Ferenc Hörcher Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, Eötvös József Kutatóközpont, Politika- és Államelméleti Kutatóintézet Budapest, Magyarország; University of Public Service, Eötvös József Research Centre, Research Institute for Politics and Government Budapest, Hungary
Bölcsészettudományi Kutatóközpont Filozófiai Intézet Budapest, Magyarország; Research Centre for the Humanities, Institute of Philosophy Budapest, Hungary

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Összefoglaló. Ez a filozófiai esszé arra tesz kísérletet, hogy megpróbálja nyomon követni a világjárvány kibontakozását, a változatos védelmi stratégiákat, valamint a mégiscsak bekövetkező tragédiákat a politikai filozófia perspektívájából. Mégpedig valós időben. Az esszé abból a hipotézisből indul ki, hogy az emberiséget váratlanul érte ugyan a járvány, mégis igen gyorsan tudott reagálni (lásd az oltóanyag előállításának gyorsaságát), az egyes emberek azonban nem tudtak kilépni saját természetük korlátai közül. Ennek megfelelően a hatalom ismét elkövette a szokásos hibákat, a lázadók lázadtak, és a politika továbbra is a konfliktusok kezelésének művészete maradt. A politikával foglalkozóknak azonban kincsesbánya ez a korszak a politika természetének elemzéséhez.

Summary. This paper, written in the genre of the literary essay, tries to keep track of the birth and development of the pandemic, the various defence strategies and the tragedies that took place anyhow, from the perspective of the discipline of political philosophy.

Now political philosophy is not characteristically ready to react promptly to the events of the day. It has got a long term perspective, and therefore has no intention to keep an eye on the headlines of the online news portals. It has got long term debits, which cannot be easily paid back in cash.

And yet the claim of the paper is that in fact we are confronted by a state of affairs when political philosophy is obliged to take note of contemporary events. And it has to try to respond to those events almost “real time” or directly. We are aware of 4 million dead, by now, which is an unacceptable number.

To tackle states of emergency parliaments are usually ready to offer exceptional measures for government action, even in parliamentary democracies. Yet politicians do not necessarily want to take on board the struggle with the virus – they can easily drop it out from the issues of the day –, claiming that public health should not be politicized. Yet by leaving the stage to let professional experts make the decisions, they give up their chance to unite the camp. Statesmen can only unite their camp behind them, if they make use of the window of opportunity opened by an emergency situation, and if they are able to make use of the phobias and anxieties of everyday people, in the fashionable populist, plebeian manner.

The essay analyses two basic relationships influenced by the pandemic. One is claimed to be the intergovernmental, or global scene. Here, the great and developing powers are competing with each other, through the still mostly acceptable international norms of taking advantage of inequality. The other is the inner political scene, where there is a growing distrust between the authorities and the ordinary people, fuelled by restrictions, fake news, and forms either of controlling society by illegal means, or of influencing leaders by indirect means.

The last part of the essay presents three major aspects from where one can analyse the happenings: a social, a communicational and an economic perspective on its effects.

The essay finishes with some cautionary, sceptical notes on human nature, in order to keep vigilance in emergency situations on the loss of balance, either internal or external, to avoid the major dangers.

  • 1

    Arisztotelész. Politika. ford. Szabó Miklós, az eredetivel egybevetette Horváth Henrik. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 2

    Baccini, L., Brodeur, A. & Weymouth, S. (2020) The COVID-19 Pandemic and the 2020 U.S. Presidential Election, IZA DP No. 13862. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 3

    Balázs Z. (2005) Emberi méltóság. Jogelméleti Szemle, No. 4. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 4

    Ball, T. & Bellamy, R. (eds) (2003) The Cambridge History of 20th Century Political Thought. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

  • 5

    COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 6

    Freeden, M. (1996) Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach. Oxford, Oxford University Press

  • 7

    Hegel, G. W. F. (1971) A jogfilozófia alapvonalai. Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó

  • 8

    Hobbes, T. (1999) Leviatán, vagy az egyházi és világi állam anyaga, formája és hatalma. Ford. Vámosi Pál, Budapest, Kossuth Kiadó

  • 9

    Horkay Hörcher, F. (2012) Hume és az ízlésesztétika brit paradigmája. Magyar Filozófiai Szemle, Vol. 56. No. 1. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 10

    Hörcher, F. (2002) The question of the limitation of the state by the law: a comparison of Kelsen’s and Hayek’s approach. Rehtstheorie, No. 2–4.

  • 11

    Hörcher, F. (2019) Government as a British Conservative Understands It: Comments on Oakeshott’s Views on Government. In: Kos, E. S. (szerk.) Michael Oakeshott on Authority, Governance, and the State. London, Palgrave Macmillan

  • 12

    Hörcher, F. (2021) The Political Philosophy of the European City. From Polis through City-State, to Megalopolis? Lexington Books, Lanham (MD), Amerikai Egyesült Államok: Rowman and Littlefield

  • 13

    Hume, D. (I. 1992, II. 1994) Arról, hogy lehetséges-e a politikai tudomány. In: David Hume összes esszéi. Budapest, Atlantisz

  • 14

    Hume, D. (2006) Értekezés az emberi természetről. Ford. Bence György. Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó

  • 15

    Judd, D., Vazquez, M. & O’Sullivan, D. (2021) Biden says platforms like Facebook are ‘killing people’ with Covid misinformation. CNN, Updated 2158 GMT (0558 HKT) July 17, 2021. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 16

    Klein, B., Vazquez, M. & Collins, K. (2021) Biden backs away from his claim that Facebook is ‘killing people’ by allowing Covid misinformation. CNN, Updated 0031 GMT (0831 HKT) July 20, 2021. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 17

    La Fonta, T. (2020) The COVID-19 crisis and the come-back of the nation-state in Europe, RPP Group. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 18

    Machiavelli, N. (2015) A fejedelem. Ford., jegyz. Lutter Éva. Budapest, Helikon Kiadó

  • 19

    Manent, P. (2020a) «Il y a longtemps que nous sommes sortis à bas bruit du régime démocratique et libéral»

  • 20 [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 21

    Manent, P. (2020b) Time to Wake Up! First Things. [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 22

    Miller, F. (2017) Aristotle’s Political Theory. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) [letöltve: 2021. július]

  • 23

    Pethő, S. (2007) Arcana Imperii. A sacrum és a politicum kapcsolatának történetéhez. Budapest, Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem Hittudományi Kara

  • 24

    Skinner, Q. (2009) A Genealogy of the Modern State. British Academy Lecture, Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. 162, 2008 Lectures

  • 25

    Weber, M. (1987, 1996) Gazdaság és társadalom 1., 2/3. Budapest, KJK

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