]

Small amount

Some physicochemical properties of phases forming in the system FeVO4–Cu3V2O8

The selected obtained phases, i.e., H-type phase (sample 6) as well as L-type phase (sample 11) were subjected to an investigation by infrared spectroscopy method. Figure 1 shows the IR spectra of both phases. IR spectrum of H-type phase (curve a) is very similar to IR spectra of the other phases with such structure [21, 22]. According to the literature data relating to the H-type phase structure [10], the absorption bands recorded in the wave-number range 1,070–540 cm−1 can be most likely ascribed to stretching vibrations of the V–O bonds in the VO4 tetrahedra [2325]. The absorption bands located in the remaining wave-number range can be due to the stretching vibrations of M–O bonds in the FeO6, CuO5, and CuO4 polyhedra as well as to the bending vibrations of the O–V–O bonds in the VO4 tetrahedra [25, 26]. The IR spectrum of the L-type phase (curve b) is clearly different from that characteristic for the H-type phase. It contains one very broad absorption band covering the wave-number range of 1,020–360 cm−1. Only in the highest wave-number range one acute band with its maximum at 980 cm−1 is observed. For comparison, Fig. 1 (curve c) shows IR spectrum of another L-type phase with analogous formula, i.e., Co4Fe3.333V6O24, forming in the system FeVO4–Co3V2O8 [27]. It can be concluded that a broad absorption band is characteristic for IR spectra of the L-type phases.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IR spectra of a-H-type phase (sample 6), b L-type phase (sample 11), and c Co4Fe3.333V6O24

Citation: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry J Therm Anal Calorim 109, 2; 10.1007/s10973-012-2210-0

Figure 2 presents a scanning electron microscopic image of the H-type phase (sample 6), while Fig. 3 shows a SEM image of the L-type phase (sample 11). The crystals revealed on the images differ much by their morphology as well as by their size. The crystals visible in Fig. 2 resemble the crystals of the other phases with howardevansite-type structure whose SEM images have been shown in an earlier study [21]. They are much differentiated in size. The crystals of the L-type phase (Fig. 3), in comparison with the H-type phase crystals, are much more regular both in shape and in size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of H-type phase (sample 6)

Citation: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry J Therm Anal Calorim 109, 2; 10.1007/s10973-012-2210-0

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of L-type phase (sample 11)

Citation: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry J Therm Anal Calorim 109, 2; 10.1007/s10973-012-2210-0

In the next stage of research thermal properties of the both phases were investigated. Figure 4 shows the fragments of DTA curves of the H-type phase (sample 4—curve a and sample 6—curve b) as well as of the L-type phase (sample 11—curve c). On the DTA curves of these phases two endothermic effects beginning at close temperatures were registered. The onset temperature of the first effect on the DTA curves of the H-type phase depends on the phase composition and is equal to 820 ± 5 °C for sample 4 and 800 ± 5 °C for sample 6. In the case of the L-type phase, the onset temperatures (800 ± 5 °C) of the first effects registered on the DTA curves of samples 10 and 11 differ insignificant (differences in the limit of accuracy of reading these temperatures).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fragments of DTA curves of: a H-type phase (sample 4), b H-type phase (sample 6), and c L-type phase (sample 11)

Citation: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry J Therm Anal Calorim 109, 2; 10.1007/s10973-012-2210-0

To determine the kind of transition beginning at the onset temperatures, samples 6 and 11 were additionally heated at 805 °C (just after beginning of the effects) and at 820 °C (i.e., at the temperature corresponding to a half of the height of the first endothermic effects registered on their DTA curves) for 2 h and then they were rapidly quenched and subjected to XRD study. In both samples, on removal from the furnace at 805 °C as well as at 820 °C, the liquid was observed. XRD analysis results of the “frozen” samples point to incongruent melting of both phases. The sole solid phase, occurring in the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3, identified in the samples after their melting, was α-Fe2O3 (melting temperature above 1,000 °C). However, the course of the DTA curves of both phases indicates that they melt with deposition of the second solid phase with the similar melting point. Due to the closeness of temperatures of these two effects, in the experiment conditions another solid product was not found.

