Author:
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki Ökológiai Kutatóközpont, Ökológiai és Botanikai Intézet, Lendület Ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatás Kutatócsoport Vácrátót Magyarország; Lendület Ecosystem Services Research Group, Institute of Ecology and Botany, Centre for Ecological Research Vácrátót Hungary

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Összefoglalás.

A növényi beporzást sok esetben segítik a beporzók, hozzájárulva a termés- és magképzéshez, szaporodáshoz. Ezzel a beporzók ökológiai és gazdasági értelemben is kiemelt fontosságú szerepet játszanak az emberek életében, környezeti, élelmezési, anyagi és egészségi biztonságuk vonatkozásában egyaránt. Az állati beporzás a zárvatermő virágos növények 87%-át érinti, ami a szárazföldi vegetációt alapjaiban meghatározza. Ebbe a körbe tartozik a termesztett növények háromnegyede is, így a mezőgazdasági termelésben játszott szerepük mind mennyiségi, mind minőségi értelemben kiemelkedő. Közvetlen kihatással vannak az emberi egészségre, létfontosságú vitaminok, ásványi anyagok biztosításával. A beporzók megőrzése, hanyatló trendjeik megállítása ezért az emberiség elemi érdeke, mind hazai, mind globális vonatkozásban.

Summary.

Pollinators, including wild and managed bees, hoverflies, diurnal and nocturnal butterflies, wasps, bugs, other insects, birds and mammals play an important role in the reproduction, seed and fruit production of most dicotyledonous plant species, including three-quarters of the cultivated plants. Through their pollination as an ecosystem service their ecological and economical importance is enormous, and has a key role in human safety regarding food, health, finances and the environment. Animal pollination can be only partially or essentially needed by a plant species to reach its optimal fruit or seed quality and quantity. The pollinator related wild plants are important elements of the terrestrial ecosystems, providing our environment safety through elemental material circles. However, the foraging and nesting resources they need are limited in managed ecosystems, such as intensive agricultural or industrial landscapes. Pollinators contribute to the production of the majority of cultivated plants at a certain extent, including such economically important crops like sunflower, oilseed rape, apple, cherry, water melon, etc. Their direct contribution to global food production seems to be low, only 5-8%, but this share in human diet ensures such nutrients, vitamins and minerals that are essential for health development and life. Furthermore, besides the physical health, pollinators play a key role in mental health as well by the provision of diverse and flowering environment, enjoyed by any outdoor activities. Unfortunately, populations of many wild pollinator species decline worldwide and high proportion of honeybee colonies are lost from time to time in several regions. The main drivers behind these declines are habitat loss and change caused mainly by agricultural intensification and urbanisation, climate change, invasion, pests and pathogens and pesticide use. To halt these declines overwhelming strategies are needed at local, national, regional and global level. The EU Pollinator Strategy and the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets ambitious targets for pollinator conservation, initiating among others an EU level pollinator monitoring program, that is under test phase. These actions might have the chance to reverse the pollinator decline and maintain pollinators and pollination services, however, only in the case of real actions with joint effort of scientists, decision makers and the public.

  • 1

    Aizen, M. A., Garibaldi, L. A., Cunningham, S. A., & Klein, A. M. (2009) How much does agriculture depend on pollinators? Lessons from long-term trends in crop production. Annals of Botany, Vol. 103. No. 9. pp. 1579–1588. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp076

  • 2

    Aizen, M. A., & Harder, L. D. (2009) The global stock of domesticated honey bees is growing slower than agricultural demand for pollination. Current Biology, Vol. 19. No. 11. pp. 915–918. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.03.071

  • 3

    Bommarco, R., Marini, L., & Vaissière, B. E. (2012) Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape. Oecologia, Vol. 169. 1025–1032. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2271-6

  • 4

    Brittain, C., Kremen, C., Garber, A., & Klein, A. M. (2014) Pollination and plant resources change the nutritional quality of almonds for human health. PLoS ONE, Vol. 9. e90082. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090082

  • 5

    Brittain, C., Kremen, C., & Klein, A. M. (2013) Biodiversity buffers pollination from changes in environmental conditions. Global Change Biology, Vol. 19. No. 2. 540–547. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12043

  • 6

    Brosi, B. J., & Briggs, H. M. (2013) Single pollinator species losses reduce floral fidelity and plant reproductive function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110. No. 32. pp. 13044–13048. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1307438110

  • 7

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  • 8

    Chaplin-Kramer, R., Dombeck, E., Gerber, J., Knuth, K. A., Mueller, N. D., Mueller, M. … Klein, A. M. (2014) Global malnutrition overlaps with pollinator dependent micronutrient production. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 281. No. 1794. p. 20141799. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1799

