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Mengya Lu School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China

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Qianqian Tang School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China

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Chenyu Zhou School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China

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Zhizheng Fang School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China

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Zheng Fan Medical Department, Taihe Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Taihe 236600, China

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Xiangyu Li Department of Research and Development, Anhui Jiren Pharmaceutical Company, Bozhou 236800, China

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Rongchun Han School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China

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Xiaohui Tong School of Life Sciences, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China

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Abstract

An easy, quick, and sensitive approach adopting ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) equipped with diode array detector was used to analyze and systematically evaluate the quality of Pudilan tablets manufactured by 12 distinct pharmaceutical companies. In this research, 15 peaks were chosen as the common peaks to assess the similarities for different batches (S1–S43) of Pudilan tablet samples. In comparison with the control fingerprint, similarity values for 43 batches of samples exceeded 0.922. In addition, by analyzing the reference substances of epigoitrin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, acetylcorynoline, baicalin and baicanshialein, the chromatogram of the 6 reference substances was established. The recoveries for the reference substances which demonstrated good regression in the linear range (r 2 > 0.999) were in the range of 98.3–101.1%. The results demonstrated that the established method was highly accurate, efficient and reliable. This study provides a valid, dependable and pragmatic method to evaluate the quality of Pudilan tablet.

Abstract

An easy, quick, and sensitive approach adopting ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) equipped with diode array detector was used to analyze and systematically evaluate the quality of Pudilan tablets manufactured by 12 distinct pharmaceutical companies. In this research, 15 peaks were chosen as the common peaks to assess the similarities for different batches (S1–S43) of Pudilan tablet samples. In comparison with the control fingerprint, similarity values for 43 batches of samples exceeded 0.922. In addition, by analyzing the reference substances of epigoitrin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, acetylcorynoline, baicalin and baicanshialein, the chromatogram of the 6 reference substances was established. The recoveries for the reference substances which demonstrated good regression in the linear range (r 2 > 0.999) were in the range of 98.3–101.1%. The results demonstrated that the established method was highly accurate, efficient and reliable. This study provides a valid, dependable and pragmatic method to evaluate the quality of Pudilan tablet.

Introduction

Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a series of acute inflammatory diseases featured by mumps, lymphadenitis and tonsillitis, all of which ultimately result in the damage to lungs [1, 2]. Lymphadenitis often leads to a tender and sometimes painful swelling. Mumps primarily induces swelling of the parotid gland. Its common complications include aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, and in adults, it can cause orchitis or oophoritis [3]. Systemic complications of mumps include follicular hyperplasia and sinus hyperplasia [4]. Tonsillitis is mainly characterized by tonsillar swelling and pain with its complication including peritonsillar, parapharyngeal or retropharyngeal abscesses [5]. Pudilan preparation is composed of four traditional Chinese herbs, ie Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Taraxacum mongolicum Hand. – Mazz., Corydalis bungeana Turcz., Isatis indigotica Fort., and has been used to cure URI for more than 30 years since the formula was publicized by Ministry of Health of China in 1991. Clinical researches confirmed that Pudilan tablet, a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), showed significant efficacy and few side effects in treating URI [6].

TCM has been used in China for thousands of years and is being recognized and accepted by more and more people in the world. Compared with western medicine that always pays more attention to a precise single target, TCM usually refers to complicated compounds and one herb often consists of more than hundreds or thousands of chemically distinct compositions. The efficacy of TCM is principally based on the synergic effect of their multi-targeting, multi-ingredient preparations [6]. Nevertheless, the difficult issue of TCM quality control is a barrier which has confined development of TCM and hampers its business recognition around the whole world. Therefore, it has great significance for TCM to establish a scientific and reasonable system for quality control. The technology of TCM chromatographic fingerprinting is playing a very important role in the quality assessment of TCM, and has proven to be scientific and comprehensive [7].

Lately, the chromatographic fingerprint technology has been introduced as a tool to assess the quality of herbal specimen or their associated products [8]. This technique has been applied by the World Health Organization (WHO), the State Food and Drug Administration of China (SFDA) as a strategic plan for the quality assessment of TCM [9, 10], and got increasing concerns because it focuses on the characterization of the total sample composition. Several ways, for instance, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) [11–14], thin-layer chromatography (TLC) [15–17], infrared spectroscopy (IR) [18–20], mass spectrometry (MS) [21, 22], gas chromatography (GC) [2324], high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [25–27], nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [28–31] and high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) [32–34] are utilized for fingerprinting to characterize multiple compounds in the tested herbal samples. Among the above-mentioned methods, HPLC is generally the most applied method for its high sensitivity, selectivity, and low cost [35]. As a further development of HPLC, UPLC shows better foregrounds than HPLC for its better chromatographic resolution, more sensitive performance, with considerable cost effectiveness [36].

Pudilan was recorded in the book Drug Standard of the Ministry of Health of China – Prepared Chinese Medicine which incorporated the preparation of Pudilan into the national medicine standard. In order to make 2,660 Pudilan tablets, 450 g root powder of S. baicalensis, 1,200 g powdered whole plant of T. mongolicum, 300 g powdered whole plant of C. bungeana and 450 g powdered root of I. indigotica are used for extraction and preparation along with designated accessories including starch and dextrin. For the final product, each tablet should contain more than 3.5 mg baicalin. To our best knowledge, there are 25 pharmaceutical companies in China that are currently producing Pudilan. Despite a number of articles describing the quality control of Pudilan preparation, such studies often focused on the concentrations of characteristic compounds in Pudilan products manufactured by individual pharmaceutical companies. Comprehensive researches on Pudilan sampled from multiple producers are needed to gain a systematic evaluation regarding its quality control. In this study, 43 batches collected from 12 pharmaceutical companies were collected and analyzed using six bioactive constituents (epigoitrin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, acetylcorynoline, baicalin and baicalein) as the phytochemical markers. The results demonstrated that the UPLC-DAD approach for the fingerprint identification of Pudilan is practical, quick, and sensitive.

