Authors:
Tamás Palicz Semmelweis Egyetem, Egészségügyi Közszolgálati Kar, Egészségügyi Menedzserképző Központ, Budapest, Magyarország; Semmelweis University, Faculty of Public Health Services, Health Services Management Training Centre, Budapest, Hungary

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Balázs Bencsik Nemzetbiztonsági Szakszolgálat, Nemzeti Kibervédelmi Intézet, Budapest, Magyarország; Special Services for National Security, National Cyber Security Center, Budapest, Hungary

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Miklós Szócska Semmelweis Egyetem, Egészségügyi Közszolgálati Kar, Egészségügyi Menedzserképző Központ, Budapest, Magyarország; Semmelweis University, Faculty of Public Health Services, Health Services Management Training Centre, Budapest, Hungary

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Összefoglaló. A COVID–19 pandémia az információbiztonság területén új kihívásokat jelentett. A távolról végzett munka különböző formái jelentős mértékben növelték az online tér biztonsági kockázatát. Nőtt a hálózatok nagysága, az adatforgalom, és azon felhasználók száma, akiknek nem volt érdemi tapasztalatuk az online térben. A járvány ideje alatt a kibertérből érkező támadások szektoronként és időszakonként eltérő intenzitásúak voltak, a támadások típusa a phishingtől a malwareken keresztül az információs zavarkeltésig széles spektrumban változott. Számos jelenségnek nemzetbiztonsági vonatkozásai is voltak. Összefoglaló cikkünkben a fenti jelenségek nemzetközi és hazai tapasztalatait összegezzük, különös figyelmet szentelve az egészségügyi rendszernek, illetve a vakcinafejlesztés kibertérből érkező fenyegetéseinek.

Summary. During the COVID-19 pandemic, new challenges emerged in the field of information security and cyber security. Home office, home schooling and distance learning, or even telemedicine hit some organizations unprepared. Security risks in online space have increased significantly: the number of network endpoints and the number of computers, laptops and mobile devices have increased with network data traffic as well as the number of users who had no significant experience in online space. They appeared as a significant risk factor. This has been exacerbated, especially in healthcare, by the extremely high workload, which has made systems highly vulnerable. During the epidemic, attacks from cyberspace varied in intensity from sector to sector and period to period. Statistics from international and national organizations have shown that from the end of the first quarter of 2020, the number of cyber security incidents jumped sharply and then remained high even after a small decline. The types of attacks had an extremely wide range: from phishing through malware to misinformation, almost all types of attacks occurred. Many phenomena also had national security implications. Ransomware virus attacks on health have affected almost all health systems and reached high levels by the end of 2020 in particular. It was during the first period that, in an emergency case, there is thought to be an association between a ransomware virus attack and the death of a patient who was not admitted because of the attack.

In addition to distance measures and the associated increase in cyber threats, the emerging threats related to vaccination, which is central to the fight against the epidemic, should also be highlighted. This period has shed light on how many vulnerabilities there are, from vaccine development through drug trials to delivery to vaccines and the organization of vaccines, that cybercriminals are able to attack. In order to prevent and combat these threats and attacks, and to respond appropriately, complex, multidisciplinary collaborations are needed in which security science has a privileged place. In our review article, we summarize the international and national experiences of the above phenomena, paying special attention to the health care system and the threats coming from cyberspace in vaccine development.

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  • 14

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  • 15

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  • 16

    HIPAA Journal (2021) Hackers Leak Data Stolen in European Medicines Agency Cyberattack. https://www.hipaajournal.com/hackers-leak-data-stolen-in-european-medicines-agency-cyberattack/ [Letöltve: 2021. 04. 24.]

  • 17

    Interpol (2020a) Cybercriminals targeting critical healthcare institutions with ransomware. https://www.interpol.int/News-and-Events/News/2020/Cybercriminals-targeting-critical-healthcare-institutions-with-ransomware [Letöltve: 2021. 04. 22.]

  • 18

    Interpol (2020b) INTERPOL report shows alarming rate of cyberattacks during COVID-19. https://www.interpol.int/News-and-Events/News/2020/INTERPOL-report-shows-alarming-rate-of-cyberattacks-during-COVID-19 [Letöltve: 2021. 04. 22.]

  • 19

    Jalali, M. S., Bruckes, M., Westmattelmann, D., & Schewe, G. (2020) Why employees (still) click on phishing links: Investigation in hospitals. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 22. No. 1. e16775. https://doi.org/10.2196/16775

  • 20

    Magyar Kormány (2021) Összehangolt kibertámadás indult a kormányzati oldalak ellen.https://kormany.hu/hirek/osszehangolt-kibertamadas-indult-a-kormanyzati-oldalak-ellen?fbclid=IwAR2yvVAm3BohhS_08mXo8HdY9Xs8gcoaqcSSTY9Y3daWJE10Uzc886fWPxo [Letöltve: 2021. 04. 22.]

  • 21

    National Cyber Security Center (2020a) Advisory: APT29 targets COVID-19 vaccine development. NCSC.GOV.UK. https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/advisory-apt29-targets-covid-19-vaccine-development [Letöltve: 2021. 04. 22.]

  • 22

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  • 23

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  • 24

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  • 26

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Editor-in-Chief:

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    (Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research
    Budapest, Hungary)

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  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior, Budapest, Hungary)

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  • Valéria CSÉPE (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Brain Imaging Centre)
  • János JÓZSA (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Melinda KOVÁCS (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós MARÓTH (Eötvös Loránd Research Network)
  • Charaf HASSAN (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán GYŐRI (Hungaricum Committee)
  • József HALLER (University of Public Service)
  • Attila ASZÓDI (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán BIRKNER (National Research, Development and Innovation Office)
  • Tamás DEZSŐ (Migration Research Institute)
  • Imre DOBÁK (University of Public Service)
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  • Gábor KOVÁCS (University of Public Service)
  • József PALLO (University of Public Service)
  • Marcell Gyula GÁSPÁR (University of Miskolc)
  • Judit MÓGOR (Ministry of Interior National Directorate General for Disaster Management)
  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior)
  • Péter SZABÓ (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós SZÓCSKA (Semmelweis University)

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2020  
CrossRef Documents 13
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Scientia et Securitas
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A COVID–19 patológiája.

Halálok SARS-CoV-2-fertőzésben: vírusfertőzésben vagy vírusfertőzéssel?

Authors:
Zsuzsa Schaff
,
Krisztina Danics
,
Adrián Pesti
,
Gábor Lotz
,
Tibor Várkonyi
,
Deján Dobi
,
István Vályi-Nagy
,
Klára Törő
,
Tibor Glasz
, and
András Kiss