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  • 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, U.P., India
  • | 2 Department of Pharmacy, SGSITS Indore, Madhya Pradesh, 452003, India
Open access

Abstract

A precise, sensitive, specific and accurate stability indicating densitometric method was developed and validated for alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in bulk and capsule dosage form. The study employed pre-coated silica gel 60F254 TLC plates as stationary phase and toluene: chloroform: methanol: formic acid (5:3:1:0.05; v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. The developed method furnished compact spots of alpha-lipoic acid (Rf 0.28 ± 0.05) after derivatization, offered good linearity in range 80–400 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.998. The values for detection and quantitation were found 18.022 and 54.612 ng/spot respectively. ALA was subjected to stress degradation studies and total 13 degradation products were resolved. Thus, the proposed method offered good results according to ICH guidelines, and can be used for identification, routine quantitative determination as well as for monitoring the stability of ALA in bulk and in capsules.

Abstract

A precise, sensitive, specific and accurate stability indicating densitometric method was developed and validated for alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in bulk and capsule dosage form. The study employed pre-coated silica gel 60F254 TLC plates as stationary phase and toluene: chloroform: methanol: formic acid (5:3:1:0.05; v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. The developed method furnished compact spots of alpha-lipoic acid (Rf 0.28 ± 0.05) after derivatization, offered good linearity in range 80–400 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.998. The values for detection and quantitation were found 18.022 and 54.612 ng/spot respectively. ALA was subjected to stress degradation studies and total 13 degradation products were resolved. Thus, the proposed method offered good results according to ICH guidelines, and can be used for identification, routine quantitative determination as well as for monitoring the stability of ALA in bulk and in capsules.

Introduction

Chemical stability of pharmaceutical molecules is a matter of great concern as it affects the drug safety and efficacy. Stability-indicating methods are quantitative analytical methods that distinguish each active ingredient from its degradants, measuring the content of active ingredient accurately [1, 2].

Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), also known as thioctic acid, was discovered in 1951 as a molecule with potent antioxidant activity which assists in transfer of acyl-group and acts as a coenzyme in Krebs' cycle [3, 4]. It is a caprylic acid-derived organosulfur compound. Chemically, it is 1,2-dithiolane- 3-pentanoic acid (Fig. 1), which inhibits oxidative stress in cells [4, 5]. It is yellowish powder, poorly water soluble but easily soluble in methanol, acetonitrile, and chloroform [6]. ALA is extensively used in food supplements due to its antioxidant properties and finds wide clinical applicability in the management of many ailments such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, and breast cancer [7, 8]. As a therapeutic and nutritional supplement, the use of ALA is growing at a very fast pace [9, 10].

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of ALA

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01034

High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has emerged as an important tool in the analysis of various drugs and their formulations. Due to several key benefits, such as low running costs, high resolution of complex mixtures, high precision and accuracy, it has surpassed other chromatographic techniques [11, 12].

Literature survey revealed different methods for ALA estimation, either alone or in combination with other drugs, such as UV spectrophotometric method [13], stability assay of ALA and enzogenol by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) [14], quantitation and stability of ALA in cosmetic creams by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [15] evaluation of thermal and photo stability of ALA in encapsulated form [16] quantification of ALA with pulse amperometric detection using HPLC [17]. In combination, ALA has been estimated with gabapentin and mecobalamin by HPLC [18], with low-molecular-mass thiols by HPLC [19] docetaxel by HPLC [20] pregabalin and mecobalamin by reverse phase HPLC [21] metformin hydrochloride and ALA by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) [22]. To the best of our knowledge, stability indicating HPTLC method of ALA alone, in bulk and capsule dosage form through derivatization has not been reported so far, therefore it was thought worthwhile to develop a validated, specific, precise and accurate stability indicating HPTLC method for ALA in bulk and capsule, according to ICH guidelines [23, 24].

Experimental

Instrumentation

The CAMAG HPTLC system consisted of ATS 4 autosampler with microliter syringe (CAMAG, Switzerland), a twin trough chamber (20 × 10 cm), CAMAG derivatizer, and TLC plate heater. Pre-coated silica gel 60 F254, aluminium plates (20 × 10 cm with 200 µm thickness; Merck, Germany) were used as stationary phase. Densitogram scanning was performed by CAMAG Scanner-4.

