Authors:
András Makó Department of Soil Physics and Water Management, Institute for Soil Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Research Budapest Hungary; ELKH ATK TAKI Talajfizikai és Vízgazdálkodási Osztály Budapest Magyarország
Department of Environmental Sustainability (Georgikon Campus), Institute of Environmental Sciences, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences Keszthely Hungary; MATE KÖTI Környezeti Fenntarthatósági Tanszék Keszthely Magyarország

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Magdalena Ryżak Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Lublin Poland; Lengyel Tudományos Akadémia Agrofizikai Kutatóintézet Lublin Lengyelország

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Gyöngyi Barna Department of Soil Physics and Water Management, Institute for Soil Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Research Budapest Hungary; ELKH ATK TAKI Talajfizikai és Vízgazdálkodási Osztály Budapest Magyarország

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Cezary Polakowski Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Lublin Poland; Lengyel Tudományos Akadémia Agrofizikai Kutatóintézet Lublin Lengyelország

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Kálmán Rajkai Department of Soil Physics and Water Management, Institute for Soil Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Research Budapest Hungary; ELKH ATK TAKI Talajfizikai és Vízgazdálkodási Osztály Budapest Magyarország

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Zsófia Bakacsi Department of Soil Physics and Water Management, Institute for Soil Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Research Budapest Hungary; ELKH ATK TAKI Talajfizikai és Vízgazdálkodási Osztály Budapest Magyarország

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Hilda Hernádi Department of Environmental Sustainability (Georgikon Campus), Institute of Environmental Sciences, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences Keszthely Hungary; MATE KÖTI Környezeti Fenntarthatósági Tanszék Keszthely Magyarország

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Michał Beczek Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Lublin Poland; Lengyel Tudományos Akadémia Agrofizikai Kutatóintézet Lublin Lengyelország

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Agata Sochan Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Lublin Poland; Lengyel Tudományos Akadémia Agrofizikai Kutatóintézet Lublin Lengyelország

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Rafał Mazur Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Lublin Poland; Lengyel Tudományos Akadémia Agrofizikai Kutatóintézet Lublin Lengyelország

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Mihály Kocsis Department of Environmental Sustainability (Georgikon Campus), Institute of Environmental Sciences, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences Keszthely Hungary; MATE KÖTI Környezeti Fenntarthatósági Tanszék Keszthely Magyarország

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Andrzej Bieganowski Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Lublin Poland; Lengyel Tudományos Akadémia Agrofizikai Kutatóintézet Lublin Lengyelország

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Summary. In this study, we presented the experience of two high-speed laser diffractometry methods for measuring particle size distribution (PSD) and microaggregate stability (MiAS%) of soils, which parameters have a significant influence on the soil water management properties. PSD results obtained with sieve-pipette and laser diffractometry method were compared on a continental (LUCAS), a national (HunSSD) and a regional (TOKAJ) database. We found significant differences between the results of the two methods at all three scales. When the clay/silt boundary was modified to 7 µm for the LDM, significantly better results were obtained. The LDM was also suitable for the determination of the MiAS% of soils, which was influenced mainly by organic matter, pH and exchangeable Na+ content of soils.