Experimental

Materials and reagents

Epigoitrin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, acetylcorynoline, baicalin and baicalein were all purchased from Chengdu Desite Bio-Technology (Chengdu, China). The purity of these standards was above 98%, which was suitable for UPLC analysis. Pudilan samples (43 different batches) from 12 different manufacturers were listed in Table 1. Both acetonitrile and methanol were chromatographically pure (OCEANPAK, Sweden). Ultrasonic cleaner was purchased from Tianjin Aotearns Instruments Co. (Tianjin, China). Analytical grade acetic acid was purchased from Shanghai Runjie Chemical Reagent Co. (Shanghai, China).

Table 1.

Summary of the tested samples

Sample no. Manufacturer Batch no.
1 Jiren Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Anhui, China 2180712
2 Fukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jilin, China 180505
3 Fukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jilin, China 180809
4 Fukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jilin, China 181205
5 Fukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jilin, China 180506
6 Fukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jilin, China 180502
7 Fukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jilin, China 180810
8 Fangsheng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hunan, China 190220
9 Fangsheng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hunan, China 190312
10 Jianmin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hubei, China 190519
11 Lijun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xian, China 180311
12 Lijun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xian, China 180609
13 Lijun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xian, China 180003
14 Kongfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shandong, China 180103
15 Kongfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shandong, China 180301
16 Kongfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shandong, China 180304
17 Kongfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shandong, China 180402
18 Kongfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shandong, China 190308
19 Longshunrong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China 19228
20 Longshunrong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China 19222
21 Longshunrong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China 19254
22 Longfa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xianggang, China 180415
23 Longfa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xianggang, China 180953
24 Longfa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xianggang, China 181021
25 Longsheng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Zhejiang, China 20180210
26 LongshengPharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Zhejiang, China 20180509
27 Longsheng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Zhejiang, China 20180806
28 Minhai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Gansu, China 180401
29 Minhai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Gansu, China 180417
30 Minhai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Gansu, China 180419
31 Minhai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Gansu, China 180709
32 Minhai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Gansu, China 180827
33 Minhai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Gansu, China 180828
34 Shuanglong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tangshan, China 180124
35 Shuanglong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tangshan, China 180728
36 Shuanglong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tangshan, China 190211
37 Shuanglong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tangshan, China 190321
38 Shuanglong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tangshan, China 180522
39 Shuanglong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tangshan, China 181002
40 Yunnan Baiyao Co., Ltd., Yunnan, China zbb1913
41 Yunnan Baiyao Co., Ltd., Yunnan, China zbb1908
42 Yunnan Baiyao Co., Ltd., Yunnan, China zcb1801
43 Yunnan Baiyao Co., Ltd., Yunnan, China zhb1809

Chromatographic conditions for Pudilan analysis

The instrument was an Agilent 1290 (Agilent Instruments, USA) ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph. Separation of chemicals was performed on an Agilent TC-C18 (4.6 mm × 100  mm, 2.7 μm) column. The mobile phase was 0.2% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) with gradient elution. The mobile phase flow rate was maintained at 0.5 mL min−1 and the following gradient of acetonitrile (B) was applied: 0–4 min, 4%; 4–8 min, 4–13%; 8–25 min, 13–22%; 25–35 min, 22–25%; 35–45 min, 25–41%; 45–50 min, 41–65%; 50–65 min, 65–100%; 65–66 min, 100–5%; and 66–70 min, 5%. In the fingerprinting process, the wavelength was adjusted to 289 nm. The column temperature was set to 30 °C and the sample injection volume was 3 μL.

Preparation of the standard and sample solutions

The six reference compounds were accurately weighed and dissolved in absolute methanol (95%, v/v) at the following concentrations epigoitrin 1.103 mg mL−1, chlorogenic acid 1.191 mg mL−1, caffeic acid 1.072 mg mL−1, baicalin 1.016 mg mL−1, baicalein 1.042 mg mL−1, and acetylcorynoline 1.098 mg mL−1 to acquire stock standard solutions. Store the solutions at 4 °C and keep it in darkness.

After sugarcoat of Pudilan tablets from different batches was scraped off, samples were then ground into powder. The powders were measured and then put in conical flasks with caps (50 mL) containing 35 mL methanol with the total weight recorded as M1. The extraction was performed in an ultrasonic water bath for an hour at normal atmospheric temperature. After sonication, the weight was measured again (M2) and the missing weight was supplemented with methanol. After filtration through a 0.22 μm membrane, all the sample solutions (Nos. from 1 to 43) were stored at 4 °C in a dark environment before use. Prior to UPLC analysis, the solutions were passed through a 0.22 μm organic filter membrane.

Data analysis

The chromatographic fingerprint data of the samples were evaluated by the specialized program Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (Version 2004A), which was recommended by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA). Correlation coefficients were calculated for the samples and similarities between individual chromatograms and common chromatograms of the tested samples were compared.

Results and discussion

Optimization of chromatographic conditions

The mobile phase of different compositions (methanol–ultrapure water, acetonitrile–ultrapure water, methanol–0.1% phosphoric acid, methanol–0.2% phosphoric acid, acetonitrile–0.1% phosphoric acid, acetonitrile–0.2% phosphoric acid) were tested for an optimal condition. The experimental result indicated that acetonitrile–0.2% phosphoric acid was suitable due to the steadier baseline, better separation and the more characteristic peaks in the chromatograms compared with other conditions. Pudilan tablet contains various constituents, for example, chlorogenic acid as well as caffeic acid. Addition of suitable amount of certain acid into the mobile phase would adjust its pH value for the purpose of achieving better peak shape.

