The search was performed on April 2, 2011 with the use of Version 0.70 of the DEA bibliographic database containing 3911 studies (deabib.org) and returned 65 hits for the “university” or “universities,” 44 for “schools” and 27 hits were obtained for the phrase “higher education.”
Simar and Wilson (2007) discuss in detail why the traditionally used censored (tobit) regression is not adequate here.
Stata codes are available from authors upon request.
Contrary to the aggregated data on the higher education system, there is a lack of a unique, integrated database providing comparable information on individual HEIs from different European countries. There are some attempts to create foundations for regular data collection by national statistical institutes on individual higher education institutions in the EU-27 Member States (for more information about the Aquameth project, see Daraio et al. 2011. For its continuity under the EUMIDA project, see Bonaccorsi et al. 2010 and for the current state of the micro data collection consider EUMIDA webpage: www.euimida.org).
Additionally, the so-called ‘third mission’ (links of HEIs with industrial and business surroundings) can be considered. Due to the unavailability of comparable across-country data that would permit us to measure the degree of links between HEIs and the business sector, we are not able to include a third mission in our study.
In 2009, the Web of Science covered over 10,000 of the highest impact journals worldwide, and over 110,000 conference proceedings. However, the coverage of the database is field sensitive (see EUMIDA final report for a detail discussion: www.eumida.org).
Note that studies co-authored by persons affiliated at the same institution are counted once.
For example, we excluded the University of London from our analysis, because as a confederational organization it is composed of several colleges. It was not possible to identify the publication record because we cannot be sure whether the academic staff of the University of London, as her/his affiliation, would give the name of the college or the “University of London.”.
In the case of the DEA approach, outliers are understood as the most efficient units with the biggest impact on the frontier, Wilson (1993). Seven universities were detected as outliers and deleted from the sample: Sapienza University of Rome, The University of Cambridge, The University of Oxford, The University of Bologna, The University of Vienna, University of Munich, and University of Naples Federico II.
Unbiased efficiency scores will be used in the second stage as a robustness check in so-called double bootstrap method. See section “Robustness checks”.
To analyse the dynamics in productivity, the so-called Malmquis index should be constructed, see for example Parteka and Wolszczak-Derlacz (2011).
As a robustness check, we also perform a 2 input, 2 output model. See section “Robustness checks”.
The research was performed under the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education's project “Efficiency of Polish public universities” (budgetary funds for science 2010–2012). The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Ernst and Young's “Better Government Programme” research grant, enabling part of the data collections. The paper has benefited from the comments of participants of Max Weber Fellows Lustrum Conference, European University Institute, June 2011, Warsaw International Economic Meeting, University of Warsaw, July 2011 and from seminar participants at the Department of Economics, Universita’ Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, June 2011. Daniel Monchuk graciously provided Stata codes used to program the second step analysis. Finally, authors acknowledge comments and suggestions from anonymous referee.
Abbott, M, Doucouliagos, C 2003 The efficiency of Australian universities: a data envelopment analysis. Economics of Education Review 22 1 89–97 .
Abramo, G, D’Angelo, CA, Pugini, F 2008 The measurement of Italian universities’ research productivity by means of non parametric-bibliometric methodology. Scientometrics 76 2 225–244 .
Agasisti, T, DalBianco, A 2006 Data envelopment analysis to the Italian university system: theoretical issues and political implications. International Journal of Business Performance 8 4 344–367 .
Agasisti, T, Johnes, G 2009 Beyond frontiers: Comparing the efficiency of higher education decision-making units across countries. Education Economics 17 1 59–79 .
Agasisti, T, Salerno, C 2007 Assessing the cost efficiency of Italian universities. Education Economics 15 4 455–471 .
Aghion, P., Dewatripont, M., Hoxby, C., Mas-Colell, A., & Sapir, A. (2009). The governance and performance of research universities: Evidence from Europe and the US, NBER Working Paper No. 14851.
Alexander, WRJ, Haug, AA, Jaforullah, M 2010 A two-stage double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis of efficiency differences of New Zealand secondary schools. Journal of Productivity Analysis 34 2 99–110 .
Avkiran, NK 2001 Investigating technical and scale efficiencies of Australian universities through data envelopment analysis. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 35 1 57–80 .
