Botond Feledy Institute of Social Reflection Brussels Belgium; Társadalmi Reflexió Intézet Brüsszel Belgium

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Csaba Virág Nortal Cyber Resilience Center Tallinn Estonia; Nortal Cyber Resilience Center Tallinn Észtország

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Summary. The paper examines whether cyber volunteers are reshaping the modern conflicts. The case study serving as the proof-of-hypothesis for the paper is the Russian war against Ukraine. The hypothesis is that such groups will be part of future conflicts. We examine the conditions for group formation. We find that conditions will be present and such groups will become part of war and also of peacetime in the coming years. Hence, we advocate – de lege ferenda – that public policies and capabilities shall be adapted to this new reality accordingly, taking into account the capabilities, volatility and value-driven nature of these groups.

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    Accenture (2022) Global incident report: Threat actors divide along ideological lines over the Russia-Ukraine conflict on underground forums. Accenture Report, 14 March 2022. [Downloaded: 5 May 2022].

  • 2

    Acton, J. M. (2020) Cyber warfare & inadvertent escalation. Daedalus, Vol. 149. No. 2. pp. 133–149.

  • 3

    Anzaldua, G., & Keating, A. (2009) The Gloria Anzaldúa reader. Durham & London, Duke University Press.

  • 4

    Bernstein, M. (2005) Identity politics in annual review of sociology. Annual Reviews, Vol. 31. pp. 47–74.

  • 5

    Clark, E. (2012) Social media is our media. [Downloaded: 7 May 2022].

  • 6

    Clarke, A. (2022) Hacking the invasion: The cyber implications of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Thirdway Publication. (p. 3).

  • 7

    Cyber Group Tracker (2022) [Downloaded: 1 May 2022 ].

  • 8

    Demarest, C. (2022) NSA cyber boss seeks to discourage vigilante hacking against Russia. C4ISRNET, 5 May 2022. [Downloaded: 9 May 2022].

  • 9

    DDOS Secrets (2020) Category: Russia. (Last edited: 21 November 2021) [Downloaded: 5 May 2022].

  • 10

    FREE Cybersecurity & Humanitarian Services for the Ukraine War (Est. 24 Feb 2022) [Downloaded: 9 May 2022].

  • 11

    Habermas, J. (1962) Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit. Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft. Frankfurt a. M., Suhrkamp.

  • 12

    Klimburg, A. (2017) The darkening web: The war for cyberspace. New York , Penguing Press.

  • 13

    Lucas, G. (2017) Ethics and cyber warfare. The quest for responsible security in the age of digital warfare. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

  • 14

    Microsoft (2022) Microsoft’s special report on Ukraine, 27 April 2022. [Downloaded: 20 May 2022].

  • 15

    Reisman, G. (1961) The revolt against affluence: Galbraiths Neo-Feudalism. New York, The Objectivist, Inc.

  • 16

    Shore, J. (2022) Don’t underestimate Ukraine’s volunteer hackers. [Downloaded: 5 May 2022].

  • 17

    Sorell, T. (2015) Human rights and hacktivism: The cases of Wikileaks and Anonymous. Journal of Human Rights Practice, Vol. 7. No. 3. pp. 391–410.

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  • Tamás NÉMETH 
    (Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research
    Budapest, Hungary)

Managing Editor:

  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior, Budapest, Hungary)

Editorial Board:

  • Valéria CSÉPE (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Brain Imaging Centre)
  • János JÓZSA (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Melinda KOVÁCS (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós MARÓTH (Eötvös Loránd Research Network)
  • Charaf HASSAN (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán GYŐRI (Hungaricum Committee)
  • József HALLER (University of Public Service)
  • Attila ASZÓDI (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
  • Zoltán BIRKNER (National Research, Development and Innovation Office)
  • Tamás DEZSŐ (Migration Research Institute)
  • Imre DOBÁK (University of Public Service)
  • András KOLTAY (National Media and Infocommunications Authority)
  • Gábor KOVÁCS (University of Public Service)
  • József PALLO (University of Public Service)
  • Marcell Gyula GÁSPÁR (University of Miskolc)
  • Judit MÓGOR (Ministry of Interior National Directorate General for Disaster Management)
  • István SABJANICS (Ministry of Interior)
  • Péter SZABÓ (Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE))
  • Miklós SZÓCSKA (Semmelweis University)

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CrossRef Documents 13
CrossRef Cites 0
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Days from submission to acceptance 247
Days from acceptance to publication 229
Acceptance Rate 36%

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Scientia et Securitas
Language Hungarian
Size A4
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Founder Academic Council of Home Affairs and
Association of Hungarian PhD and DLA Candidates
H-2090 Remeteszőlős, Hungary, Nagykovácsi út 3.
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