Moreover, three column temperatures (30, 35, and 40 °C) were tested too. Based on the data acquired, the temperature was set at 30 °C. Concerning detection wavelength, absorption profiles at 245, 254, 280, 289, 310, and 330 nm were evaluated due to the multiple phytochemical markers used. At 289 nm, the six phytochemical makers exhibited better and more chromatographic peaks were detected compared with that of other wavelengths. For the purpose of reflecting both the chemical properties of Pudilan tablet and its chemical properties, 289 nm was chosen as the best wavelength.

Optimization of sample extraction

The extraction solutions, extraction means and extraction time were studied. Both methanol and ethanol are common for the extraction of polar and certain non-polar metabolites. In this study, methanol solvent was observed to yield more peaks and better peak pattern than ethanol. Subsequently, different solvent percentages of methanol (60, 70, 80 and 100%) were assessed and 70% methanol was selected as it showed highest extraction rate. At last, ultrasonic extraction methods (40, 60, and 80 min) were investigated. The results indicated that the 60 min sonication was most efficient based on the peak areas of tested samples in UPLC chromatograms. Therefore, 70% methanol ultrasonic extraction for 60 min was affirmed as the most suitable extraction method.

Method validation of quantitative analysis

For the four ingredients used to produce Pudilan tablets, epigoitrin is the characteristic compound for Isatis indigotica, and acetylcorynoline for Corydalis bungeana. Baicalin and baicalein are related to the quality of Scutellaria baicalensis, and chlorogenic acid as well as caffeic acid to Taraxacum mongolicum. Therefore, we chose to adopt these compounds for quantitative analysis of Pudilan products. Methanol stock solutions for the six phytochemical markers were prepared, and their chemical structures were demonstrated in Fig. 1. After determination of the six makers with different concentrations, respective standard curves were created according to peak area (y axis) versus the concentrations of each marker (x axis). The standard curves as well as ranges of the six markers were shown in Table 2 and Fig. 2. Good linearity (r 2 > 0.999) was achieved for all six markers within tested ranges. The results regarding instrumental precision of the six markers and their relative standard deviation (RSD) values were all less than 2.75% (n = 6). In addition, the repeatability evaluation of this approach demonstrated that the detection has good reproducibility with RSD less than 2.86% (n = 6) for the six markers. Concerning stability, sample solutions stored at 25 °C were analyzed at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. It was confirmed that Pudilan sample solutions were stable for at least 48 h (RSD < 2.90%).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The chemical structures of the phytochemical markers

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01084

Table 2.

Data for linear regression assessment (n = 6)

Chemicals Regression equation Linear range (μg) Correlation coefficient (r 2)
epigoitrin y = 9.4251x + 2.4693 0.001–0.03 0.9996
chlorogenic acid y = 2.9868x + 1.3551 3–16 0.9999
caffeic acid y = 9.0782x + 0.5217 1–6 0.9998
baicalin y = 2812.9x + 262.99 1–12 0.9998
acetylcorynoline y = 67.572x − 2.4617 2–12 1
baicalein y = 273.03x + 281.18 1–16 0.9995
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calibration curves of phytochemical markers of epigoitrin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, acetylcorynoline, baicalin and baicalein

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01084

Evaluation on accuracy of the current method was carried out by recovery test. Six markers at different levels (high, medium and low) were added to 2.0 g Pudilan powder (Jiren 2180712). Subsequently, the samples were processed and analyzed by the suggested method. The experiments were conducted in triplicate at each level. The formula for estimating average recovery rate was as follows: [(amount determined − original amount)/amount added] × 100%. As a result, the average recovery rates for the six markers ranged from 98.3 to 101.1%, with RSD < 2.63%. Thus, the above data indicated that the method was reliable for the simultaneous quantification of the six phytochemical markers.

Quantification of chemicals in Pudilan samples

In order to simultaneously determine the contents of six compounds in distinct batches of Pudilan tablets from different manufacturers, retention times and the online UV spectra of the established UPLC method were compared for determination of the target markers whose UV absorption profiles were also taken into consideration (Fig. 3). The concentrations of the 6 markers in the Pudilan samples were then calculated. As seen in Table 3, the results showed that the variability of their contents was high. The concentration of epigoitrin ranged from 0.0001 to 0.0024 μg μL−1, chlorogenic acid 0.0010–0.015 μg μL−1, caffeic acid 0.0004–0.0640 μg μL−1, baicalin 0.2699–3.3092 μg μL−1, acetylcorynoline 0.0011–0.0319 μg μL−1 and baicalein 0.6080–8.9294 μg μL−1. The results demonstrated that quality of Pudilan tablets from different manufacturers was highly instable. The final product is determined by both active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as productive process. To achieve better Pudilan products, standardization of Isatis indigotica, Corydalis bungeana, Scutellaria baicalensis and Taraxacum mongolicum that are used as raw materials must be realized.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The UV spectrum of six markers in Pudilan tablet

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01084

Table 3.