Bonaccorsi, A, Daraio, C 2005 Exploring size and agglomeration effects on public research productivity. Scientometric 63 1 87–120 .
Bonaccorsi, A, Daraio, C 2007 Universities and strategic knowledge creation: Specialization and performance in Europe Edward Elgar Publishing Cheltenham/Northampton, MA.
Bonaccorsi, A, Daraio, C, Simar, L 2006 Advanced indicators of productivity of universities an application of robust nonparametric methods to Italian data. Scientometrics 66 2 389–410 .
Bonaccorsi, A., Daraio, C., & Simar, L. (2007a). Efficiency and productivity in European universities: exploring trade-offs in the strategic profile, Chap. 5. In A. Bonaccorsi & C. Daraio (eds.). Universities and strategic knowledge creation: Specialization and performance in Europe (pp. 144–206). Cheltenham/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
Bonaccorsi, A. , & Daraio, C. ( Simar, L. 2007a). Efficiency and productivity in European universities: exploring trade-offs in the strategic profile, Chap. 5. In & A. Bonaccorsi (eds.). Universities and strategic knowledge creation: Specialization and performance in Europe (pp. C. Daraio 144– 206). Cheltenham/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Bonaccorsi, A., Daraio, C., Räty, T. & Simar, L. (2007b). Efficiency and university size: Discipline-wise evidence from European universities. MPRA Paper No. 10265, Munich Personal RePEc Archive.
Bonaccorsi, A., Brandt, T., De Filippo, D., Lepori, B., Molinari, F., Niederl, A., Schmoch, U., Schubert, T., & Slipersaeter, S. (2010). Final study report. Feasibility study for creating a European university data collection. The European Communities.
Carrington, R, Coelli, T, Rao, PDS 2005 The performance of Australian universities: Conceptual issues and preliminary results. Economic Papers—Economic Society of Australia 24 2 145–163.
Cohn, E, Rhine, SLW, Santos, MC 1989 Institutions of higher education as multi-product firms: economies of scale and scope. Review of Economics and Statistics 71:284–290 .
Cooper, WW, Seiford, LM, Kaoru, T 2000 Data envelopment analysis. A comprehensive text with models, applications, references and DEA-Solver software Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston/Dordrecht, London.
Daraio, C, Bonaccorsi, A, Geuna, A, Lepori, B, Bach, L, Bogetoft, P, Cardoso, MF, Castro-Martinez, E, Crespi, G IF de Lucio Fried, H, Garcia-Aracil, A, Inzelt, A, Jongbloed, B, Kempkes, G, Llerena, P, Matt, M, Olivares, M, Pohl, C, Räty, T, Rosa, MJ, Sarrico, CS, Simar, L, Slipersaeter, S, Teixeira, P P Vanden Eeckaut 2011 The European university landscape: A micro characterization based on evidence from the aquameth project. Research Policy 40 1 148–164 .
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
Daraio, C , Bonaccorsi, A , Geuna, A , Lepori, B , Bach, L , Bogetoft, P , Cardoso, MF , Castro-Martinez, E Crespi, G IF de Lucio , Fried, H , Garcia-Aracil, A , Inzelt, A , Jongbloed, B , Kempkes, G , Llerena, P , Matt, M , Olivares, M , Pohl, C , Räty, T , Rosa, MJ , Sarrico, CS , Simar, L , Slipersaeter, S Teixeira, P P Vanden Eeckaut 2011 The European university landscape: A micro characterization based on evidence from the aquameth project. Research Policy 40 1 148– 164 10.1016/j.respol.2010.10.009.
Fandel, G 2007 On the performance of universities in north rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Government? Redistribution of funds judged using DEA efficiency measures. European Journal of Operational Research 176 1 521–533 .
Farrell, MJ 1957 The measurement of productive efficiency. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 120 3 253–290 .
Felderer, B., & Obersteiner, M. (1999). Efficiency and economies of scale in academic knowledge production, Economics Series no. 63, Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna.
Ferrari, G, Laureti, T 2005 Evaluating technical efficiency of human capital formation in the Italian university: Evidence from florence. Statistical Methods and Applications 14 2 243–270 .
