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  • 1 Eötvös Loránd Kutatási Hálózat, Energiatudományi Kutatóközpont, , Budapest, Magyarország; ELKH Centre for Energy Research, , Budapest, Hungary
Open access

Összefoglaló. A villamosenergia-rendszerek fizikai támadásokkal szembeni ellenálló képessége a közelmúltban világszerte történt események ismeretében egyre nagyobb hangsúlyt kap a tématerület kutatásaiban. Az ilyen eseményekre való megfelelő felkészüléshez elengedhetetlen az üzemeltetett infrastruktúrának, elsősorban annak gyengeségeinek pontos ismerete. A cikkben Magyarország villamosenergia-hálózatának adatai alapján készített súlyozatlan és súlyozott gráfokon végzünk vizsgálatokat, hogy megértsük a különböző stratégia mentén kiválasztott célpontok elleni támadások milyen mértékben csökkentik a topológiai hatékonyságot. A cikk célja egyben a magyar hálózat sérülékenységének általános bemutatása is, mely hasznos bemeneti információ lehet a kockázati tervek elkészítésekor.

Summary. Tolerance of the power grid against physical intrusions has gained importance in the light of various attacks that have taken place around the world. To adequately prepare for such events, grid operators have to possess a deep understanding of their infrastructure, more specifically, of its weaknesses. A graph representation of the Hungarian power grid was created in a way that the vertices are generators, transformers, and substations and the edges are high-voltage transmission lines. All transmission and sub-transmission elements were considered, including the 132 kV network as well. The network is subjected to various types of single and double element attacks, objects of which are selected according to different aspects. The vulnerability of the network is measured as a relative drop in efficiency when a vertex or an edge is removed from the network. Efficiency is a measure of the network’s performance, assuming that the efficiency for transmitting electricity between vertices i and j is proportional to the reciprocal of their distance. In this paper, simultaneous removals were considered, arranged into two scenarios (single or double element removal) and a total of 5 cases were carried out (single vertex removal, single edge removal, double vertex removal, double edge removal, single vertex and single edge removal). During the examinations, all possible removal combinations were simulated, thus the 5 cases represent 385, 504, 73920, 128271 and 193797 runs, respectively. After all runs were performed, damage values were determined for random and targeted attacks, and attacks causing maximal damage were also identified. In all cases, damage was calculated for unweighted and weighted networks as well, to enable the comparison of those two models. The aims of this paper are threefold: to perform a general assessment on the vulnerability of the Hungarian power grid against random and targeted attacks; to compare the damage caused by different attack strategies; and to highlight the differences between using unweighted and weighted graphs representations. Random removal of a single vertex or a single edge caused 0.3–0.4% drop in efficiency, respectively, which indicates a high tolerance against such attacks. Damage for random double attacks was still only in the range of 0.6–0.8%, which is acceptable. It was shown that if targets are selected by the attacker based on the betweenness rank of the element, damage would be below the maximal possible values. Comparison of the damage measured in the unweighted and the weighted network representations has shown that damage to the weighted network tends to be bigger for vertex attacks, but the contrary is observed for edge attacks. Numerical differences between the two representations do not show any trend that could be generalised, but in the case of the most vulnerable elements significant differences were found in damage measures, which underlines the importance of using weighted models.

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Editor-in-Chief:

  • Tamás NÉMETH 
    (Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research
    Budapest, Hungary)

Managing Editor:

  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior, Budapest, Hungary)

Editorial Board:

  • Melinda KOVÁCS (Szent István University Kaposvár Campus)Á
  • Miklós MARÓTH (Eötvös Loránd Research Network)
  • Charaf HASSAN (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán GYŐRI (Hungaricum Committee)
  • József HALLER (University of Public Service)
  • Attila ASZÓDI (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán BIRKNER (National Research, Development and Innovation Office)
  • Tamás DEZSŐ (Migration Research Institute)
  • Imre DOBÁK (University of Public Service)
  • András KOLTAY (University of Public Service)
  • Gábor KOVÁCS (University of Public Service)
  • József PALLO (University of Public Service)
  • Marcell Gyula GÁSPÁR (University of Miskolc)
  • Judit MÓGOR (Ministry of Interior National Directorate General for Disaster Management)
  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior)
  • Péter SZABÓ (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós SZÓCSKA (Semmelweis University)
  • János JÓZSA (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Valéria CSÉPE (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Brain Imaging Centre)