Author:
Zoltán Szabó Terrorelhárítási Központ Budapest Magyarország; Counter Terrorism Centre Budapest Hungary

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Összefoglalás.

A tanulmány bemutatja, hogyan és miként változtak meg a nyugat- és észak-európai dzsihádista terrortámadások végrehajtási módjai az elmúlt években, és esettanulmányokon keresztül igyekszik rávilágítani az elkövetők általános jellemzőire.

Summary.

This paper aims to show how terrorist attacks in Western and Northern Europe have changed in recent years, especially in comparison to the attacks in Paris in November 2015 and Brussels in March 2016. Case studies of successful attacks in 2021 and 2022 highlight the general characteristics of the perpetrators. Several conclusions can be drawn through brief profiles of Ndiaga Dieye, Abdellah Gmara, Jamel Gorchene, Ali Harbi Ali, Abdalrahman A., Emad al-Swealmeen, Franck Elong Abé, Zaniar Matapour and Yassine Mahi.

On one hand, it can be established that these persons have either entered the territory of the European Union as irregular immigrants or have committed terrorist acts as second-generation nationals of their countries. It can also be said that in recent years only lone perpetrators have been able to carry out successful attacks, i.e. the above-mentioned persons have planned and carried out their acts entirely on their own, with at most only tangential links to an Islamist terrorist organisation.

The common feature of the perpetrators is that they are all young men, with an average age of 33. They all had some form of mental disorder. Most of them have chosen to use a stabbing weapon, but it can be seen that they may be seeking to acquire firearms or to make explosives at home. They generally attacked “soft” targets, i.e. civilians, as they were expected to put up much less resistance than “hard” targets, i.e. police or soldiers. Nevertheless, it can be observed that many of the terrorists presented also attacked police officers, which may illustrate, among other things, a dislike of the authorities or a desire to see such an act receive more press coverage.

At one point in their lives, the individuals profiled in this study were clearly radicalised, i.e. they adopted and embraced opinions and views that ultimately led them to commit an act of terrorism. While no clear pattern of radicalisation can be drawn from the case studies, it is possible to identify a significant role for both online and offline spaces. Some may have decided to turn to extremist Islamism solely on the basis of online sources, but others may have first encountered radical ideas in prison.

The role of time is also an important factor. The speed with which someone becomes radicalised and the time it takes for them to commit a terrorist act (if at all) is individual-specific.

Finally, it is important to note that the process of radicalisation can be triggered or even accelerated by a perceived or real grievance against Muslims.

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    France24 (2021) France hails ‘gentle’ policewoman stabbed in attack. https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20210529-france-hails-gentle-policewoman-stabbed-in-attack [Letöltve: 2023. 02. 13.]

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    France24 (2022) Belgium launches terror probe after policeman knifed to death.https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20221110-belgium-launches-terror-probe-after-policeman-knifed-to-death [Letöltve: 2023. 02. 13.]

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  • 20

    Hockaday, J. (2021) Knifeman ‘radicalised in prison’ stabs police officer and shoots two others.https://metro.co.uk/2021/05/29/knifeman-radicalised-in-prison-stabs-police-officer-and-shoots-two-others-14672488/ [Letöltve: 2023. 02. 13.]

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  • 25

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  • 26

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  • 27

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  • Zoltán BIRKNER (University of Pannonia)
  • Valéria CSÉPE (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Brain Imaging Centre)
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  • Imre DOBÁK (University of Public Service)
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  • József HALLER (University of Public Service)
  • Charaf HASSAN (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán GYŐRI (Hungaricum Committee)
  • János JÓZSA (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
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  • Gábor KOVÁCS (University of Public Service)
  • Levente KOVÁCS buda University)
  • Melinda KOVÁCS (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós MARÓTH (Avicenna Institue of Middle Eastern Studies )
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  • Miklós SZÓCSKA (Semmelweis University)

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