Quantification of chemicals in Pudilan tablets from different manufacturers

No of batches epigoitrin (μg μL−1) chlorogenic acid (μg μL−1) caffeic acid (μg μL−1) baicalin (μg μL−1) acetylcorynoline (μg μL−1) baicalein (μg μL−1)
Fukang180502 0.0005 0.0074 0.0027 2.0504 0.0140 2.9569
Fukang180505 0.0005 0.0120 0.0023 2.9034 0.0140 3.5112
Fukang180809 0.0004 0.0062 0.0011 1.7421 0.0215 3.6228
Fukang181205 0.0012 0.0088 0.0027 1.9058 0.0192 3.9154
Fukang180506 0.0005 0.0107 0.0021 1.4644 0.0118 2.9729
Fukang180810 0.0011 0.0096 0.0020 1.7837 0.0200 3.8635
Jiren2180712 0.0014 0.0052 0.0034 2.1734 0.0011 2.5337
Lijun180311 0.0002 0.0025 0.0009 1.9318 0.0232 1.1082
Lijun180609 0.0024 0.0028 0.0021 1.8278 0.0186 0.8010
Lijun180003 0.0001 0.0036 0.0004 2.2525 0.0134 2.7422
Jianmin190519 0.0009 0.0049 0.0050 2.2843 0.0241 1.4291
Fangsheng190312 0.0002 0.0052 0.0030 2.2985 0.0268 1.8177
Fangsheng190220 0.0007 0.0101 0.0082 2.3401 0.0238 2.4481
Kongfu180103 0.0007 0.0043 0.0034 2.5138 0.0151 2.9451
Kongfu180301 0.0008 0.0108 0.0090 2.3950 0.0233 2.0644
Kongfu180304 0.0009 0.0093 0.0085 2.0384 0.0188 4.2773
Kongfu180402 0.0006 0.0094 0.0640 2.6588 0.0186 1.2366
Kongfu190308 0.0005 0.0114 0.0105 2.9318 0.0202 1.1689
Longshunrong19228 0.0009 0.0056 0.0063 0.7915 0.0076 6.5571
Longshunrong19222 0.0009 0.0108 0.0151 0.7922 0.0077 8.7705
Longshunrong19254 0.0011 0.0126 0.0169 3.3092 0.0016 8.9294
Longfa181021 0.0006 0.0019 0.0011 1.1968 0.0101 3.3145
Longfa180415 0.0006 0.0035 0.0035 1.5106 0.0104 3.7422
Longfa180953 0.0013 0.0029 0.0018 0.8306 0.0068 3.5602
Longsheng20180509 0.0004 0.0017 0.0031 2.7483 0.0269 1.6741
Longsheng20180210 0.0001 0.0034 0.0042 2.5486 0.0081 0.6080
Longsheng20180806 0.0013 0.0022 0.0017 2.9033 0.0281 2.0499
Minhai180417 0.0003 0.0016 0.0004 0.7470 0.0044 3.2754
Minhai180401 0.0004 0.0024 0.0009 0.7845 0.0057 2.7984
Minhai180419 0.0005 0.0024 0.0007 0.6910 0.0042 3.9524
Minhai180709 0.0005 0.0010 0.0008 0.6558 0.0043 4.0328
Minhai180827 0.0003 0.0016 0.0021 0.5962 0.0035 4.0041
Minhai180828 0.0004 0.0015 0.0015 0.5086 0.0027 4.7735
Shuanglong190321 0.0003 0.0026 0.0015 1.8492 0.0162 1.0860
Shuanglong180124 0.0004 0.0033 0.0023 1.9205 0.0202 0.9407
Shuanglong180728 0.0003 0.0025 0.0014 1.9098 0.0188 0.7680
Shuanglong190211 0.0004 0.0046 0.0039 1.9409 0.0207 1.1272
Shuanglong180522 0.0003 0.0030 0.0017 1.8174 0.0183 0.8768
Shuanglong181002 0.0004 0.0035 0.0017 1.9506 0.0204 0.8926
Yunnanzbb1908 0.0002 0.0086 0.0040 0.2699 0.0319 1.2826
Yunnanzbb1913 0.0007 0.0144 0.0085 2.8683 0.0280 1.5996
Yunnanzbb1801 0.0006 0.0106 0.0052 2.5362 0.0266 1.3033
Yunnanzbb1809 0.0006 0.0150 0.0110 2.6322 0.0293 1.2815

Method validation of fingerprint

Evaluation of the apparatus precision was performed by testing the mixed solution containing 6 markers 6 times in a row in a day. The experimental results were termed as RSD and the RSD values for relative retention time (RRT) as well as relative peak area (RPA) were less than 0.43% and 2.18%, respectively.

To assess the reproducibility of the method, six independently prepared solutions from the same batch (Jiren 2180712) were tested. It was found that the RSD values were less than 0.69 and 5.16% for RRT and RPA, separately.

In order to test the stability, sample solutions stored at 25 °C were tested at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. The RSD values of RRT and RPA did not exceed 0.85% and 2.46%, respectively, indicating that the sample solutions were stable within 48 h under room temperature.

UPLC-DAD fingerprint analysis

For fingerprinting purposes, chromatograms of various batches of samples must be standardized. The standardization process involved selection of “shared peaks” within the resulted chromatograms as well as normalization of retention times for all shared peaks. For standardizing the fingerprint, 43 samples collected from different manufacturers were tested using the developed approach. By designating the peaks shown in each batch of samples as “shared peaks” for Pudilan tablets, the fingerprints of these specimens were generated and displayed in Fig. 4A. The reference chromatogram of Pudilan tablets was demonstrated in Fig. 4B. More than 30 peaks were presented in the fingerprint of Pudilan tablets and we selected 15 of them as shared peaks due to their universal presence in all samples and relatively strong chromatographic signals. The peaks 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 15 were identified as the respective phytochemical markers by comparing to the standard solutions (Fig. 4B). Correlation coefficient was applied as an indicator for similarity analysis. In this study, the chromatograms of each sample were compared with other samples and the reference chromatograms using Chromatographic Similarity Evaluation software. As shown in Table 4, the similarity ranged from 0.922 to 0.999, which indicated similar chemical profiles in different batches.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

UPLC fingerprint of 43 Pudilan batches A), and the reference chromatogram B) obtained by using the fingerprint similarity evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine. All chromatograms were obtained at 289 nm. The peaks labeled 1–15 in the chromatogram represented the 15 common peaks. The peaks marked with 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 15 were epigoitrin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, baicalin, acetylcorynoline and baicalein, respectively

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2022; 10.1556/1326.2022.01084

Table 4.

