The total scientific output of mainstream articles for the 15 most productive African countries for the period 1991 to 1997
was 45,080, with South Africa and Egypt publishing 15,725 and 10,433, respectively. The productions of these two top ranked
countries varied little from 1991-1997 while others such as the Maghreb countries increased between 75-102%. Total contributions
were mainly in the fields of Clinical Medicine (36%), Biology (17%), Chemistry (14%), and Biomedical Research (12%). Papers
in international collaboration were overriding in Biomedical Research, Biology, Earth and Space Science, and Physics. Institutions
in the US were the principal collaborators followed closely by those in France.