View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Psychology, Durham University, Durham, UK
Restricted access

Abstract

Currently the Immunocompetence Hypothesis dominates research into female attraction to male facial masculinity. Although studies have shown links between masculinity and possible indicators of health such as fluctuating asymmetry, preferences for facial masculinity do not co-vary with preferences for apparent health (BOOTHROYD et al. 2005). Here we build on that work with two studies. Study 1 addresses the concern that apparent health may not fully reflect long term immune function by investigating how masculinity preferences correlate with preferences for other potential indicators of ‘good genes’: symmetry and averageness. Study 2 investigated whether masculinity preferences were dependant upon the presence of other indicators of ‘good immunity’ in the face, by showing observers both symmetric and asymmetric masculinity stimuli. Across three samples, women's masculinity preferences were inversely correlated with symmetry preferences, counter to prediction, and there were no consistent associations with apparent health or averageness. Results of Study 2 suggested that masculinity preferences may be enhanced in symmetric stimuli; however, these results appear to have been driven by a single stimulus, suggesting that more research is needed into the potential importance of initial stimulus properties when investigating masculinity preferences.

  • C. Aberson 2002 Reporting null results: Improving presentation and conclusions with confidence intervals Journal of Articles in Support of Null Hypotheses 1 36 42.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • L. G. Boothroyd B. C. Jones D. M. Burt R. E. Cornwell A. C. Little B. P. Tiddeman 2005 Facial masculinity relates to facial age, but not facial health Evolution and Human Behavior 26 416 431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • L. G. Boothroyd B. C. Jones D. M. Burt L. M. DeBruine D. I. Perrett 2008 Facial correlates of sociosexuality Evolution and Human Behavior 29 211 218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • L. G. Boothroyd B. C. Jones D. M. Burt D. I. Perrett 2007 Partner characteristics associated with masculinity, health and maturity in male faces Personality and Individual Differences 43 5 1161 1173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • L. M. DeBruine B. C. Jones A. C. Little L. G. Boothroyd D. I. Perrett I. S. Penton-Voak 2006 Correlated preferences for facial masculinity and ideal or actual partner's masculinity Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 273 1592 1355 1360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • B. Fink N. Neave J. T. Manning K. Grammer 2006 Facial symmetry and judgements of attractiveness, health and personality 41 3 491 499.

  • I. Folstad A. J. Karter 1992 Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap American Naturalist 139 3 603 622.

  • B. Furlow S. W. Gangestad T. Armijo-Prewitt 1998 Developmental stability and human violence Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 265 1390 1 6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. W. Gangestad R. Thornhill 1997 The evolutionary psychology of extrapair sex: The role of fluctuating asymmetry Evolution and Human Behavior 18 69 88.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. W. Gangestad R. Thornhill 1998 Menstrual cycle variation in women's preferences for the scent of symmetrical men Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 265 1399 927 933.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. W. Gangestad R. Thornhill 2003 Facial masculinity and fluctuating asymmetry Evolution and Human Behavior 24 4 231 241.

  • V. Johnston R. Hagel M. Franklin B. Fink K. Grammer 2001 Male facial attractiveness: evidence for hormone-related adaptive design Evolution and Human Behavior 22 251 267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • B. C. Jones A. C. Little D. R. Feinberg I. S. Penton-Voak B. P. Tiddeman D. I. Perrett 2004 The relationship between shape symmetry and perceived skin condition in male facial attractiveness Evolution and Human Behavior 25 1 24 30.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • B. C. Jones D. I. Perrett A. C. Little L. Boothroyd R. E. Cornwell D. R. Feinberg 2005 Menstrual cycle, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use alter attraction to apparent health in faces Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272 1561 347 354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. H. Langlois L. A. Roggman L. Musselman 1994 What is average and what is not average about attractive faces Psychological Science 5 4 214 220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. C. Little D. M. Burt I. S. Penton-Voak D. I. Perrett 2001 Self-perceived attractiveness influences human female preferences for sexual dimorphism and symmetry in male faces Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 268 1462 39 44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. C. Little P. J. B. Hancock 2002 The role of masculinity and distinctiveness in judgments of human male facial attractiveness British Journal of Psychology 93 451 464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. C. Little B. C. Jones I. S. Penton-Voak D. M. Burt D. I. Perrett 2002 Partnership status and the temporal context of relationships influence human female preferences for sexual dimorphism in male face shape Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 269 1496 1095 1100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. C. Little B. C. Jones D. M. Burt D. I. Perrett 2007 Preferences for symmetry in faces change across the menstrual cycle Biological Psychology 76 209 216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. C. Little B. C. Jones C. Waitt B. P. Tiddeman D. R. Feinberg D. I. Perrett 2008 Symmetry is related to sexual dimorphism in faces: data across culture and species PLoS ONE 3 5 e2106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. C. Little B. C. Jones L. M. DeBruine D. R. Feinberg 2008 Symmetry and sexual dimorphism in human faces: Interrelated preferences suggest both signal quality Behavioral Ecology 19 4 902 908.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • F. Noor D. C. Evans 2003 The effect of facial symmetry on perceptions of personality and attractiveness 37 4 339 347.