Other instruments used in study were Digital analytical balance: AUX 220 (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), melting point apparatus: VMP-DS (Veego instruments, Mumbai, India), UV double-beam spectrophotometer: UV-1800 (Shimadzu) and hot air oven: NOVA Instruments (Ahmadabad, India).

Solvents and reagents

ALA was received from Maxtar Bio-Genics Solan, H.P, India. INLIFETM ALPHA LIPOIC ACID 300 mg capsules were purchased from a pharmacy retail store. Analytical grade solvents viz toluene, chloroform, methanol, formic acid and phosphomolybdic acid were purchased from Merck -Millipore (Mumbai, India).

Standard solution

It was prepared by accurately weighing ALA (10 mg) and dissolving in 10 mL methanol (corresponding to 1,000 μg mL−1), further dilution was done using methanol (100 μg mL−1). Using ATS 4 autosampler, 80–400 ng/spot were applied on pre-coated TLC plates.

Sample solution

The average weight of 20 capsules of INLIFETM was calculated and contents were finely powdered. Quantity equivalent to 10 mg ALA was dissolved in 10 mL methanol and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min. The supernatant was applied on TLC plate by using ATS 4 autosampler to get concentration of 200 ng/spot.

Chromatographic conditions

The prepared samples of drug and its marketed formulation were spotted as 8 mm bands on pre-coated silica gel 60 F254, aluminium plate using CAMAG ATS 4 autosampler consisting of CAMAG microliter syringe (Switzerland). Methanol was employed for prewashing the plates followed by activation for 5 min before application of samples. Twin trough glass chamber (20 × 10 cm) was saturated with prepared mobile phase of toluene: chloroform: methanol: formic acid (5:3:1:0.05; v/v/v/v; pH 2.2) by using saturation pads for 20 min. Migration time was maintained as 15 min covering the migration distance of 7 cm. For visualization of spots derivatization was carried out by using phosphomolybdic acid solution (10 g in 50 mL of 96% ethanol). After derivatization, TLC plate was heated at 120 °C for 10 min. Images were captured in white light. The plate was scanned at 600 nm by using CAMAG Scanner-4 and visualized using vision CATS version 2.5.18262.1 software.

Method validation

Linearity and range

Five spots of standard solution of the drug (80–400 ng/spot) were applied on pre-coted plate for development and then analysed to evaluate linearity. The calibration-curve was plotted for peak area vs drug concentration using visionCATS software and analysis of linear regression was carried out.

LOD and LOQ

Method sensitivities were determined in terms of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ). LOD indicates the minimal amount of an analyte, that can be identified but not normally quantified, whereas LOQ is that minimal quantity of drug, which is estimated with proper precision and accuracy. The values were calculated by using following equation given in ICH guidelines.
LOD=3.3×σS
LOQ=10×σS
Where ‘σ’ is standard deviation of linear responses based on the calibration curve and ‘S’ is slope of calibration curve. Standard deviation was determined through residual values between a set of observed and predicted values shown by points in regression analysis.

Accuracy studies

It was expressed as percentage recovery, and was performed by spiking 80%, 100% and 120% of standard drug to the formulation, using standard addition method in triplicates.

Precision studies

Three replicates of ALA concentration (200 ng/spot) were applied and analysed for intra and inter-day precision.

Specificity

Specificity of a method provides an accurate and precise estimation of a targeted analyte in presence of other components in sample matrix. It was performed to evaluate the possibility of interference of impurities, degradants and formulation excipients.

Assay

To determine the amount of ALA in INLIFETM capsule, (label claim: 300 mg ALA per capsule), twenty capsules were opened, contents were weighed and mixed. Powder (equivalent to 10 mg) was weighed, dissolved in 10 mL methanol (1 mg mL−1 concentration), further dilution was done using methanol.

Degradation study

Acid and alkaline degradation

For acid-induced degradation, ALA (10 mg) was dissolved in 10 mL, 0.1N methanolic solution of hydrochloric acid and refluxed at 60°C for 45 min in the dark to avoid interference of light. For alkaline degradation, drug concentration (1 mg mL−1) was prepared using 0.1N methanolic NaOH solution and was refluxed in dark at 60°C for 45 min.

