Author:
Krisztina Karsai Szegedi Tudományegyetem Szeged Magyarország; University of Szeged Szeged Hungary

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Összefoglalás. A bűnügyi együttműködés joga jelentős fejlődésen ment keresztül az uniós tagállamok egymás közötti viszonyaiban az integráció utóbbi 25 évében. Legfőbb jellemzője e fejlődésnek az együttműködési formák „eljogiasodása” és formalizálása, valamint genuin, új uniós jogintézmények megszületése, amely a tagállamok kölcsönös bizalmán alapul. A közel-keleti országokkal való együttműködés szükségessége egyre nyilvánvalóbb, azonban az ezekre a viszonyokra vonatkozó jogszabályi háttér nem létezik, vagy legfeljebb minimális, ami az egyén – akit érinthet az államok közötti bűnügyi együttműködési eljárás – számára e lehető legnagyobb biztonsági kockázatot hordozza. A tanulmány feltérképezi azokat a hatásokat, amelyek az uniós fejlődésből a harmadik államokkal való együttműködésre vonatkoznak (extraterritoriális hatások), és kimutatja, hogy az uniós jog többletkövetelményeket támaszt a tagállamok felé még ilyen, az uniós jog hatálya alá (látszólag) nem tartozó kérdésekben. Kitér a munka arra is, hogy az Európa Tanács jogfejlesztő tevékenységének hol van a helye ezen a spektrumon, valamint arra is, hogy az ENSZ bűnözéskontroll egyezményei miként játszhatnak szerepet a jelen témakörben.

Summary. For centuries, the issue of judicial cooperation has been part of the foreign policy of the state as a means of promoting the political interests of the rulers (governments) and its actual judicial or legal content could not be identified. Cooperation between law enforcement and judicial authorities of different countries is therefore the oldest form of action against internationally ‘mobile’ offenders or crimes of transnational nature. The original aim was to prevent the perpetrator from escaping prosecution, and cooperation was therefore exercised against the interests of the person concerned. It was only in the second half of the 20th century that academia recognised that a person involved in extradition proceedings (and any other form of international criminal cooperation) may have individual rights and interests that are separate from those of the state. Thus, the individual (accused, victim, witness) emerges as a third actor in the context of cooperation between two states – based on international law and sovereignty – and, especially with the firm establishment of human rights protection regimes, also takes a place in these proceedings. Thus, international cooperation now involves three interests: the State requesting assistance, the State providing assistance and the person concerned. The law on cooperation in criminal matters has evolved considerably in the EU Member States’ relations with each other over the last 25 years of integration and pursues new paths that are completely divorced from traditional thinking as described above. The main feature of this development is the ‘juridification’ and formalisation of forms of cooperation and the emergence of genuine new EU legal institutions based on mutual trust between Member States. The need for cooperation with the countries of the Middle East and North Africa is becoming increasingly apparent, but the legal framework for these relations is non-existent or minimal at best, which poses the greatest possible security risk for the individual who may be affected by the inter-state cooperation procedures in criminal matters. The study explores the implications of EU developments for cooperation with third states (extraterritorial effects) and shows that EU law imposes additional requirements on Member States even in such matters as they can be covered by EU law. Accordingly, the inter-state horizontal impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, the extraterritorial impact of EU crime control instruments and the explicit agreements on criminal cooperation are briefly discussed. The work also discusses the place of the Council of Europe’s law development activities in this spectrum: the European human rights protection, in particular with regard to extradition, entails additional requirements that Member States must comply with even when cooperating with a state outside the Council of Europe. Furthermore the role of the UN conventions on crime control is addressed by the study briefly.

  • 1

    Böse, M. (2019) International Law and Treaty Obligations, Mutual Legal Assistance, and EU Instruments. In: Brown, D. K., Turner, J. I. & Weisser, B. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Process, Oxford, pp. 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190659837.013.34

  • 2

    Cremona, M., Monar, J. & Poli, S. (eds) (2011) The External Dimension of the European Union’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice. College of Europe Studies 13, Brussels, P.I.E. Peter Lang

  • 3

    Del Sarto, R. A. (2016) Normative empire Europe: The European Union, its borderlands, and the ‘Arab Spring’. Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 54. No. 2. pp. 215–232.

  • 4

    Eckes, Ch. (2013) Area of Freedom Security and Justice: How the Outside Shapes the Inside. In: Arcarazo, D. A. & Murphy, C. C. (eds) EU Security and Justice Law: After Lisbon and Stockholm. Hart, pp. 1–22. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2342508.

  • 5

    van Hoek, A. A. H. & Luchtman, M. (2005) Transnational cooperation in criminal matters and safeguarding human rights. Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 1. No. 2. pp. 1–39.