Phase equilibria in the system FeVO4–CuO

The objective of the next stage of the research was to determine the phase equilibria in the second cross-section of the ternary system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3, i.e., in the system FeVO4–CuO. Eleven mixtures of the oxides were prepared and then heated in the following stages: 560 °C (20 h) + 600 °C (20 h) + 720 °C (20 h) × 2. The composition of initial mixtures and of the samples after their final heating stage is shown in Table 2. The presented data indicate that the system FeVO4–CuO is a cross-section of the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3, going through its eight subsidiary subsystems. Two of them are diphase, whereas the remaining six are triphase.

Table 2

The system FeVO4–CuO

No.Composition of initial mixtures/mol%Phases at equilibrium
CuOV2O5Fe2O3
1885.007.507.50Cu5V2O10, CuFe2O4, CuO
1975.0012.5012.50Cu5V2O10, CuFe2O4
2073.0013.5013.50Cu5V2O10, CuFe2O4, Fe2O3
2171.4214.2914.29Cu5V2O10, Fe2O3
2260.0020.0020.00Cu5V2O10, Fe2O3, Cu13Fe4V10O44
2356.5221.7421.74Fe2O3, Cu13Fe4V10O44
2450.0025.0025.00Fe2O3, Cu13Fe4V10O44, L-type phase
2539.5030.2530.25Fe2O3, L-type phase
2637.0031.5031.50Fe2O3, L-type phase, H-type phase
2731.0034.5034.50Fe2O3, H-type phase
2815.0042.5042.50Fe2O3, H-type phase, FeVO4

Composition of initial mixtures and XRD analysis results for samples after their final heating stage

Subsolidus area of the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3

The results obtained till now allowed a dividing of a part of the subsolidus area of the ternary system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 into ten subsidiary subsystems. This division did not embrace the polygons labelled by the phases: (Cu2V2O7, CuV2O6, V2O5, Fe2V4O13, FeVO4, H-type phase, L-type phase) and (Cu5V2O10, Cu11V6O26, Cu3V2O8, Cu13Fe4V10O44). For establishing the phase relations in these areas ten additional mixtures of oxides were prepared. Their composition, heating conditions, and XRD analysis results after their last heating stage are shown in Table 3. Based on the presented results, the existence of eight another subsidiary subsystems can be stated. However, in no sample the compound Fe2V4O13 was identified. The presence of this vanadate can be expected in the samples 33 and 34. On the other hand, it is known that the synthesis of pure Fe2V4O13 by solid-state reaction is difficult and requires prolonged calcination [4]. Owing to these facts, to check which phases coexist at equilibrium in the polygon labeled by the phases: (V2O5, Fe2V4O13, FeVO4, H-type phase), some additional verifying investigations were performed. Two mixtures of ready-made phases were prepared with their composition corresponding to the samples 33 and 34. Sample 1 had a composition: 50.00 mol% V2O5, 33.33 mol% Fe2V4O13, 16.67 mol% H-type phase (Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 with x = −0.333). The composition of sample 2 was as follows: 25.00 mol% Fe2V4O13, 60.00 mol% FeVO4, 15 mol% H-type phase (Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 with x = −0.333). Their compositions correspond to subsidiary subsystems: (V2O5–Fe2V4O13–H–type phase) and (Fe2V4O13-FeVO4-H-type phase), respectively that can be expected based on the law of neighbouring phase regions. These mixtures were heated in four 20-h stages at 560 °C (several dozen of degrees celsius lower than their melting temperatures). The contents of both samples have been changed already after the first heating stage. Additional compounds were identified: FeVO4 (in the sample 1) and V2O5 (in the sample 2), whereas the content of Fe2V4O13 distinctly decreased. After the last heating stage the composition of both samples was the same—they contained: FeVO4, H-type phase, and V2O5. These results have proved that the samples 33 and 34 after their last heating stage have attained the state of equilibrium. They have also shown that in the experiment conditions Fe2V4O13 does not coexist at equilibrium with any phase forming in the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3. It is known from the literature that also vanadate Cr2V4O13 does not coexist at equilibrium with any phase forming in the analogous ternary system ZnO–V2O5–Cr2O3 [28].