The similarities of Pudilan tablets from different manufacturers

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Reference
1 1.000 0.996 0.997 0.999 0.977 0.998 0.998 0.978 0.986 0.963 0.992 0.992 0.998
2 0.996 1.000 0.990 0.997 0.982 0.990 0.989 0.988 0.970 0.979 0.981 0.982 0.996
3 0.997 0.990 1.000 0.995 0.966 0.997 0.997 0.966 0.982 0.950 0.992 0.993 0.993
4 0.999 0.997 0.995 1.000 0.981 0.996 0.995 0.982 0.983 0.968 0.989 0.990 0.998
5 0.977 0.982 0.966 0.981 1.000 0.968 0.965 0.992 0.954 0.985 0.972 0.972 0.988
6 0.998 0.990 0.997 0.996 0.968 1.000 1.000 0.966 0.991 0.950 0.993 0.993 0.994
7 0.998 0.989 0.997 0.995 0.965 1.000 1.000 0.963 0.991 0.946 0.993 0.993 0.993
8 0.978 0.988 0.966 0.982 0.992 0.966 0.963 1.000 0.943 0.995 0.961 0.963 0.987
9 0.986 0.970 0.982 0.983 0.954 0.991 0.991 0.943 1.000 0.922 0.985 0.982 0.981
10 0.963 0.979 0.950 0.968 0.985 0.950 0.946 0.995 0.922 1.000 0.944 0.946 0.974
11 0.992 0.981 0.992 0.989 0.972 0.993 0.993 0.961 0.985 0.944 1.000 0.999 0.991
12 0.992 0.982 0.993 0.990 0.972 0.993 0.993 0.963 0.982 0.946 0.999 1.000 0.992
Reference 0.998 0.996 0.993 0.998 0.988 0.994 0.993 0.987 0.981 0.974 0.991 0.992 1.000

Conclusions

The technique has been successfully used to determine contents of six phytochemical markers in a total of 43 samples collected from 12 different manufacturers. Similar chemical profiles were confirmed for all the tested samples with dramatically varying concentrations of the six phytochemical markers. This indicated that the Chinese government should strengthen the requirements in order to achieve high quality of Pudilan products nationwide. The validation results showed that the established method had satisfactory reproducibility and sensitivity to be used for quality evaluation of Pudilan tablets. The 43 batches of Pudilan products were evaluated by a combination of fingerprinting and similarity analysis. The results indicated that the UPLC method used in this study is applicable for quality control of Pudilan tablets.

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82204710), Anhui Natural Science Foundation (2208085QH271), Education Department of Anhui Province (KJ2020A0385) and Anhui University of Chinese Medicine (2021qnyc06, 2021LCTH04).

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  • 2.

    Kompanikova, J. ; Zumdick, A. ; Neuschlova, M. ; Sadlonova, V. ; Novakova, E. Microbiologic methods in the diagnostics of upper respiratory tract pathogens. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2017, 1020, 2531.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Hviid, A. ; Rubin, S. ; Muhlemann, K. Mumps. Lancet 2008, 371(9616), 932944.

  • 4.

    Zeppa, P. ; Cozzolino, I. Lymphadenitis and lymphadenopathy. Monogr. Clin. Cytol. 2018, 23, 1933.

  • 5.