Oxidative degradation

In this study 10 mL of hydrogen peroxide (6% v/v) was added to drug solution of ALA having concentration 1 mg mL−1 and was kept for 45 min in dark at room temperature.

Photochemical degradation

For photochemical degradation, ALA was exposed to direct sunlight for 8 h daily for six days corresponding to 48 h.

Thermal degradation

ALA (10 mg) was kept in oven for 4h at 60°C, and then solution of 1 mg mL−1 was prepared with methanol.

Result and discussion

Method-development and validation

A densitometric method, using toluene: chloroform: methanol: formic acid (5:3:1:0.05, v/v/v/v, pH 2.2) as mobile phase, was developed and scanned after derivatizing it with phosphomolybdic acid. A sharp peak of ALA was observed at Rf 0.28 ± 0.05 (Fig. 2). For validation ICH Q2(R1) guidelines were followed [24].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Densitogram of ALA

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01034

Linearity

Calibration curve of ALA exhibited a linear relationship between area of peak and concentration in range of 80–400 ng/spot (five data points) as shown (Figs 3 and 4). The regression data of graph was found linear with best correlation r 2 ≥ 0.998 (Table 1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Linearity graph of ALA

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01034

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

3D densitogram of 80,160, 240, 320 and 400 ng/spot of ALA

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01034

Table 1.

Summary of method validation parameters

ParametersResult
Linearity range (ng/spot) n = 580–400
Best fit values
 y-intercept0.00002600
 Slope0.00000825
Goodness of fit
 Correlation coefficient(r2)0.998
Sensitivity
 LOD (ng/spot)18.022
 LOQ (ng/spot)54.612
Precision
Intra-day precision1.99
Inter-day precision1.89
% Recovery99.93
SpecificitySpecific

LOD and LOQ

The values of detection and quantitation of ALA were found 18.022 ng/spot and 54.612 ng/spot respectively (Table 1).

Accuracy

Accuracy was calculated in terms of % recovery at each addition level with % RSD (Table 2) and the mean % recovery was estimated to be 99.93%.

Table 2.

Accuracy studies of ALA

Amount of sample taken (ng/spot)Amount of standard added (ng/spot)Percentage of standard added%Recovery% Relative standard deviation
908080101.381.09
9010010099.680.77
9012012098.741.81

Precision

Drug solution of 200 ng/spot concentration were analysed in triplicates for performing inter-day and intra-day precision. The consequence of the repeatability indicated no significant variation in intra-day (% RSD 1.99) and inter-day (% RSD 1.89) estimations. The values obtained were in the range (below 2%) (Table 1).

Specificity

To evaluate specificity of proposed method, drug content was determined in presence of their degradation products, more over there was no interference from excipients, present in commercial formulation, thereby confirming specificity of method (Fig. 6).

Analysis of marketed formulation

Densitogram of marketed capsules of ALA (INLIFETM) revealed only one spot at Rf 0.30 showing no interference from excipients of the capsule. The estimated amount of drug was found to 99.6% in capsules, which exhibited significant conformity with the label claim (300 mg), thereby re-emphasizing the fact that no interference of any excipients was there, indicating the method suitability for analysis of drug and its formulation.

Degradation studies

ALA exhibited varied degradation pattern under different stress conditions.

