List of symbols
Conversion degree of CO2,
Maximum obtained conversion degree of CO2 during process,
Conversion degree of solid phase of fuel,
|A, A1, A2|
Pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius equation, s−1 or dimensionless
|b1, b2, b3|
Constants in L–H Eq. 8 related with kinetic constants
|B, B1, B2|
|C, C1, C2|
Molar fractions of CO2 and CO, respectively, 0 ≤ [CO2] ≤ 1, 0 ≤ [CO] ≤ 1,
Maximum obtained molar fraction of CO, 0 < [CO] ≤ 1
Distance from thermodynamic equilibrium, dimensionless
Activation energy, J mol−1
Rate coefficient, s−1, indexed constants corresponds with adequate equations
Rate coefficient acc. to 
Equilibrium constant, calculated acc. to Eq. 34, dimensionless
Approximated equilibrium constant, defined with (32), dimensionless
Mass of sample, g
Initial mass of sample, g
Mass flow of CO2 in ambient temperature, g s−1,
Thermodynamic yield of process/reaction, 0 ≤ η ≤ 1
Sum of stoichiometric coefficients of gaseous reactants
Pressure of CO2, MPa
Standard pressure ∼0.1 MPa
8.314 J mol−1K−1, gas constant
Solid phase conversion rate, defined acc. to (5), s−1
Determination coefficient, 0 ≤ r2 ≤ 1
Ambient temperature, K
Reaction/process temperature, K
Volume of particular reactant, cm3 mol−1
Volumetric flow of CO2 in ambient temperature, cm3 s−1,
Volume of activation, cm3 mol−1
Time to obtain maximum conversion of CO2, s,
Initial time in Eq. 12, h
Equivalent time, s
Represents solid and gaseous phase, respectively
This study was partly performed within a framework of the Strategic Programme: “Advanced Technologies for Energy Generation: Development of Coal Gasification Technology for High-Efficient Fuels Production and Energy Generation” part of Research Task No. 2.2.1: “Coal Gasification Kinetics with CO2 Utilization in This Process” funded from National Centre for Research and Development.
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Wölfle, H , Kopacka, H , Wurst, K , Preishuber-Pflügl, P Bildstein, B 2009 On the way to biodegradable poly(hydroxybutyrate) from propylene oxide and carbon monoxide via β-butyrolactone: multisite catalysis with newly designed chiral indole-imino chromium(III) complexes. J Organomet Chem 694: 2493– 2512 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2009.04.013.
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