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    Dunford, C., Cooper, R., Molan, P., & White, R. (2000) The use of honey in wound management. Nursing Standard, Vol. 15. No. 11. pp. 63–68. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2000.11.15.11.63.c2952

  • 10

    Easton-Calabria, A., Demary, K. C., & Oner, N. J. (2019) Beyond pollination: honey bees (Apis mellifera) as zootherapy keystone species. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6. pp. 161. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2018.00161

  • 11

    Eilers, E. J., Kremen, C., Greenleaf, S., Garber, A. K., & Klein, A. M. (2011) Contribution of pollinator-mediated crops to nutrients in the human food supply. PLoS ONE, Vol. 6. No. 6. pp. e21363. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021363

  • 12

    Ekor, M. (2014) The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 4. pp. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2013.00177

  • 13

    Erler, S., & Moritz, R. F. A. (2016) Pharmacophagy and pharmacophory: mechanisms of self-medication and disease prevention in the honeybee colony (Apis mellifera). Apidologie, Vol. 47. pp. 389–411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-015-0400-z

  • 14

    European Commission (2018) EU Pollinators Initiative. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/species/pollinators/policy_en.htm

  • 15

    Fairey, D. T., Griffith, S. M., Clifford, P. T. P., & Hampton, J. G. (1998) Pollination, fertilization and pollinating mechanisms in grasses and legumes. In: Fairey, D. T., & Hampton, J. G. (eds) Forage seed production, Volume 1: Temperate species. CAB International. Wallingford, UK, pp. 153–179.

  • 16

    Gallai, N., Salles, J.-M., Settele, J., & Vaissiere, B. E. (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics, Vol. 68. No. 3. pp. 810–821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.06.014

  • 17

    Garibaldi, L. A., Gomez Carella, D. S., Nabaes Jodar, D. N., Smith, M. R., Timberlake, T. P., & Myers, S. S. (2022) Exploring connections between pollinator health and human health. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol. 377. No. 1953. 20210158. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2021.0158

  • 18

    Garibaldi, L. A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Winfree, R., Aizen, M. A., Bommarco, R., Cunningham, S. A., … Klein, A. M. (2013) Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. Science, Vol. 339. pp. 1608–1611. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1230200

  • 19

    Garratt, M. P. D., Breeze, T. D., Jenner, N., Polce, C., Biesmeijer, J. C., & Potts, S. G. (2014) Avoiding a bad apple: insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 184. pp. 34–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.10.032

  • 20

    IPBES (2016) The assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on pollinators, pollination and food production. S. G. Potts, V. L. Imperatriz-Fonseca, & H. T. Ngo (eds) Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany, p. 552.

  • 21

    Joy, P. P., T. J., Mathew, S., & Skaria, B. P. (2001) Medicinal Plants. In: Bose, T. K., Kabir, J., Das, P., & Joy, P. P. (eds) Tropical Horticulture. Naya Prakash, Calcutta. pp. 449–632.

  • 22

    Kennedy, C. M., Lonsdorf, E., Neel, M. C., Williams, N. M., Ricketts, T. H., Winfree, R. … Kremen, C. (2013) A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology Letters, Vol. 16. No. 5. pp. 584–599. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12082

  • 23

    Kevan, P. G., & Baker, H. G. (1983) Insects as Flower Visitors and Pollinators. Annual Review of Entomology, Vol. 28. pp. 407–453.

  • 24

    Kleijn, D., Winfree, R., Bartomeus, I., Carvalheiro, L. G., Henry, M., Isaacs, R. … Potts, S. G. (2015) Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation. Nature Communications, Vol. 6. ANo. 7414. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8414

  • 25

    Klein, A. M., Vaissiere, B., Cane, J. H., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Cunningham, S. A., Kremen, C., & Tscharntke, T. (2007) Importance of crop pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 274. No. 1608. pp. 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3721

  • 26

    Kosior, A., Celary, W., Olejniczak, P., Fijal, J., Król, W., Solarz, W., & Plonka, P. (2007) The decline of the bumble bees and cuckoo bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini) of Western and Central Europe. Oryx, Vol. 41. No. 1. pp. 79–88. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307001597

  • 27

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A. (2019) Beporzók, beporzás, élelmiszertermelés – az IPBES első tematikus tanulmányának fő üzenetei. Természetvédelmi Közlemények, Vol. 25. pp. 142–156. https://doi.org/10.20332/tvk-jnatconserv.2019.25.142

  • 28

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A., Belényesi M., Geng I., Kemencei Z., Kisné Fodor L., Lehoczki R. … Zajácz E. (2021) A pollináció, mint ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatás értékelése – az ökoszisztéma-állapottól a ténylegesen igénybe vett ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatás értékeléséig. A közösségi jelentőségű természeti értékek hosszú távú megőrzését és fejlesztését, valamint az EU biológiai sokféleség stratégia 2020 célkitűzéseinek hazai szintű megvalósítását megalapozó stratégiai vizsgálatok projekt Ökoszisztéma-szolgáltatások projektelem keretében készült tanulmány. Agrárminisztérium, Budapest. https://doi.org/10.34811/osz.pollinacio.tanulmany

