Author:
Dániel Rémai Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, Rendészettudományi Kar, Terrorelhárítási Tanszék Budapest Magyarország; National University of Public Service, Faculty of Law Enforcement, Counter Terrorism Department Budapest Hungary
Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, Hadtudományi Doktori Iskola Budapest Magyarország; National University of Public Service, Doctoral School of Military Science Budapest Hungary

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Összefoglalás.

Arra a kérdésre keressük a választ, hogy milyen hatása van a leendő külföldi terrorista harcosoknak és a visszatérőknek a társadalmi jelzőrendszerekre. A két területet a radikalizáció fogalma mentén kapcsoljuk össze. Bemutatjuk a társadalmi jelzőrendszerek tervezésének, kiépítésének és működtetésének gyakorlatát. Ezt követően megpróbálunk a releváns és aktuális szakirodalmi keret áttekintésével összefoglaló képet alkotni a visszatérő külföldi terrorista harcosokról, felfedve a jelenség mögött megbúvó kihívásokat és veszélyeket. A nemzetközi ajánlások áttekintésével választ keresünk a repatriáció és reintegráció legjobb gyakorlataira, amelyek alapján egyértelművé válik, hogy a jelzőrendszereknek jelentős szerepük lehet a vizsgált kihívás kezelésében. Azonban a hagyományos jelzőrendszerek helyett komplex társadalmi jelző-, deradikalizációs és reintegrációs rendszerekre van szükségünk.

Summary.

Radicalization awareness of social systems and returning foreign fighters have been key elements of security discourse on international and national level for the past two decades. Complexity of these topics offer many opportunities and challenges. This study attempts to combine this two aspects and examine their relationship. As the difficulty of definition-making poses a fundamental problem, we attempt to define radicalization, social awareness systems, foreign fighters and the latest related concepts.

The main question is: what effect do foreign terrorist fighters and returnees have on social awareness systems? Radicalization connects both. The study highlights the main stages of radicalization process searching for a pattern that could be useful in understanding radicalization and planning, building and operating social awareness systems. The basic task of social awareness systems is to detect violent extremism and intervene to stop the process. At the same time, they are suitable for the prevention and detection of recruitment, but for this they must cooperate closely with the national intelligence services and intervention units of the social services. As a closing thought, the study provides a summary of returning foreign terrorist fighters, and a review of international recommendations regarding best practice for reintegration and repatriation. Social awareness systems are never perfect, but they are able to provide an adequate response to challenges at many points, as well as they are suitable for dealing with the problem of returnees.

To prevent a wave of foreign fighters in the future the social awareness systems must be strengthened. The accuracy of finding vulnerable groups must be improved and the tools to protect them must be developed. In order to effectively deal with security challenges posed by returning foreign terrorist fighters, applying a multi-agency model could be the answer. Overall social awareness systems can play a significant role in dealing with the complex problem of returning foreign terrorist fighters. However, instead of traditional social awareness systems, we need complex social awareness, de-radicalization and reintegration systems.

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