Összefoglalás. Tanulmányunkban a lézerdiffraktométerrel végzett talajfizikai mérések tapasztalatait és alkalmazási lehetőségeit vizsgáltuk a vízgazdálkodási kutatásokban. A talajok mechanikai összetétele, azaz az elemi talajrészecskék méret szerinti százalékos eloszlása, az egyik legfontosabb talajfizikai paraméter, mely számos egyéb tulajdonságot, így a talajok szerkezetét, vízgazdálkodását befolyásolja. Meghatározása több módon történhet: pl. a hagyományos szitás-pipettás ülepítéses módszerrel (SZPM), vagy az egyik legmodernebbnek számító lézerdiffraktométeres (LDM) eljárással. Kutatásunk során e kétféle módszerrel kapott mechanikai összetétel eredményeket három nagyobb adatbázison hasonlítottuk össze: egy kontinentális (LUCAS), egy hazai (HunSSD) és egy regionális (TOKAJ) adatállományon. Azt tapasztaltuk mindhárom adatbázis esetében, hogy a lézerdiffrakciós vizsgálatok az agyagtartalmat alulbecslik a pipettás módszerrel kapott eredményekhez képest, míg a portartalmat felülbecslik (az adatsorok eltérését jellemző RMSE értékek az agyagfrakciókra: 16,30; 19,29 és 24,97; a porfrakciókra: 15,68; 19,82 és 26,95. A homoktartalmak közt lényegesen kisebb eltéréseket tapasztaltunk (RMSE: 7,26; 9,25 és 5,25 a három adatbázis esetében). Ha azonban az LDM vizsgálati eredményeknél módosítottuk az agyag és a por frakció mérethatárát 2 µm-ről 7 µm-re, szignifikánsan jobb eredményeket kaptunk az összehasonlítás során mind az agyagtartalom (RMSE: 8,99; 6,77 és 6,54), mind a portartalom esetében (RMSE: 8,87; 7,46 és 5,74). A különböző módszerekkel mért és számított PSD eredményeket textúra háromszög diagramokon is ábrázoltunk.

A lézerdiffrakciós eljárás alkalmas a talajok mikroaggregátum stabilitásának (MiAS%) meghatározására is, melyet a HunSSD hazai adatbázis talajain mutattunk be. Megállapítottuk, hogy erős, szignifikánsan pozitív kapcsolat van a MiAS% és a talaj szervesanyag-tartalma között; és erős, szignifikánsan negatív kapcsolat a mikroaggregátumok stabilitása és a pH, a mésztartalom, a sótartalom és a kicserélhető nátriumtartalom között.

A tanulmányban vizsgált talajfizikai tulajdonságok szorosan összefüggnek a talajok vízgazdálkodási tulajdonságaival. A talajok vízgazdálkodási tulajdonságait jellemző hidrofizikai paraméterek (víztartó képesség, vízvezető képesség) becslése általában a mechanikai összetétel adatok felhasználásával történik. A becslési módszerek (pedotranszfer függvények) pontosítására egyre gyakrabban figyelembe veszik a talaj szerkezeti tulajdonságait is. Amennyiben gyorsan és megbízhatóan tudjuk mérni a talajok mechanikai összetételét és aggregátum-stabilitását lézerdiffrakciós módszerekkel, akkor a hidrofizikai tulajdonságok becsléséhez szükséges input adatokat is gyorsan, nagyobb számban tudjuk előállítani, így a talajok vízgazdálkodását is több minta alapján, nagyobb részletességgel, megbízhatóbban tudjuk jellemezni.

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Editor-in-Chief:

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  • Tamás NÉMETH

Managing Editor:

  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior, Budapest, Hungary)

Editorial Board:

  • Attila ASZÓDI (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán BIRKNER (University of Pannonia)
  • Valéria CSÉPE (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Brain Imaging Centre)
  • Gergely DELI (University of Public Service)
  • Tamás DEZSŐ (Migration Research Institute)
  • Imre DOBÁK (University of Public Service)
  • Marcell Gyula GÁSPÁR (University of Miskolc)
  • József HALLER (University of Public Service)
  • Charaf HASSAN (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán GYŐRI (Hungaricum Committee)
  • János JÓZSA (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • András KOLTAY (National Media and Infocommunications Authority)
  • Gábor KOVÁCS (University of Public Service)
  • Levente KOVÁCS buda University)
  • Melinda KOVÁCS (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós MARÓTH (Avicenna Institue of Middle Eastern Studies )
  • Judit MÓGOR (Ministry of Interior National Directorate General for Disaster Management)
  • József PALLO (University of Public Service)
  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior)
  • Péter SZABÓ (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós SZÓCSKA (Semmelweis University)

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Scientia et Securitas
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