Flegg, AT, Allen, DO, Field, K, Thurlow, TW 2004 Measuring the efficiency of British universities: A multi-period data envelopment analysis. Education Economics 12 3 231–249 .
Gattoufi, S., Becker D., Chandel, J. K, & Sander, M. (2010). Deabib.org: A bibliographic database about data envelopment analysis. Version 0.70.
Glass, JC, McKillop, DG, Hyndman, NS 1995 Efficiency in the provision of university teaching and research: an empirical analysis of UK universities. Journal of Applied Econometrics 10:61–72 .
Izadi, H 2002 Stochastic frontier estimation of a CES cost function: The case of higher education in Britain. Economics of Education Review 21:63–71 .
Johnes, J 2006 Data envelopment analysis and its application to the measurement of efficiency in higher education. Economics of Education Review 25 3 273–288 .
Johnes, J 2006 Measuring teaching efficiency in higher education: An application of data envelopment analysis to economics graduates from UK universities 1993. European Journal of Operational Research 174 1 443–456 .
Johnes, J, Johnes, G 1995 Research funding and performance in UK. University Departments of economics: A frontier analysis. Economics of Education Review 14 3 301–314 .
Kempkes, G, Pohl, C 2010 The efficiency of German universities: Some evidence from nonparametric and parametric methods. Applied Economics 42:2063–2079 .
Kirjavainen, T, Loikkanen, HA 1998 Efficiency differences of Finnish senior secondary schools: An application of DEA and tobit analysis. Economics of Education Review 17:377–394 .
Leitner, K-H, Prikoszovits, J, Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M, Stowasser, R, Wagner, K 2007 The impact of size and specialisation on universities’ department performance:A DEA analysis applied to Austrian universities. Higher Education 53:517–538 .
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
Leitner, K-H , Prikoszovits, J , Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M , Stowasser, R Wagner, K 2007 The impact of size and specialisation on universities’ department performance:A DEA analysis applied to Austrian universities. Higher Education 53: 517– 538 10.1007/s10734-006-0002-9.
Mancebón, M-J, Bandrés, E 1999 Efficiency evaluation in secondary schools: The key role of model specification and of ex post analysis of result. Education Economics 7 2 131–152 .
Monchuk, D, Zhuo, Ch, Bonaparte, Y 2010 Explaining production inefficiency in China's agriculture using data envelopment analysis and semi-parametric bootstrapping. China Economic Review 21:346–354 .
Oliviera, MA, Santos, C 2005 Assessing school efficiency in Portugal using FDH and bootstrapping. Applied Economics 37:957–968 .
Parteka, A. & Wolszczak-Derlacz, J. (2011). Dynamics of productivity in higher education. Cross-European evidence based on bootstrapped Malmquist indices, University of Milan Department of Economics Working Paper No. 2011-10.
Räty, T 2002 Efficient facet based efficiency index: A variable returns to scale specification. Journal of Productivity Analysis 17:65–82 .
Simar, L, Wilson, PW 2000 A general methodology for bootstrapping in non-parametric frontier models. Journal of Applied Statistics 27 6 779–802 .
Simar, L, Wilson, PW 2007 Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes. Journal of Econometrics 136:31–64 .
Tommaso, A, Bianco, AD 2006 Data envelopment analysis to the Italian university system: theoretical issues and policy implications. International Journal of Business Performance Management 8 4 344–367 .
Warning, S 2004 Performance differences in German higher education: empirical analysis of strategic group. Review of Industrial Organization 24:393–408 .
Wilson, PW 1993 Detecting outliers in deterministic nonparametric frontier models with multiple outputs. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 11 3 319–323 .
Wilson, PW 2008 FEAR: A software package for frontier efficiency analysis with R. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 42 4 247–254 .
Wolszczak-Derlacz, J, Parteka, A 2010 Scientific productivity of public higher education institutions in Poland: A comparative bibliometric analysis Ernst & Young Warsaw.
Worthington, AC 2001 An empirical survey of frontier efficiency measurement techniques in education. Education Economics 9 3 245–268 .
Worthington, AC, Lee, BL 2008 Efficiency, technology and productivity change in Australian universities, 1998–2003. Economics of Education Review 27 3 285–298 .