Table 3

The system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3

No.Composition of initial mixtures/mol%Heating conditionsPhases at equilibrium
CuOV2O5Fe2O3
2955.0040.005.00560 °C (20 h) + 600 °C (20 h) × 2H-type phase, CuV2O6, Cu2V2O7
3043.0045.0012.00H-type phase, CuV2O6
3125.0055.0020.00560 °C (20 h) + 580 °C (20 h) × 2H-type phase, CuV2O6, V2O5
3232.0061.007.00H-type phase, CuV2O6, V2O5
3315.0050.0035.00560 °C (20 h) × 3H-type phase, V2O5, FeVO4
3415.0060.0025.00H-type phase, V2O5, FeVO4
3544.0036.0020.00560 °C (20 h) + 600 °C (20 h) + 700 °C (20 h) × 2H-type phase, L-type phase, Cu2V2O7
3672.0024.004.00Cu3V2O8, Cu11V6O26, Cu13Fe4V10O44
3755.0034.1210.88L-type phase, Cu2V2O7
3878.0020.002.00Cu11V6O26, Cu13Fe4V10O44, Cu5V2O10

Composition of initial mixtures, their heating conditions, and XRD analysis results for samples after the final heating stage

On the ground of all presented results a phase diagram of the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 in subsolidus area was worked out. Figure 5 shows a projection of the solidus surface onto the plane of the component concentration triangle of the system under study. The lines linking the H- and L-type phases with other compounds are drawn with a dashed line. As “Ο” were marked the positions of the samples 3, 7, 9, and 12, which are not monophase. The presented diagram indicates that in the CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 system no phase other than the known is formed. In this system, 18 subsidiary subsystems can be distinguished. In four of them two solid phases coexist at equilibrium, whereas the remaining 14 subsystems each have three solid phases coexisting at equilibrium. The melting temperatures of mixtures of phases coexisting at equilibrium in given areas are presented in Table 4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Projection of solidus surface onto the plane of component concentration triangle of the CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 system

Citation: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry J Therm Anal Calorim 109, 2; 10.1007/s10973-012-2210-0

Table 4

Melting temperatures of mixtures of phases coexisting at equilibrium

No.SubsystemMelting temperature/°C
ICu5V2O10, CuFe2O4, CuO805 ± 5
IICu5V2O10, CuFe2O4, Fe2O3790 ± 5
IIICu5V2O10, Fe2O3, Cu13Fe4V10O44785 ± 5
IVFe2O3, Cu13Fe4V10O44, L-type phase780 ± 5
VFe2O3, L-type phase800 ± 5
VIFe2O3, L-type phase, H-type phase795 ± 5
VIIFe2O3, H-type phase800 ± 5
VIIIFe2O3, H-type phase, FeVO4800 ± 5
IXH-type phase, V2O5, FeVO4635 ± 5
XH-type phase, CuV2O6, V2O5635 ± 5
XIH-type phase, CuV2O6650 ± 5
XIIH-type phase, CuV2O6, Cu2V2O7650 ± 5
XIIIH-type phase, L-type phase, Cu2V2O7760 ± 5
XIVL-type phase, Cu2V2O7760 ± 5
XVL-type phase, Cu2V2O7, Cu13Fe4V10O44760 ± 5
XVICu2V2O7, Cu13Fe4V10O44, Cu3V2O8760 ± 5
XVIICu3V2O8, Cu11V6O26, Cu13Fe4V10O44760 ± 5
XVIIICu11V6O26, Cu13Fe4V10O44, Cu5V2O10770 ± 5

Conclusions

Three phases involving all the components of the system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 are formed: Cu13Fe4V10O44, the phase with howardevansite-type structure and the phase with lyonsite-type structure. The H-type phase has the homogeneity range with the formula Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 (−0.5 < x < 0.041). It melts incongruently depositing Fe2O3 at the temperature range 820–800 ± 5 °C, depending on its composition. The homogeneity range of the L-type phase can be described as Cu3+1.5xFe4−xV6O24 (0.551 < x < 0.778). This phase also melts incongruently depositing Fe2O3, at 800 ± 5 °C. In the ternary system CuO–V2O5–Fe2O3 18 subsidiary subsystems can be distinguished. In four of them two solid phases coexist at equilibrium, whereas the remaining 14 subsystems are triphase.