  • I. S. Penton-Voak J. Y. Chen 2004 High salivary testosterone is linked to masculine male facial appearance in humans Evolution and Human Behavior 25 4 229 241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • I. S. Penton-Voak A. C. Little B. C. Jones D. M. Burt B. P. Tiddeman D. I. Perrett 2003 Female condition influences preferences for sexual dimorphism in faces of male humans (Homo sapiens) Journal of Comparative Psychology 117 3 264 271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • I. S. Penton-Voak D. I. Perrett D. L. Castles T. Kobayashi D. M. Burt L. K. Murray 1999 Menstrual cycle alters face preference Nature 399 741 742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. I. Perrett K. J. Lee D. Rowland S. Yoshikawa D. M. Burt S. P. Henzi 1998 Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness Nature 394 884 887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • N. Pound I. S. Penton-Voak W. M. Brown 2007 Facial symmetry is positively associated with self-reported extraversion Personality and Individual Differences 43 6 1572 1582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pound, N., Penton-Voak, I. S. & Surridge, A. K. (2008): Testosterone responses to competition in men are related to facial masculinity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • G. Rhodes S. Yoshikawa A. Clark K. Lee R. Mckay S. Akamatsu 2001 Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non- Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty Perception 30 5 611 625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • G. Rhodes L. Zebrowitz A. Clark S. Kalick A. Hightower R. Mckay 2001 Do facial averageness and symmetry signal health? Evolution and Human Behavior 22 31 46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. C. Roberts A. C. Little L. M. Gosling D. I. Perrett V. Carter B. C. Jones 2005 MHC-heterozygosity and human facial attractiveness Evolution and Human Behavior 26 3 213 226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. A. Rowland D. I. Perrett 1995 Manipulating Facial Appearance through Shape and Color Ieee Computer Graphics and Applications 15 5 70 76.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • T. K. Shackelford R. J. Larsen 1997 Facial asymmetry as an indicator of psychological, emotional, and physiological distress 72 2 456 466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. Simpson S. Gangestad P. Christensen K. Leck 1999 Fluctuating asymmetry, sociosexuality, and intrasexual competitive tactics Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76 1 159 172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R. Thornhill S. W. Gangestad 2006 Facial sexual dimorphism, developmental stability, and susceptibility to disease in men and women Evolution and Human Behavior 27 2 131 144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • B. P. Tiddeman D. M. Burt D. I. Perrett 2001 Prototyping and transforming facial textures for perception research IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 21 5 42 50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. Verdonck M. Gaethofs C. Carels F. De Zegher 1999 Effect of low-dose testosterone treatment on craniofacial growth in boys with delayed puberty European Journal of Orthodontics 21 2 137 143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • L. L. M. Welling B. C. Jones L. M. DeBruine C. A. Conway M. J. L. Smith A. C. Little 2007 Raised salivary testosterone in women is associated with increased attraction to masculine faces Hormones and Behavior 52 2 156 161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zaatari, D. & Trivers, R. (2007): Fluctuating asymmetry and behavior in the ultimatum game.

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Nov 2020 7 0 0
Dec 2020 3 0 0
Jan 2021 18 0 0
Feb 2021 5 0 0
Mar 2021 20 0 0
Apr 2021 1 0 0
May 2021 0 0 0