  • 29

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A., Espíndola, A., Vanbergen, A. J., Settele, J., Kremen, C., & Dicks, L. V. (2017) Ecological intensification to mitigate impacts of conventional intensive land use on pollinators and pollination. Ecology Letters, Vol. 20. No. 5. pp. 673–689. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12762

  • 30

    Kovács-Hostyánszki A., Szigeti V., Miholcsa Z., Sándor D., Soltész Z., Török E., & Fenesi A. (2022) Threats and benefits of invasive alien plant species on pollinators. Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 64. pp. 89–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2022.07.003

  • 31

    KSH (2019) A magyar mezőgazdaság és élelmiszeripar számokban, 2018. Szerz.: Aratóné Drotár, Zs., Bakota, B., Felkai, B. O., Keszthelyi, Sz., Páll. Zs. Nemzeti Agrárgazdasági Kamara

  • 32

    Larson, B. M. H., Kevan, P. G., & Inouye, D. W. (2001) Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators. The Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 133. No. 4. pp. 439–465. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent133439-4

  • 33

    Michener, C. D. (2007) The Bees of the World. Second edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA

  • 34

    Mihók B., Fekete M., Frankó L., Martos T., Pataki Gy., Sallay V., & Báldi A. (2021) Természet és lelki egészség. ELKH Ökológiai Kutatóközpont, Vácrátót–Budapest

  • 35

    Nieto, A., Roberts, S. P. M., Kemp, J., Rasmont, P., Kuhlmann, M., García Criado, M., … Michez, D. (2014) European Red List of bees. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union

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    Ollerton, J., Winfree, R., & Tarrant, S. (2011) How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos, Vol. 120. No. 3. pp. 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18644.x

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    Ollerton, J. (2021) Pollinators and Pollination: Nature and Society. Pelagic Pub Ltd.

  • 38

    OMME (2019) Magyar Méhészeti Nemzeti Program. Környezetterhelési monitoring vizsgálat 2018–2019. ISSN 2062-9915

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    Osterman, J., Aizen, M. A., Biesmeijer, J. C., Bosch, J., Howlett, B. G., Inouye, D. W. … Paxton, R. J. (2021) Global trends in the number and diversity of managed pollinator species. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 322: 107653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2021.107653

  • 40

    Paul, I. M., Beiler, J., McMonagle, A., Shaffer, M. L., Duda, L., & Berlin, C. M. (2007) Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment of nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 161. No. 12. pp. 1140–1146. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.12.1140

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  • 42

    Potts, S. G., Dauber, J., Hochkirch, A., Oteman, B., Roy, D.B., Ahnre, K. … Vujic, A. (2020) EU Pollinator Monitoring Scheme

  • 43

    Rasmont, P., Franzén, M., Lecocq, T., Harpke, A., Roberts, S. P. M., Biesmeijer, J. C. … Schweiger, O. (2015) Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees. Biorisk 10 (Special Issue)

  • 44

    Rehel, S., Varghese, A., Bradbear, N., Davidar, P., Roberts, S., Roy, P., & Potts, S. (2009) Benefits of biotic pollination for non-timber forest products and cultivated plants. Conservation & Society, Vol. 7. No. 3. pp. 213–219. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-4923.64732

  • 45

    Sánchez-Bayo, F., & Wyckhuys, K. A. G. (2019) Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers. Biological Conservation, Vol. 232, pp. 8–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.01.020

  • 46

    Smith, M. R., Singh, G. M., Mozaffarian, D., & Myers, S. S. (2015) Effects of decreases of animal pollinators on human nutrition and global health: a modelling analysis. Lancet, Vol. 386. No. 10007. pp. 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61085-6

  • 47

    Southwick, E. E., & Southwick, L. Jr. (1992) Estimating the economic value of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as agricultural pollinators in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 85. No. 3. pp. 621–633. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/85.3.621

  • 48

    Tibesigwa, B. (2018) Naturally available pollinator decline will decrease household food security and increase the gender gap in nutrition between men and women who head smallholder farm households in Sub-Saharan Africa. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series, Vol. 18. pp. 1–54. https://media.rff.org/documents/EfD20DP2018-05_0.pdf

  • 49

    Velthuis, H. H. W., & van Doorn, A. (2006) A century of advances in bumblebee domestication and the economic and environmental aspects of its commercialization for pollination. Apidologie, Vol. 37. No. 4. pp. 421–451. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2006019

  • 50

    Willmer, P. (2011) Pollination and Floral Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

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