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  • 23. Lavat, AE, Grasselli, MC, Baran, EJ 1989 The IR spectra of the (CrxFe1−x)VO4 phases. J Solid State Chem 78:206208 .

  • 24. Dabrowska, G, Tabero, P, Kurzawa, M 2009 Phase relations in the Al2O3–V2O5–MoO3 system in the solid state. The crystal structure of AlVO4. J Phase Equilib Diffus 30:220229 .

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  • 25. Zhuravlev, VD, Velikodnyi, YA, Kristallov, LV 1987 Issledovanie fazovykh ravnovesii v sisteme CuO–SrO–V2O5. Zh Neorg Khim 32:30603063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. McDevitt, NT, Baun, WL 1964 Infrared absorption study of metal oxides in the low frequency region (700–240 cm−1). Spectrochim Acta 20:799808 .

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Blonska-Tabero, A, Kurzawa, M 2007 Phase formation in the FeVO4–Co3V2O8 system. J Therm Anal Calorim 88:3336 .

  • 28. Rychlowska-Himmel, I, Bosacka, M 2010 Phase equilibria in the subsolidus area in the ZnO–Cr2O3–V2O5 system. Thermochim Acta 503–504:132135 .

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1. Tanarungsun, G, Kiatkittipong, W, Praserthdam, P, Yamada, H, Tagawa, T, Assabumrungrat, S 2008 Ternary metal oxide catalysts for selective oxidation of benzene to phenol. J Ind Eng Chem 14:596601 .

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  • 2. Dias, APS, Dimitrov, LD, Oliveira, MC-R, Zavoianu, R, Fernandes, A, Portela, MF 2010 Oxidative dehydrogenation of butane over substoichiometric magnesium vanadate catalysts prepared by citrate route. J Non Cryst Solids 356:14881497 .

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  • 3. Häggblad, R, Massa, M, Andersson, A 2009 Stability and performance of supported Fe–V–oxide catalysts in methanol oxidation. J Catal 266:218227 .

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  • 4. Walczak, J, Ziolkowski, J, Kurzawa, M, Osten-Sacken, J, Lysio, M 1985 Studies on Fe2O3–V2O5 system. Pol J Chem 59:255262.

  • 5. Dabrowska, G, Filipek, E 2008 Reactivity of the oxides in the ternary V2O5–CuO–α-Sb2O4 system in air. J Therm Anal Calorim 93:839845 .

  • 6. Yang, LT, Liang, JK, Song, GB, Chang, H, Rao, GH 2003 Compounds and phase relations in the SrO–Fe2O3–CuO, SrO–Fe2O3–Gd2O3 and Gd2O3–Fe2O3–CuO ternary systems. J Alloys Compd 353:301306 .

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  • 7. Blonska-Tabero A . The synthesis and some properties of new compound Cu13Fe4V10O44. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011. doi: .

  • 8. Hughes, JM, Starkey, SJ, Malinconico, ML, Malinconico, LL 1987 Lyonsite, Cu3 2+Fe4 3+(VO4)6 3−, a new fumarolic sublimate from Izalco volcano, El Salvador: descriptive mineralogy and crystal structure. Am Miner 72:10001005.

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  • 9. Hughes, JM, Drexler, JW, Campana, CF, Malinconico, ML 1988 Howardevansite, NaCu2+Fe2 3+(VO4)3 3−, a new fumarolic sublimate from Izalco volcano, El Salvador: descriptive mineralogy and crystal structure. Am Miner 73:181186.

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  • 10. Lafontaine, MA, Grenéche, JM, Laligant, T, Férey, G 1994 β-Cu3Fe4(VO4)6: structural study and relationships; physical properties. J Solid State Chem 108:110 .