    Sanders, O. ; Bolton, L. ; Nemeth, Z. ; Hardy, A. ; Meghji, S. A 4-year retrospective study of tonsillectomy rate and admission rate of tonsillitis and complications in the East of England and nationally. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol.: Off. J. Eur. Fed. Otorhinolaryngol. Soc. 2021, 278(7), 26132618.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bai, Y. ; Li, Y. X. ; Shi, Y. J. ; Zhao, H. Y. Meta-analysis on effectiveness and safety of Pudilan Xiaoyan Oral Liquid on child upper respiratory infection. Zhongguo Zhong yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China J. Chin. Mater. Med. 2020, 45(9), 22032209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Liang, Y. Z. ; Xie, P. S. ; Chan, K. Chromatographic fingerprinting and metabolomics for quality control of TCM. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 2010, 13(10), 943953.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Alaerts, G. ; Dejaegher, B. ; Smeyers-Verbeke, J. ; Vander Heyden, Y. Recent developments in chromatographic fingerprints from herbal products: set-up and data analysis. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 2010, 13(10), 900922.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Xie, P. ; Chen, S. ; Liang, Y. Z. ; Wang, X. ; Tian, R. ; Upton, R. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis--a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. J. Chromatogr. A 2006, 1112(1–2), 171180.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Goodarzi, M. ; Russell, P. J. ; Vander Heyden, Y. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: a review. Analytica Chim. Acta 2013, 804, 1628.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Krol-Kogus, B. ; Lamine, K. M. ; Migas, P. ; Boudjeniba, M. ; Krauze-Baranowska, M. HPTLC determination of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds. Acta Pharmaceutica 2018, 68(1), 97107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sethuraman, V. ; Janakiraman, K. ; Krishnaswami, V. ; Natesan, S. ; Kandasamy, R. Combinatorial analysis of quercetin and resveratrol by HPTLC in Sesbania grandiflora/phyto-based nanoformulations. Nat. Prod. Res. 2021, 35(13), 22432248.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hazra, A. K. ; Chakraborty, B. ; Mitra, A. ; Sur, T. K. A rapid HPTLC method to estimate piperine in Ayurvedic formulations. J. Ayurveda Integr. Med. 2019, 10(4), 248254.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Naguib, I. A. ; Magdy, M. A. ; Anwar, B. H. ; Abdelhamid, N. S. A validated green HPTLC method for quantitative determination of dapoxetine hydrochloride and tadalafil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2020, 58(4), 303308.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Wang, Z. ; Benning, C. Arabidopsis thaliana polar glycerolipid profiling by thin layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). J. Vis. Exp.: JoVE 2011, (49).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ferenczi-Fodor, K. ; Vegh, Z. ; Renger, B. Impurity profiling of pharmaceuticals by thin-layer chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 2011, 1218(19), 27222731.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Abdelwahab, N. S. ; Ali, N. W. ; Abdelkawy, M. ; Emam, A. A. Validated RP-HPLC and TLC-densitometric methods for analysis of ternary mixture of cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorocresol and lidocaine in oral antiseptic formulation. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2016, 54(3), 318325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Hetrick, E. M. ; Shi, Z. ; Harms, Z. D. ; Myers, D. P. Sample mass estimate for the use of near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy to monitor content uniformity in a tablet press feed frame of a drug product continuous manufacturing process. Appl. Spectrosc. 2021, 75(2), 216224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Mazurek, S. ; Szostak, R. Quantitative determination of prednisone in tablets by infrared attenuated total reflection and Raman spectroscopy. J. AOAC Int. 2012, 95(3), 744750.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mao, J. ; Xu, J. Discrimination of herbal medicines by molecular spectroscopy and chemical pattern recognition. Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 2006, 65(2), 497500.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Perez-Galvez, A. ; Viera, I. ; Roca, M. Acquisition of mass spectrometry data of carotenoids: a focus on big data management. Methods Mol. Biol. 2020, 2083, 135144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Goto-Inoue, N. ; Hayasaka, T. ; Setou, M. Imaging mass spectrometry of glycolipids. Methods Enzymol. 2010, 478, 287301.

  • 23.

    Lockwood, G. B. Techniques for gas chromatography of volatile terpenoids from a range of matrices. J. Chromatogr. A 2001, 936(1–2), 2331.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Priddis, C. R. Capillary gas chromatography of lupin alkaloids. J. Chromatogr. 1983, 261(1), 95101.

  • 25.

    Horie, H. ; Kohata, K. Analysis of tea components by high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A 2000, 881(1–2), 425438.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Pan, Z. ; Peng, J. ; Zang, X. ; Peng, H. ; Xiao, H. ; Bu, L. ; Chen, F. ; HeY. ; Chen, Y. ; Wang, X. ; Li, S. ; Chen, Y. High-performance liquid chromatography study of gatifloxacin and sparfloxacin using erythrosine as post-column resonance Rayleigh scattering reagent and mechanism study. Lumin.: J. Biol. Chem. Lumin. 2018, 33(2), 417424.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Angi, C. ; Lurie, I. S. ; Marginean, I. Analysis of fentanyl derivatives by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet and single quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. J. Separat. Sci. 2019, 42(9), 16861694.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Zhu, Y. ; Ju, R. ; Ma, F. ; Qian, J. ; Yan, J. ; Li, S. ; Li, Z. Moisture variation analysis of the green plum during the drying process based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Food Sci. 2021, 86(12), 51375147.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Salvino, R. A. ; Aroulanda, C. ; De Filpo, G. ; Celebre, G. ; De Luca, G. Metabolic composition and authenticity evaluation of bergamot essential oil assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2022, 414(6), 22972313.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Naveen Kumar, M. S. ; Gupta, G. ; Kumar, V. ; Jagannathan, N. R. ; Sinha, S. ; Mewar, S. ; Kumar, P. Differentiation between sepsis survivors and sepsis non-survivors through blood serum metabolomics: a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(NMR) study. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2022, 89, 4957.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Aries, M. L. ; Cloninger, M. J. NMR metabolomic analysis of bacterial resistance pathways using multivalent quaternary ammonium functionalized macromolecules. Metabolomics: Off. J. Metabolomic Soc. 2020, 16(8), 82.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Pena-Lorenzo, D. ; Rebollo, N. ; Sanchez-Hernandez, J. G. ; Zarzuelo-Castaneda, A. Comparison of ultra-performance liquid chromatography and ARK immunoassay for therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 2021, 58(6), 657660.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    d'Oliveira, G. D. C. ; Chaves, A. R. ; Perez, C. N. Development and analytical validation of the methodology for vitamins in tablets by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2020, 57(10), 881891.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Song, C. ; Zhang, H. ; Guo, Z. ; Yan, J. ; Jin, G. ; Liang, X. Determination of five protopanaxadiol ginsenosides in ginseng by solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography. Se pu = Chin. J. Chromatogr. 2020, 38(5), 547553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Kang, L. ; Lin, C. ; Ning, F. ; Sun, X. ; Zhang, M. ; Zhang, H. ; Wang, Y. ; Hu, P. Rapid determination of folic acid and riboflavin in urine by polypyrrole magnetic solid-phase extractant combined ultra-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 2021, 1648, 462192.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Nahar, L. ; Onder, A. ; Sarker, S. D. A review on the recent advances in HPLC, UHPLC and UPLC analyses of naturally occurring cannabinoids (2010–2019). Phytochem. Anal.: PCA 2020, 31(4), 413457.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1.

