Author:
István Csomós Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, Rendészettudományi Kar, Terrorelhárítási Tanszék Budapest Magyarország; National University of Public Service, Faculty of Law Enforcement, Department of Counter Terrorism Budapest Hungary

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Összefoglalás.

Jelen tanulmány célja áttekintést adni arról, hogy a pszichológiai szempontok milyen módon használhatók fel az erőszakos magatartás kockázatának felmérése során a terrorizmus elleni küzdelemben. Ezzel az elméleti vizsgálódással azt kívánom bemutatni, hogy a pszichológiának milyen szemlélete van az erőszakos cselekmények, a szélsőséges, radikális gondolkodásmód hátterének megismerésében. Számos felfogás létezik a terrorista magatartás okainak és személyiségjellemzőinek leírására, amelyek alapján megállapítható, hogy nem létezik az ún. terrorista személyiség. Nincsenek olyan tulajdonságok, amelyek alapján egyértelműen meg lehet állapítani a különbséget a terroristák és az átlagnépesség között, nem létezik egyetlen közös terrorista profil. Az erőszakos magatartás kockázati tényező megismeréséhez az előzetes felmérésnek éppen ezért kiemelt jelentősége van a terrorcselekmények megelőzése szempontjából.

Summary.

The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the ways in which psychological aspects can be used to assess the risk of violent behaviour in the fight against terrorism. Through this theoretical exploration, I aim to show how psychology can be used to understand the background of violent acts against the background of extremist, radical mindsets. There are several conceptions of the causes and personality traits of terrorist behaviour, which suggest that there is no such thing as a terrorist personality. There are no characteristics that can be used to clearly distinguish between terrorists and the general population, there is no single common terrorist profile. Understanding the risk factors for violent behaviour in advance is therefore of particular importance for the prevention of terrorist acts.

The different theoretical approaches to specific cases, at the individual level, do not always provide an explanation. However, without knowledge of the research on the subject it is more difficult to understand the motives that lead people to act cruelly towards others. There are many theories about the psychology of terrorism, but relatively few controlled ones, empirical studies. Terrorism was previously considered a pathological manifestation of psychological and behavioural deviance. Based on psychoanalytic concepts, the psychopathology of terrorism was thought to be rooted in unconscious motives from childhood. However, the psychological analysis is relevant to risk assessment because the terrorist can be very diverse in temperament, ideologies, thinking characteristics and cognitive abilities. Psychological aspects are an important part of the various risk analysis methods. In developing the use of specific methods, I believe it is important to ensure that they are effective in helping to prevent terrorist acts in practice. The ideas expressed in this study perhaps demonstrate that it is a very versatile method.

It is essential that, with the spread of the Internet and globalisation, more and more potential terrorists and radicalisers are coming to the attention of the intelligence and counter-intelligence services. Psychological aspects will continue to play an essential role in the development of risk analysis methods, given that the commission of a terrorist act is always the result of extreme human violence.

  • 1

    Blazsek P., & Wernigg R. (2015) Kockázatbecslés és kockázatkezelés a pszichiátriában. Oriold és Társai Kiadó

  • 2

    Borum, R. (2011) Radicalization into violent extremism: A review of social science theories. Journal of Strategic Security, Vol. 4. No. 4. pp. 7–36.

  • 3

    Borum, R. (2015) Assessing Risk for Terrorism Involvement. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, Vol. 2. No. 2. pp. 63–87. https://doi.org/10.1037/tam0000043

  • 4

    Clemmow, C., Schumann, S., Salman, L. N., & Gill, P. (2020) The Base Rate Study: Developing Base Rates for Risk Factors and Indicators for Engagement in Violent Extremism. Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 65. No. 3. pp. 865–881. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14282

  • 5

    Dean, G. (2014) Neurocognitive Risk Assessment for the Early Detection of Violent Extremists. SpringerBriefs in Criminology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06719-3_3

  • 6

    Horgan, J. (2005). The Psychology of Terrorism. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203496961

  • 7

    Meehl, P. E. (1954) Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence. University of Minnesota Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/11281-000

  • 8

    Monahan, J. (2011) The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism. Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series, 2011-34. University of Virginia

  • 9

    Persons, J. B. (2008) The Case Formulation Approach to Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. New York, Guilford Press

  • 10

    Sarma. K. M. (2017) Risk Assessment and the Prevention of Radicalization from Nonviolence Into Terrorism. American Psychologist, Vol. 72. No. 3. pp. 278–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000121

  • 11

    Schmid, A. P. (2013) Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review. (ICCT): The Hague Research Peper. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Studies, Vol. 4. No. 2. https://doi.org/10.19165/2013.1.02

  • 12

    Siegel, D. (2010) Mindsight: The New Science of Personal Transformation. Random House

  • 13

    Ward, J. (2010). The Student’s Guide to Cognitive Neuroscience (2nd Ed.). Hove, UK, Psychology Press.

  • 14

    Webster, C. D., Douglas, K. S., Eaves, D., & Hart, S. D. (1997) Assessing risk of violence to others. In: Webster, C. D. & Jackson, M. A. (eds) Impulsivity: Theory, assessment, and treatment. pp. 251–277. The Guilford Press

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