View More View Less
  • 1 Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
Restricted access

Abstract

Triadic patents minimise home bias effects in studies that focus on patent counts as a measure of innovative activity. Yet, biases in qualitative patent indicators have been largely neglected. This article advocates that forward patent citations, and triadic citations in particular, can illuminate further on home bias, self citations, and the speed of knowledge flows for drug patents published by the USPTO for the period 1980–2008. The evidence shows that triadic citations help to minimize the home bias in citations as well as to make patent quality more transparent. Also, it indicates that self citations and the age distribution of citations are important factors to consider when explaining cross-country differences in pharmaceutical citations.

  • Alcacer, J., Gittelmanb, M., & Sampatc, B. (2009). Applicant and examiner citations in U.S. patents: An overview and analysis. Research Policy, 38(2), 415-427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aldieri, L 2008 Technological and geographical proximity effects on knowledge spillovers: Evidence from us patent citations Université Libre de Bruxelles Brussels.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atallah, G. & Rodriguez, G. (2006). Indirect patent citations. Scientometrics, 67 (3), 437465.

  • Blind, K, Cremers, K 2009 The influence of strategic patenting on companies’ patent portfolios. Research Policy 38 2 428436 .

  • Criscuolo, P 2006 The ‘home advantage’ effect and patent families. A comparison of OECD triadic patents, the USPTO and the EPO. Scientometrics 66 1 2341 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Criscuolo, P., & Verspagen, B. (2008). Does it matter where patent citations come from? Inventor vs. examiner citations in European patents. Research Policy, 37 (10), 18921908.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deng, Y 2008 The value of knowledge spillovers in the US semiconductor industry. International Journal of Industrial Organization 26 4 10441058 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dernis, H, Kahn, M 2004 Triadic patent families methodology OECD New York .

  • Fischer, M. M., Scherngell, T., & Jansenberger, E. (2009). Patents, patent citations and the geography of knowledge spillovers in Europe. In C. Karlsson, A. E. Andersson, P. C. Cheshire, & R. R. Stough (eds.), New directions in regional economic development: Advances in spatial science (pp. 331345). Berlin: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griliches, Z 1992 The search for R&D spillovers. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 94 0 2947.

  • Hall, B. H., Jaffe, A., & Trajtenberg, M. (2001). The NBER patent citations data file: Lessons, insights and methodological tools. In A. Jaffe & M. Trajtenberg (eds.), Patents, citations and innovations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, BH, Jaffe, A, Trajtenberg, M 2005 Market value and patent citations. Rand Journal of Economics 36 1 1638.

  • Harhoff, D, Narin, F, Scherer, FM 1999 Citation frequency and the value of patented inventions. The Review of Economics and Statistics 81 3 511515 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harhoff, D, Reitzig, M 2004 Determinants of opposition against EPO patent grants––The case of biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Industrial Organization 22 4 443480 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hegde, D, Mowery, D, Graham, S 2007 Pioneers, submariners, or thicket-builders: Which firms use continuations in patenting? NBER Cambridge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hegde, D, Sampat, B 2009 Examiner citations, applicant citations, and the private value of patents. Economic Letters 105:287289 .

  • Hinze, S., & Schmoch, U. (2004). Opening the black box: Analytical approaches and their impact on the outcome of statistical patent analyses. In H. F. Moed, W. Glanzel, & U. Schmoch (eds.), Handbook of quantitative science and technology research: The use of publication and patent statistics in studies of S&T systems (pp. 215236). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, AB, Lerner, J 2004 Innovation and its discontents: How our broken patent system is endangering innovation and progress and what to do about it Princeton University Press Princeton.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, A, Trajtenberg, M 1999 International knowledge flows: Evidence from patent citations. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 8:105136 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, A. B., Trajtenberg, M., & Fogarty, M. S. (2000). The meaning of patent citations: Report on the NBER/Case-Western reserve survey of patentees. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 7631.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, A. B., Trajtenberg, M., & Henderson, R. (1992). Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations. NBER Working Papers 3993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc..

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, A. B., Trajtenberg, M., & Henderson, R. (1993). Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108 (3), 577598.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, A. B., Trajtenberg, M., & Henderson, R. (2002). Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations. In Patents, citations and innovations: A window on the knowledge economy (pp. 155178). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, DKN, Popp, D 2003 Forced out of the closet: The impact of the American Inventors Protection Act on the timing of patent disclosure. Rand Journal of Economics 34:96112 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lanjouw, JO, Schankerman, M 2004 Patent quality and research productivity: Measuring innovation with multiple indicators. Economic Journal 114 April 441465 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, YG, Lee, JD, Song, YI, Lee, SJ 2007 An in-depth empirical analysis of patent citation counts using zero-inflated count data model: The case of KIST. Scientometrics 70 9 2739 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y 2009 Borders and distance in knowledge spillovers: Dying over time or dying with age?––Evidence from patent citations University of Western Ontario London, ON.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, X, Lin, YL, Chen, HC, Roco, MC 2007 Worldwide nanotechnology development: a comparative study of USPTO, EPO, and JPO patents (1976–2004). Journal of Nanopartical Research 9 6 9771002 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Long, J. S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables. Sage Series for Advanced Quantitative Techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mancusi, M. L. (2008). International spillovers and absorptive capacity: A cross-country cross-sector analysis based on patents and citations. Journal of International Economics, 76 (2), 155165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maurseth, PB, Verspagen, B 2002 Knowledge spillovers in Europe: A patent citations analysis. Scandinavia Journal of Economics 104 4 531545 .

  • Mehta, A., Rysman, M., & Simcoe, T. (2009). Identifying the age profile of patent citations: New estimates of knowledge diffusion. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 25 (7), 11791204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, WG, Hingley, P 2009 Patent family data and statistics at the European Patent Office American University Peter Hingley.

  • Sampat, B, Ziedonis, AA 2004 Patent citations and the economic value of patents: A preliminary assessment HG Moed W Glanzel U Schmoch eds. Handbook of quantitative science and technology research Springer Netherlands 277298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schettino, F. (2007). US patent citations data and industrial knowledge spillovers. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 16 (8), 595633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephan, P, Gurmu, S, Sumell, A, Black, G 2007 Who's patenting in the university? Evidence from the survey of doctorate recipients. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 16 2 7199 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • N van Zeebroeck BV de la Potterie Guellec, D 2009 Claiming more: The increased voluminosity of patent applications and its determinants. Research Policy 38 6 10061020 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von Warbturg, I., Teichert, T., & Rost, K. (2005). Inventive progress measured by multi-stage patent citation analysis. Research Policy, 34 (10), 15911607.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, S. (2007). Factors to evaluate a patent in addition to citations. Scientometrics, 71 (3), 509522.

  • World Intellectual Patent Organization 2009 Handbook on industrial property information and documentation World Intellectual Patent Organization (WIPO) Geneva.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation