Ádám Kerek Állatorvostudományi Egyetem, Gyógyszertani és Méregtani Tanszék Budapest Magyarország; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest Hungary

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Zoltán Nagy CEVA-Phlyaxia Zrt., Innovációs és Kutatás-fejlesztési Igazgatóság Budapest Magyarország; Innovation and Research and Development Directorate, CEVA-Phlyaxia Zrt. Budapest Hungary

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Ákos Jerzsele Állatorvostudományi Egyetem, Gyógyszertani és Méregtani Tanszék Budapest Magyarország; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest Hungary

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Napjaink kiemelkedő állat- és közegészségügyi problémája az antimikrobiális rezisztencia (AMR) kérdésköre. Az AMR terjedése szempontjából az egyik legnagyobb jelentőségű az Escherichia coli baktérium, amelynek plazmidon kódolt rezisztenciagénjei lehetőséget adnak a horizontális génátvitelre. A szerzők célul tűzték ki, hogy az AMR kevésbé vizsgált területeit térképezik fel. Egyrészt vakcinafejlesztés modellezéséhez kiválasztott törzseket, másrészt probiotikumkészítményeket vizsgáltak új generációs szekvenálással. Számos mobilis genetikai elemet, plazmidon és fágon kódolt gént sikerült azonosítani. Az eredmények rávilágítanak arra, hogy új vakcinák, valamint probiotikumok fejlesztéséhez érdemes a kiválasztott baktériumtörzsek rezisztenciagén szűrését elvégezni.


The spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public and animal health problem of our days, with the most conservative estimates suggesting that it could become the leading cause of death worldwide by 2050. The role of Escherichia coli is significant, as in many cases it creates the potential for horizontal gene transfer through antimicrobial resistance genes encoded as mobile genetic elements on plasmids. Authors have set out to map two less researched areas of potential involvement in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. One area is the investigation of potential vaccine candidate Escherichia coli isolates using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The other area is the investigation of commercialized probiotic products for farm and companion animals with NGS. Our results suggest that vaccine candidate strains may carry several mobile genetic elements encoded on plasmids or phages. Among these, there are genes clearly of public health importance (TEM-1, ampC, qnrS1, ugd) that may be responsible for the development of resistance to antibiotics classified as category B (3rd to 4th generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, colistin) by the AMEG (AntiMicrobial Expert Group); the presence of these genes as mobile genetic elements is of particular concern. The ampC gene is a gene responsible for beta-lactamase overproduction, whereas TEM-1 is an ESBL gene (extended spectrum beta lactamase), which has a significant role in public health mainly in nosocomial or multiresistant infections. In the case of probiotic products, those intended for farm animals are much better regulated, thereby mobile genetic elements were not found in our study. However, preparations intended for companion animals are not regulated at all, and we found resistance genes against aminoglycosides (APH(3’)-Ia) and tetracyclines (tetS) that might have public health significance as these were encoded on mobile genetic elements on plasmids. Our results suggest that it is strongly recommended to include a pre-screening step for antimicrobial resistance genes in bacterial vaccine development. As regards probiotics, preparations for companion animals should be subject to similar regulation as those for farm animals. It is in our common interest to prevent the further spread of antimicrobial resistance as widely as possible in the light of the One Health concept and to use and preserve antibiotics responsibly for future generations.

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