Acid degradation

In the study, six degradants were resolved at Rf 0.09, 0.15, 0.19, 0.27, 0.41, 0.73 along with drug peak at Rf of 0.33, indicating 20.90% degradation (Figs 5A, 7 and Table 3).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(A): Acid degradation of ALA: peak 1 (ALA Rf: 0.33), peak 2 (degradant Rf: 0.09) peak 3 (degradant Rf: 0.15), peak 4 (degradant Rf: 0.19), peak 5 (degradant Rf: 0.27), peak 6 (degradant Rf: 0.41), peak 7 (degradant Rf: 0.73); (B): Alkaline degradation of ALA: peak 1 (ALA Rf: 0.29), peak 8 (degradant Rf: 0.01), peak 9 (degradant Rf: 0.12), peak 3 (degradant Rf: 0.15), peak 10 (degradant Rf: 0.17); (C): Oxidative degradation of ALA: peak 1 (ALA Rf: 0.30), peak 11 (degradant Rf: 0.05), peak 9 (degradant Rf: 0.12), peak 3 (degradant Rf: 0.15), peak 12 (degradant Rf: 0.46), peak 7 (degradant Rf: 0.73); (D): Thermal degradation of ALA: peak 1 (ALA Rf: 0.31), peak 3 (degradant Rf: 0.15), peak 13 (degradant Rf: 0.84), peak 14 (degradant Rf: 0.94); (E): Photochemical degradation of ALA: peak 1 (ALA Rf: 0.30), peak 2 (degradant Rf: 0.09), peak 9 (degradant Rf: 0.12), peak 3 (degradant Rf: 0.15), peak 10 (degradant Rf: 0.17)

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01034

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(A): TLC plate showing specificity; (B): 3D densitogram of sample and standard drug showing no interference

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01034

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Number of degradants in different degradation media

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01034

Table 3.

Stress degradation studies of ALA

Degradation studiesRf of ALARf value of degradation products% Degradation
Acidic-0.1N HCl, 45 min at 60°C0.330.09, 0.15, 0.19, 0.27, 0.41, 0.7320.90
Basic-0.1N NaOH, 45 min at 60°C0.290.01, 0.12, 0.15, 0.178.5
Oxidative-6% v/v H2O2 for 45min (room temp)0.300.05, 0.12, 0.15, 0.46, 0.737.9
Thermal-4h at 60°C0.310.15, 0.84, 0.9419.42
Photochemical (sunlight exposure) (48h)0.300.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.175.38

Base degradation

In basic degradation, 8.50% degradation was observed within 45 min. Four degradation products were resolved with Rf values of 0.01, 0.12, 0.15, 0.17, from ALA peak (Figs 5B, 7 and Table 3).

Oxidative degradation

ALA was susceptible to oxidative degradation by 6% hydrogen peroxide over a period of 45 min resulting in 7.9% degradation. Five degradants were separated at Rf value of 0.05, 0.12, 0.15, 0.46 and 0.73 (Figs 5C, 7 and Table 3).

Thermal degradation

Thermal degradation for 4 h at 60° C resulted in 19.42% degradation of ALA, and three degradants were resolved at Rf of 0.15, 0.84, 0.94 (Figs 5D, 7 and Table 3).

Photochemical degradation

Exposure of ALA to sunlight for 48 h led to 5.38% degradation, with four degradation peaks at Rf 0.09, 0.12, 0.15 and 0.17 (Figs 5E, 7 and Table 3).

Conclusion

To estimate alpha-lipoic acid and its degradation products, a precise, accurate, selective HPTLC method of stability indicating, using derivatization, was developed. The method was validated as per latest ICH guidelines. The aimed method resolved 13 degradation products in stress degradation studies. The experimental study revealed unstable nature of alpha-lipoic acid in various degradation media. One degradation product (peak 3) with Rf of 0.15 was evident in nearly all degradation studies. Thus, the developed method was found to be accurate, responsive, specific, and offers many advantages in terms of reduced cost and run time. Stability data presented in the work may provide great help in the progression of formulations and have great commercial value for the industries regarding analysis of drug in bulk and capsule dosage form.

Author's contribution

All authors contributed substantially to the design of study, data analysis, interpretation, drafting plus revising the final manuscript for approval.

Funding

None.

Conflict of interest

Authors do not have any conflict of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

This study did not involve any animals or human subjects.

Acknowledgment

Authors are thankful to Maxtar Bio-Genics India, for providing sample of standard alpha-lipoic acid and to Mr. Dilip Charegaokar of Anchrom Laboratory, Mumbai for giving instrumental facilities for the work.

References

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  • 1.