    Bosch, A. A. ; Biesbroek, G. ; Trzcinski, K. ; Sanders, E. A. ; Bogaert, D. Viral and bacterial interactions in the upper respiratory tract. PLoS Pathog. 2013, 9(1), e1003057.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Kompanikova, J. ; Zumdick, A. ; Neuschlova, M. ; Sadlonova, V. ; Novakova, E. Microbiologic methods in the diagnostics of upper respiratory tract pathogens. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2017, 1020, 2531.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Hviid, A. ; Rubin, S. ; Muhlemann, K. Mumps. Lancet 2008, 371(9616), 932944.

  • 4.

    Zeppa, P. ; Cozzolino, I. Lymphadenitis and lymphadenopathy. Monogr. Clin. Cytol. 2018, 23, 1933.

  • 5.

    Sanders, O. ; Bolton, L. ; Nemeth, Z. ; Hardy, A. ; Meghji, S. A 4-year retrospective study of tonsillectomy rate and admission rate of tonsillitis and complications in the East of England and nationally. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol.: Off. J. Eur. Fed. Otorhinolaryngol. Soc. 2021, 278(7), 26132618.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bai, Y. ; Li, Y. X. ; Shi, Y. J. ; Zhao, H. Y. Meta-analysis on effectiveness and safety of Pudilan Xiaoyan Oral Liquid on child upper respiratory infection. Zhongguo Zhong yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China J. Chin. Mater. Med. 2020, 45(9), 22032209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Liang, Y. Z. ; Xie, P. S. ; Chan, K. Chromatographic fingerprinting and metabolomics for quality control of TCM. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 2010, 13(10), 943953.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Alaerts, G. ; Dejaegher, B. ; Smeyers-Verbeke, J. ; Vander Heyden, Y. Recent developments in chromatographic fingerprints from herbal products: set-up and data analysis. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 2010, 13(10), 900922.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Xie, P. ; Chen, S. ; Liang, Y. Z. ; Wang, X. ; Tian, R. ; Upton, R. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis--a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. J. Chromatogr. A 2006, 1112(1–2), 171180.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Goodarzi, M. ; Russell, P. J. ; Vander Heyden, Y. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: a review. Analytica Chim. Acta 2013, 804, 1628.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Krol-Kogus, B. ; Lamine, K. M. ; Migas, P. ; Boudjeniba, M. ; Krauze-Baranowska, M. HPTLC determination of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds. Acta Pharmaceutica 2018, 68(1), 97107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sethuraman, V. ; Janakiraman, K. ; Krishnaswami, V. ; Natesan, S. ; Kandasamy, R. Combinatorial analysis of quercetin and resveratrol by HPTLC in Sesbania grandiflora/phyto-based nanoformulations. Nat. Prod. Res. 2021, 35(13), 22432248.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hazra, A. K. ; Chakraborty, B. ; Mitra, A. ; Sur, T. K. A rapid HPTLC method to estimate piperine in Ayurvedic formulations. J. Ayurveda Integr. Med. 2019, 10(4), 248254.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Naguib, I. A. ; Magdy, M. A. ; Anwar, B. H. ; Abdelhamid, N. S. A validated green HPTLC method for quantitative determination of dapoxetine hydrochloride and tadalafil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2020, 58(4), 303308.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Wang, Z. ; Benning, C. Arabidopsis thaliana polar glycerolipid profiling by thin layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). J. Vis. Exp.: JoVE 2011, (49).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ferenczi-Fodor, K. ; Vegh, Z. ; Renger, B. Impurity profiling of pharmaceuticals by thin-layer chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 2011, 1218(19), 27222731.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Abdelwahab, N. S. ; Ali, N. W. ; Abdelkawy, M. ; Emam, A. A. Validated RP-HPLC and TLC-densitometric methods for analysis of ternary mixture of cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorocresol and lidocaine in oral antiseptic formulation. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2016, 54(3), 318325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Hetrick, E. M. ; Shi, Z. ; Harms, Z. D. ; Myers, D. P. Sample mass estimate for the use of near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy to monitor content uniformity in a tablet press feed frame of a drug product continuous manufacturing process. Appl. Spectrosc. 2021, 75(2), 216224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Mazurek, S. ; Szostak, R. Quantitative determination of prednisone in tablets by infrared attenuated total reflection and Raman spectroscopy. J. AOAC Int. 2012, 95(3), 744750.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mao, J. ; Xu, J. Discrimination of herbal medicines by molecular spectroscopy and chemical pattern recognition. Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 2006, 65(2), 497500.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Perez-Galvez, A. ; Viera, I. ; Roca, M. Acquisition of mass spectrometry data of carotenoids: a focus on big data management. Methods Mol. Biol. 2020, 2083, 135144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Goto-Inoue, N. ; Hayasaka, T. ; Setou, M. Imaging mass spectrometry of glycolipids. Methods Enzymol. 2010, 478, 287301.

  • 23.

    Lockwood, G. B. Techniques for gas chromatography of volatile terpenoids from a range of matrices. J. Chromatogr. A 2001, 936(1–2), 2331.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Priddis, C. R. Capillary gas chromatography of lupin alkaloids. J. Chromatogr. 1983, 261(1), 95101.

  • 25.