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  • 11. Wieczorek-Ciurowa, K, Rakoczy, J, Blonska-Tabero, A, Filipek, E, Niziol, J, Dulian, P 2011 Mechanochemical synthesis of double vanadate in Cu–Fe–V–O system and its physicochemical and catalytic properties. Catal Today 176:314317 .

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  • 12. Patoux, S, Richardson, TJ 2007 Lithium insertion chemistry of some iron vanadates. Electrochem Commun 9:485491 .

  • 13. Belik, AA, Malakho, AP, Pokholok, KV, Lazoryak, BI 2001 Phase formation in Cu3+1.5xR4−x(VO4)6 (R = Fe and Cr) systems: crystal structure of Cu2.5Fe4.333(VO4)6, Cu4Fe3.333(VO4)6, and Cu4.05Cr3.3(VO4)6. J Solid State Chem 56:339348 .

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  • 14. Pless, JD, Bardin, BB, Kim, H-S, Ko, D, Smith, MT, Hammond, RR, Stair, PC, Poeppelmeier, KR 2004 Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over Mg–V/Mo oxides. J Catal 223:419431 .

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  • 15. Blonska-Tabero, A 2009 A new iron lead vanadate Pb2FeV3O11: synthesis and some properties. Mater Res Bull 44:16211625 .

  • 16. Blonska-Tabero, A, Bosacka, M, Dabrowska, G, Filipek, E, Piz, M, Rychlowska-Himmel, I, Tabero, P, Tomaszewicz, E 2008 The synthesis and properties of the phases obtained by solid–solid reactions. J Min Metall 44B:1926 .

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  • 17. Bélina, P, Myšková, V, Šulcová, P 2009 Comparison of the crystallization and solid state reaction methods for the preparation of rare-earth orthophosphates. J Therm Anal Calorim 96:9491054 .

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  • 18. Tabero, P 2010 Formation and properties of the new Al8V10W16O85 and Fe8−xAlxV10W16O85 phases with the M-Nb2O5 structure. J Therm Anal Calorim 101:561566 .

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  • 19. Filipek, E, Piz, M 2010 The reactivity of SbVO5 with T-Nb2O5 in solid state in air. J Therm Anal Calorim 101:447453 .

  • 20. Šulcová, P, Vitásková, L, Trojan, M 2010 Thermal analysis of the Ce1−xTbxO2 pigments. J Therm Anal Calorim 99:409413 .

  • 21. Kurzawa, M, Blonska-Tabero, A 2002 The synthesis and selected properties of new compounds: Mg3Fe4(VO4)6 and Zn3Fe4(VO4)6. Mater Res Bull 37:849858 .

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    • Export Citation
  • 22. Blonska-Tabero, A 2008 New phase in the system FeVO4–Cd4V2O9. J Therm Anal Calorim 93:707710 .

  • 23. Lavat, AE, Grasselli, MC, Baran, EJ 1989 The IR spectra of the (CrxFe1−x)VO4 phases. J Solid State Chem 78:206208 .

  • 24. Dabrowska, G, Tabero, P, Kurzawa, M 2009 Phase relations in the Al2O3–V2O5–MoO3 system in the solid state. The crystal structure of AlVO4. J Phase Equilib Diffus 30:220229 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Zhuravlev, VD, Velikodnyi, YA, Kristallov, LV 1987 Issledovanie fazovykh ravnovesii v sisteme CuO–SrO–V2O5. Zh Neorg Khim 32:30603063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. McDevitt, NT, Baun, WL 1964 Infrared absorption study of metal oxides in the low frequency region (700–240 cm−1). Spectrochim Acta 20:799808 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Blonska-Tabero, A, Kurzawa, M 2007 Phase formation in the FeVO4–Co3V2O8 system. J Therm Anal Calorim 88:3336 .

  • 28. Rychlowska-Himmel, I, Bosacka, M 2010 Phase equilibria in the subsolidus area in the ZnO–Cr2O3–V2O5 system. Thermochim Acta 503–504:132135 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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  • Impact Factor (2019): 2.731
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.415
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 87
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.471
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.634
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 78
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)