    Blessy, M.R. ; Patel, R.D. ; Prajapati, P.N. ; Agrawal, Y.K. Development of forced degradation and stability indicating studies of drugs -A review. J. Pharm. Anal. 2014, 4(3), 159165.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Henry, T.R. ; Penn, L.D. ; Conerty, J.R. ; Wright, F.E. ; Gorman, G. ; Pack, B.W. Best practices in stability indicating method development and validation for non-clinical dose formulations. AAPS J. 2016, 18(6), 14181423.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Carreau, J.P. Biosynthesis of lipoic acid via unsaturated fatty acids. Methods Enzymol. 1979, 62, 152158, Academic Press.

  • 4.

    Packer, L. ; Witt, E.H. ; Tritschler, H.J. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1995, 9(2), 227250.

  • 5.

    Rochette, L. ; Ghibu, S. ; Muresan, A. ; Vergely, C. Alpha-lipoic acid: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential in diabetes. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2015, 93(12), 10211027.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Handelman, G.J. ; Han, D. ; Tritschler, H. ; Packer, L. α-Lipoic acid reduction by mammalian cells to the dithiol form, and release into the culture medium. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1994, 47(10), 17251730.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    El Barky, A.R. ; Hussein, S.A. ; Mohamed, T.M. The potent antioxidant alpha lipoic acid. J. Plant Chem. Ecophysiol. 2017, 2, 1016.

  • 8.

    Attia, M. ; Essa, E.A. ; Zaki, R.M. ; Elkordy, A.A. An overview of the antioxidant effects of ascorbic acid and alpha lipoic acid (in liposomal forms) as adjuvant in cancer treatment. Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 359.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Gomes, M.B. ; Negrato, C.A. Alpha-lipoic acid as a pleiotropic compound with potential therapeutic use in diabetes and other chronic diseases. Diabetology Metab. Syndr. 2014, 6(1), 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Shay, K.P. ; Moreau, R.F. ; Smith, E.J. ; Smith, A.R. ; Hagen, T.M. Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 2009, 1790(10), 11491160.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Dhaneshwar, S.R. Pharmaceutical Applications of High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; Instrumental Thin-Layer Chromatography; Elsevier, 2015; pp 451478.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Zlatkis, A. ; Kaiser, R.E. HPTLC-high Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography; Elsevier, 2011.

  • 13.

    Patni, M. ; Rawat, S Analytical method development and validation for estimation of alpha lipoic acid in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form by UV spectrometric method. J. Biol. Chem. Chron. 2018, 4(1), 6770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Veeraswami, B. ; Naveen, V.M.K. Development and validation of stability indicating assay of Alpha lipoic acid and Enzogenol by UPLC and its degradation. J. Emerging Tech. Innovative Res. 2019, (6), 651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Papageorgiou, S. ; Varvaresou, A. ; Panderi, I. ; Giannakou, M. ; Spiliopoulou, C. ; Athanaselis, S. Development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation and stability of α-lipoic acid in cosmetic creams. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2020, 42(3), 221228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dolinina, E.S. ; Akimsheva, E.Y. ; Parfenyuk, E.V. Development of novel silica-based formulation of α-lipoic acid: evaluation of photo and thermal stability of the encapsulated drug. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(3), 228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Viana, C. ; Ribeiro, S.M. ; Moreira, A.P. ; Müller, L.S. ; Motta, M.J. ; Monserrat, J.M. ; Carvalho, L.M. ; Bohrer, D. Quantification of alpha lipoic acid in pharmaceutical products by HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection at a gold electrode. Curr. Anal. Chem. 2019, 15(6), 694700.

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  • 18.

    Chandak, D. ; Sharma, P. Development and validation for simultaneous estimation of gabapentin, mecobalamin and alpha lipoic acid in tablet formulation. Res. J. Sci. Technol 2020, 12(1), 7478.

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  • 19.

    Borowczyk, K. ; Olejarz, P. ; Chwatko, G. ; Szylberg, M. ; Głowacki, R. A simplified method for simultaneous determination of α-lipoic acid and low-molecular-mass thiols in human plasma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1049.

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  • 20.

    Kothari, I.R. ; Italiya, K.S. ; Sharma, S. ; Mittal, A. ; Chitkara, D. A rapid and precise liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of alpha lipoic acid and docetaxel in lipid-based nano formulations. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2018, 56(10), 888894.

