Author:
Zoltán Hajdú Közgazdaság- és Regionális Tudományi Kutatóközpont Regionális Kutatások Intézete, Dunántúli Tudományos Osztály Pécs, Magyarország; Research Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Institute of Regional Studies Pécs, Hungary

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Összefoglaló. Az elmúlt mintegy másfél év alatt a COVID–19 vírus valójában több struktúrában megrengette a világot, az Európai Uniót és egyes országokat is. A világ államai rövid idő alatt bezárkóztak, az Európai Unió 30 napra lezárta külső határait, az egyes tagállamok pedig az uniós belső határokat is lezárták. Veszélybe került a schengeni rendszer. A Kárpát-medence államai az elsők között reagáltak a határok lezárásával. Az egyéni döntések kritikája erőteljesen megjelent az Európai Bizottság részéről. A globális, az európai és a szomszédállami folyamatok összefüggtek. A határok lezárása feltehetően hozzájárult a vírus terjedésének a korlátozásához. (Ausztrália példája ezt erősíti.) A határzárak a nemzetközi tranzitforgalomban, a határ menti területeken élők és az ingázók között okozták a legnagyobb bizonytalanságot, több esetben zűrzavart.

Summary. According to the first ‘official announcement’ in December of 2019 the Covid-19 virus is reported to have emerged in China. The global spread of the virus was extremely fast. On 11 March 2020, the WHO declared Covid-19 to be a global pandemic. As of 31 March 2020 about 91% of the world population lived in countries with border and travel restrictions (border-closed world). The brief analysis reviews the main processes affecting EU and Member States borders, with a special regard to Hungary and its neighbours in the Carpathian Basin. On 17 March 2020, the EU closed its external borders for 30 days.to non-EU citizens. In parallel, a number of Member States decided to close their borders to both Schengen Zone members and third countries. As a response to border closures, the EU Commission and some states organized the repatriation of about 600,000 EU citizens. On 4 March, virus was officially reported to have been detected in Hungary. On 11 March the Hungarian Government declared a national state of emergency. On 15 March the first coronavirus-related death was announced. On 16 March the Government ordered the complete closure of Hungarian borders. After a border ‘traffic chaos’ along the Austrian-Hungarian border, the Hungarian Government – with collaborations with Romania – opened humanitarian corridors for foreign citizens. The possibilities of border crossings of citizens of seven neighbours of Hungary were formed not just by Hungary. In 2020 because of different changes (modifications, opening and closing) we could form at least three categories: open borders, partly open borders, closed borders. In the neighbouring countries (Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) the progression of the epidemic followed the same pattern. Over the past year and a half the virus crisis has actually shaken many structures of the globalized world, the European Union and many countries in the Carpathian Basin. The virus crises has disrupted intensive connections between Hungary and neighbouring countries. Neither Hungary nor its neighbours were able to insulate themselves from the epidemic waves. The border restrictions primarily affected the movements of persons. Because of ‘permanent uncertainty’ commuters were the losers of the crisis.

  • 1

    Balassa E., Bálint K., Farkas-Kordonec G., Gabri, R. & Gubik L. (2020) A Kárpát-medencei országok koronavírus elleni védekezést szolgáló intézkedéseinek összehasonlító tanulmánya. Budapest, Nemzetstratégiai Kutatóintézet

  • 2

    Euronews. The travel restrictions in place in every country in Europe. https://www.euronews.com/travel

  • 3

    European Commission 2020: The effect of COVID-19 induced border closures on cross-border regions. An empirical report covering the period March to June 2020. Publication office of European Union, MOT

  • 4

    Hajdú Z. & Rácz Sz. (2020) Államhatár politikák az Európai Unióban és Magyarországon a globális koronavírus-válság kezdeti időszakában. Tér és Társadalom, Vol. 34. No. 2. pp. 202–210.

  • 5

    Ikotun, O., Akhigbe, A. & Okunade, S. (2021) Sustainability of Borders in a Post-Covid-19 World. South African Journal of Political Studies, Vol. 48. No. 2. pp. 297–311.

  • 6

    Országgyűlés Hivatala (2020) Az új koronavírus járvány kapcsán hozott járványügyi intézkedések az Európai Unió egyes országaiban. Budapest, Képviselői Információs Szolgálat

  • 7

    Schimmelfennig, F. (2021) Rebordering Europe: external boundaries and integration in the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 28. No. 3. pp. 311–330.

  • 8

    Skorka T. (2020) Rendőrség a koronavírus ellen. Magyar Rendészet, 2020. No. 4. pp. 173–192.

  • 9

    Uzzoli A., Kovács S., Páger B. & Szabó T. (2021) A hazai COVID-járványhullámok területi különbségei. Területi Statisztika, Vol. 61. No. 3. pp. 291–319.

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