Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki Ökológiai Kutatóközpont, Ökológiai és Botanikai Intézet, Lendület Ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatás Kutatócsoport Vácrátót Magyarország; Lendület Ecosystem Services Research Group, Institute of Ecology and Botany, Centre for Ecological Research Vácrátót Hungary

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A növényi beporzást sok esetben segítik a beporzók, hozzájárulva a termés- és magképzéshez, szaporodáshoz. Ezzel a beporzók ökológiai és gazdasági értelemben is kiemelt fontosságú szerepet játszanak az emberek életében, környezeti, élelmezési, anyagi és egészségi biztonságuk vonatkozásában egyaránt. Az állati beporzás a zárvatermő virágos növények 87%-át érinti, ami a szárazföldi vegetációt alapjaiban meghatározza. Ebbe a körbe tartozik a termesztett növények háromnegyede is, így a mezőgazdasági termelésben játszott szerepük mind mennyiségi, mind minőségi értelemben kiemelkedő. Közvetlen kihatással vannak az emberi egészségre, létfontosságú vitaminok, ásványi anyagok biztosításával. A beporzók megőrzése, hanyatló trendjeik megállítása ezért az emberiség elemi érdeke, mind hazai, mind globális vonatkozásban.


Pollinators, including wild and managed bees, hoverflies, diurnal and nocturnal butterflies, wasps, bugs, other insects, birds and mammals play an important role in the reproduction, seed and fruit production of most dicotyledonous plant species, including three-quarters of the cultivated plants. Through their pollination as an ecosystem service their ecological and economical importance is enormous, and has a key role in human safety regarding food, health, finances and the environment. Animal pollination can be only partially or essentially needed by a plant species to reach its optimal fruit or seed quality and quantity. The pollinator related wild plants are important elements of the terrestrial ecosystems, providing our environment safety through elemental material circles. However, the foraging and nesting resources they need are limited in managed ecosystems, such as intensive agricultural or industrial landscapes. Pollinators contribute to the production of the majority of cultivated plants at a certain extent, including such economically important crops like sunflower, oilseed rape, apple, cherry, water melon, etc. Their direct contribution to global food production seems to be low, only 5-8%, but this share in human diet ensures such nutrients, vitamins and minerals that are essential for health development and life. Furthermore, besides the physical health, pollinators play a key role in mental health as well by the provision of diverse and flowering environment, enjoyed by any outdoor activities. Unfortunately, populations of many wild pollinator species decline worldwide and high proportion of honeybee colonies are lost from time to time in several regions. The main drivers behind these declines are habitat loss and change caused mainly by agricultural intensification and urbanisation, climate change, invasion, pests and pathogens and pesticide use. To halt these declines overwhelming strategies are needed at local, national, regional and global level. The EU Pollinator Strategy and the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets ambitious targets for pollinator conservation, initiating among others an EU level pollinator monitoring program, that is under test phase. These actions might have the chance to reverse the pollinator decline and maintain pollinators and pollination services, however, only in the case of real actions with joint effort of scientists, decision makers and the public.

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  • 2

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  • 3

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  • 4

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  • 5

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    Brosi, B. J., & Briggs, H. M. (2013) Single pollinator species losses reduce floral fidelity and plant reproductive function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110. No. 32. pp. 13044–13048.

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    European Commission (2018) EU Pollinators Initiative.

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  • 16

    Gallai, N., Salles, J.-M., Settele, J., & Vaissiere, B. E. (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics, Vol. 68. No. 3. pp. 810–821.

  • 17

    Garibaldi, L. A., Gomez Carella, D. S., Nabaes Jodar, D. N., Smith, M. R., Timberlake, T. P., & Myers, S. S. (2022) Exploring connections between pollinator health and human health. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol. 377. No. 1953. 20210158.

  • 18

    Garibaldi, L. A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Winfree, R., Aizen, M. A., Bommarco, R., Cunningham, S. A., … Klein, A. M. (2013) Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. Science, Vol. 339. pp. 1608–1611.

  • 19

    Garratt, M. P. D., Breeze, T. D., Jenner, N., Polce, C., Biesmeijer, J. C., & Potts, S. G. (2014) Avoiding a bad apple: insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 184. pp. 34–40.

  • 20

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  • 22

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  • 24

    Kleijn, D., Winfree, R., Bartomeus, I., Carvalheiro, L. G., Henry, M., Isaacs, R. … Potts, S. G. (2015) Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation. Nature Communications, Vol. 6. ANo. 7414.

  • 25

    Klein, A. M., Vaissiere, B., Cane, J. H., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Cunningham, S. A., Kremen, C., & Tscharntke, T. (2007) Importance of crop pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 274. No. 1608. pp. 303–313.

  • 26

    Kosior, A., Celary, W., Olejniczak, P., Fijal, J., Król, W., Solarz, W., & Plonka, P. (2007) The decline of the bumble bees and cuckoo bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini) of Western and Central Europe. Oryx, Vol. 41. No. 1. pp. 79–88.

  • 27

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A. (2019) Beporzók, beporzás, élelmiszertermelés – az IPBES első tematikus tanulmányának fő üzenetei. Természetvédelmi Közlemények, Vol. 25. pp. 142–156.

  • 28

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A., Belényesi M., Geng I., Kemencei Z., Kisné Fodor L., Lehoczki R. … Zajácz E. (2021) A pollináció, mint ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatás értékelése – az ökoszisztéma-állapottól a ténylegesen igénybe vett ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatás értékeléséig. A közösségi jelentőségű természeti értékek hosszú távú megőrzését és fejlesztését, valamint az EU biológiai sokféleség stratégia 2020 célkitűzéseinek hazai szintű megvalósítását megalapozó stratégiai vizsgálatok projekt Ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatások projektelem keretében készült tanulmány. Agrárminisztérium, Budapest.

  • 29

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A., Espíndola, A., Vanbergen, A. J., Settele, J., Kremen, C., & Dicks, L. V. (2017) Ecological intensification to mitigate impacts of conventional intensive land use on pollinators and pollination. Ecology Letters, Vol. 20. No. 5. pp. 673–689.

  • 30

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A., Szigeti V., Miholcsa Z., Sándor D., Soltész Z., Török E., & Fenesi A. (2022) Threats and benefits of invasive alien plant species on pollinators. Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 64. pp. 89–102.

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    Larson, B. M. H., Kevan, P. G., & Inouye, D. W. (2001) Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators. The Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 133. No. 4. pp. 439–465.

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    Michener, C. D. (2007) The Bees of the World. Second edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA

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