  • 6

    Ibrahim, M. A. & Siam, K. S. (2005) An overview of the Arab guiding law on international cooperation in criminal matters. Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal, Vol. 76. No. 1. pp. 103–117.

  • 7

    Juhász K. (2012) Az Európai Unió külpolitikájára vonatkozó elméletek. Politikatudományi Szemle, Vol. 21. No. 1. pp. 58–77.

  • 8

    Karsai K. (2004) Az európai büntetőjogi integráció alapkérdései. KJK-KERSZÖV Jogi és Üzleti Kiadó Kft.

  • 9

    Karsai K. (2015) Alapelvi (r)evolúció az európai büntetőjogban. Iurisperitus Kiadó, Szeged

  • 10

    Karsai K. (2018) A kívülmaradás lehetetlensége – az Európai Ügyészség működésének várható hatásai a kimaradó tagállamokban. Magyar Jog, Vol. 65. No. 12. pp. 670–678.

  • 11

    Karsai K. (2019) Nemzetközi együttműködés a büntetőjog területén. In: Fejes Zs. & Szalai A. (eds) Államközi kapcsolatok. Jurisperitus, Szeged, pp. 227–238.

  • 12

    Karsai K. (2021) Az Európai Ügyészség és Magyarország. Kihívás vagy elszalasztott lehetőség? Transparency International, Budapest

  • 13

    Ligeti K. & Karsai K. (2008) Magyar alkotmányosság a bűnügyi jogsegélyjog útvesztőjében. Magyar Jog, Vol. 55. No. 6. pp. 399–408.

  • 14

    Luchtman, M (2020) Transnational Law Enforcement Cooperation – Fundamental Rights in European Cooperation in Criminal Matters. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol. 28. No. 1. pp. 14–45.

  • 15

    Manners, I. (2002) Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms? Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 40. No. 2. pp. 235–258.

  • 16

    M. Nyitrai P. (2006) Nemzetközi és európai büntetőjog. Osiris, Budapest

  • 17

    Polt P. (2019) A költségvetés büntetőjogi védelmének egyes elméleti és gyakorlati kérdései. Hazai gyakorlat és uniós mechanizmusok. Dialóg Campus, Budapest

  • 18

    Vermeulen, G., De Bondt, W. & Ryckman C. (eds) (2012) Rethinking international cooperation in criminal matters in the EU. Moving beyond actors, bringing logic back, footed in reality. Antwerpen–Apeldoorn–Portland, Maklu

  • 19

    Wahl, Th. (2020) CJEU Maintains Petruhhin Doctrine: Extradition of EU Citizens to Third States Only in Agreement with Member State of Nationality. eucrim, Vol. 2020. No. 4. pp. 255–300.

  • 20

    Wahl, Th. (2021) CJEU Judgment on Compatibility of Interpol Searches and Arrests with Ne bis in idem Principle. 15 June 2021 https://eucrim.eu/news/cjeu-judgment-on-compatibility-of-interpol-searches-and-arrests-with-ne-bis-in-idem-principle/

  • 21

    Wolff, S. (2009) The Mediterranean Dimension of EU Counter‐terrorism. Journal of European Integration, Vol. 31. No. 1. pp. 137–156.

  • 22

    Wolff, S. (2012) The Mediterranean dimension of the European Union’s internal security. Palgrave Macmillan

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Editor-in-Chief:

  • Tamás NÉMETH 
    (Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research
    Budapest, Hungary)

Managing Editor:

  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior, Budapest, Hungary)

Editorial Board:

  • Valéria CSÉPE (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Brain Imaging Centre)
  • János JÓZSA (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Melinda KOVÁCS (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós MARÓTH (Eötvös Loránd Research Network)
  • Charaf HASSAN (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán GYŐRI (Hungaricum Committee)
  • József HALLER (University of Public Service)
  • Attila ASZÓDI (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán BIRKNER (National Research, Development and Innovation Office)
  • Tamás DEZSŐ (Migration Research Institute)
  • Imre DOBÁK (University of Public Service)
  • András KOLTAY (National Media and Infocommunications Authority)
  • Gábor KOVÁCS (University of Public Service)
  • József PALLO (University of Public Service)
  • Marcell Gyula GÁSPÁR (University of Miskolc)
  • Judit MÓGOR (Ministry of Interior National Directorate General for Disaster Management)
  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior)
  • Péter SZABÓ (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós SZÓCSKA (Semmelweis University)

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2020  
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Scientia et Securitas
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A COVID–19 patológiája.

Halálok SARS-CoV-2-fertőzésben: vírusfertőzésben vagy vírusfertőzéssel?

Authors:
Zsuzsa Schaff
,
Krisztina Danics
,
Adrián Pesti
,
Gábor Lotz
,
Tibor Várkonyi
,
Deján Dobi
,
István Vályi-Nagy
,
Klára Törő
,
Tibor Glasz
, and
András Kiss