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  • 21.

    Kumar, S.A. ; Debnath, M. ; Rao, J.V. ; Sankar, D.G. Stability indicating analytical method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of pregabalin, mecobalamin and alpha lipoic acid in bulk as well as in pharmaceutical dosage form by using RP-HPLC. Res. J. Pharm. Technol 2014, 7(9), 10041013.

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  • 22.

    Patel, P.J. ; Hinge, M. Simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride and alpha lipoic acid by HPTLC method in tablet dosage form. Adv. Pharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf. 2020, (9), 14.

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  • 23.

    Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products; ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline Q1A(R2): 2003.

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    Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology; ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline Q2 (R1): Geneva, 2005.

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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kowalska, Teresa

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sajewicz, Mieczyslaw

Editors(s)

  • Danica Agbaba (University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Ivana Stanimirova-Daszykowska (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)

Editorial Board

  • R. Bhushan (The Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India)
  • J. Bojarski (Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland)
  • B. Chankvetadze (State University of Tbilisi, Tbilisi, Georgia)
  • M. Daszykowski (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • T.H. Dzido (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • A. Felinger (University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary)
  • K. Glowniak (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • B. Glód (Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland)
  • A. Gumieniczek (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • U. Hubicka (Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland)
  • K. Kaczmarski (Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszów, Poland)
  • H. Kalász (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • K. Karljiković Rajić (University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia)
  • I. Klebovich (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • A. Koch (Private Pharmacy, Hamburg, Germany)
  • Ł. Komsta (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • P. Kus (Univerity of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • D. Mangelings (Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium)
  • E. Mincsovics (Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary)
  • G. Morlock (Giessen University, Giessen, Germany)
  • A. Petruczynik (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • R. Skibiński (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • B. Spangenberg (Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
  • T. Tuzimski (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • Y. Vander Heyden (Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium)
  • A. Voelkel (Poznań University of Technology, Poznań, Poland)
  • B. Walczak (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • W. Wasiak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland)
  • I.G. Zenkevich (St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

 

KOWALSKA, TERESA
E-mail: kowalska@us.edu.pl

SAJEWICZ, MIECZYSLAW
E-mail:msajewic@us.edu.pl

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2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
652
Journal Impact Factor 2,011
Rank by Impact Factor Chemistry, Analytical 66/87
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1,789
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,350
Journal Citation Indicator 0,40
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator Chemistry, Analytical 72/99
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
29
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,27
Scimago Quartile Score Chemistry (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
2,8
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Chemistry 210/409 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,586

2020
 
Total Cites
650
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
1,639
Rank by
Chemistry, Analytical 71/83 (Q4)
Impact Factor
 
Impact Factor
1,412
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
1,301
Impact Factor
Journal
0,34
Citation Indicator
 
Rank by Journal
Chemistry, Analytical 75/93 (Q4)
Citation Indicator
 
Citable
45
Items
Total
43
Articles
Total
2
Reviews
Scimago
28
H-index
Scimago
0,316
Journal Rank
Scimago
Chemistry (miscellaneous) Q3
Quartile Score
 
Scopus
393/181=2,2
Scite Score
 
Scopus
General Chemistry 215/398 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank
 
Scopus
0,560
SNIP
 
Days from
58
submission
 
to acceptance
 
Days from
68
acceptance
 
to publication
 
Acceptance
51%
Rate

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
495
Impact Factor 1,418
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1,374
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,936
Immediacy
Index
0,460
Citable
Items
50
Total
Articles
50
Total
Reviews
0
Cited
Half-Life
6,2
Citing
Half-Life
8,3
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00048
Article Influence
Score
0,164
% Articles
in
Citable Items
100,00
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,05895
Average
IF
Percentile
20,349
Scimago
H-index
26
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,255
Scopus
Scite Score
226/167=1,4
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Chemistry (miscellaneous) 240/398 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,494
Acceptance
Rate
41%

 

Acta Chromatographica
Publication Model Online only
Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 400 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
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Acta Chromatographica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1992
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia
Founder's
Address
PL-40-007 Katowice, Poland, Bankowa 12
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2083-5736 (Online)

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