    Horie, H. ; Kohata, K. Analysis of tea components by high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A 2000, 881(1–2), 425438.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Pan, Z. ; Peng, J. ; Zang, X. ; Peng, H. ; Xiao, H. ; Bu, L. ; Chen, F. ; HeY. ; Chen, Y. ; Wang, X. ; Li, S. ; Chen, Y. High-performance liquid chromatography study of gatifloxacin and sparfloxacin using erythrosine as post-column resonance Rayleigh scattering reagent and mechanism study. Lumin.: J. Biol. Chem. Lumin. 2018, 33(2), 417424.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Angi, C. ; Lurie, I. S. ; Marginean, I. Analysis of fentanyl derivatives by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet and single quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. J. Separat. Sci. 2019, 42(9), 16861694.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Zhu, Y. ; Ju, R. ; Ma, F. ; Qian, J. ; Yan, J. ; Li, S. ; Li, Z. Moisture variation analysis of the green plum during the drying process based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Food Sci. 2021, 86(12), 51375147.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Salvino, R. A. ; Aroulanda, C. ; De Filpo, G. ; Celebre, G. ; De Luca, G. Metabolic composition and authenticity evaluation of bergamot essential oil assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2022, 414(6), 22972313.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Naveen Kumar, M. S. ; Gupta, G. ; Kumar, V. ; Jagannathan, N. R. ; Sinha, S. ; Mewar, S. ; Kumar, P. Differentiation between sepsis survivors and sepsis non-survivors through blood serum metabolomics: a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(NMR) study. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2022, 89, 4957.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Aries, M. L. ; Cloninger, M. J. NMR metabolomic analysis of bacterial resistance pathways using multivalent quaternary ammonium functionalized macromolecules. Metabolomics: Off. J. Metabolomic Soc. 2020, 16(8), 82.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Pena-Lorenzo, D. ; Rebollo, N. ; Sanchez-Hernandez, J. G. ; Zarzuelo-Castaneda, A. Comparison of ultra-performance liquid chromatography and ARK immunoassay for therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 2021, 58(6), 657660.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    d'Oliveira, G. D. C. ; Chaves, A. R. ; Perez, C. N. Development and analytical validation of the methodology for vitamins in tablets by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2020, 57(10), 881891.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Song, C. ; Zhang, H. ; Guo, Z. ; Yan, J. ; Jin, G. ; Liang, X. Determination of five protopanaxadiol ginsenosides in ginseng by solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography. Se pu = Chin. J. Chromatogr. 2020, 38(5), 547553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Kang, L. ; Lin, C. ; Ning, F. ; Sun, X. ; Zhang, M. ; Zhang, H. ; Wang, Y. ; Hu, P. Rapid determination of folic acid and riboflavin in urine by polypyrrole magnetic solid-phase extractant combined ultra-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 2021, 1648, 462192.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Nahar, L. ; Onder, A. ; Sarker, S. D. A review on the recent advances in HPLC, UHPLC and UPLC analyses of naturally occurring cannabinoids (2010–2019). Phytochem. Anal.: PCA 2020, 31(4), 413457.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kowalska, Teresa

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sajewicz, Mieczyslaw

Editors(s)

  • Danica Agbaba (University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Ivana Stanimirova-Daszykowska (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)

Editorial Board

  • R. Bhushan (The Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India)
  • J. Bojarski (Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland)
  • B. Chankvetadze (State University of Tbilisi, Tbilisi, Georgia)
  • M. Daszykowski (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • T.H. Dzido (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • A. Felinger (University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary)
  • K. Glowniak (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • B. Glód (Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland)
  • A. Gumieniczek (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • U. Hubicka (Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland)
  • K. Kaczmarski (Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszów, Poland)
  • H. Kalász (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • K. Karljiković Rajić (University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia)
  • I. Klebovich (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • A. Koch (Private Pharmacy, Hamburg, Germany)
  • Ł. Komsta (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • P. Kus (Univerity of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • D. Mangelings (Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium)
  • E. Mincsovics (Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Á. M. Móricz (Centre for Agricultural Research, Budapest, Hungary)
  • G. Morlock (Giessen University, Giessen, Germany)
  • A. Petruczynik (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • R. Skibiński (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • B. Spangenberg (Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
  • T. Tuzimski (Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)
  • Y. Vander Heyden (Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium)
  • A. Voelkel (Poznań University of Technology, Poznań, Poland)
  • B. Walczak (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland)
  • W. Wasiak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland)
  • I.G. Zenkevich (St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation)

 

KOWALSKA, TERESA
E-mail: kowalska@us.edu.pl

SAJEWICZ, MIECZYSLAW
E-mail:msajewic@us.edu.pl

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Science Citation Index
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  • Chemical and Earth Sciences
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  • CABI

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
652
Journal Impact Factor 2,011
Rank by Impact Factor Chemistry, Analytical 66/87
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1,789
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,350
Journal Citation Indicator 0,40
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator Chemistry, Analytical 72/99
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
29
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,27
Scimago Quartile Score Chemistry (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
2,8
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Chemistry 210/409 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,586

2020
 
Total Cites
650
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
1,639
Rank by
Chemistry, Analytical 71/83 (Q4)
Impact Factor
 
Impact Factor
1,412
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
1,301
Impact Factor
Journal
0,34
Citation Indicator
 
Rank by Journal
Chemistry, Analytical 75/93 (Q4)
Citation Indicator
 
Citable
45
Items
Total
43
Articles
Total
2
Reviews
Scimago
28
H-index
Scimago
0,316
Journal Rank
Scimago
Chemistry (miscellaneous) Q3
Quartile Score
 
Scopus
393/181=2,2
Scite Score
 
Scopus
General Chemistry 215/398 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank
 
Scopus
0,560
SNIP
 
Days from
58
submission
 
to acceptance
 
Days from
68
acceptance
 
to publication
 
Acceptance
51%
Rate

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
495
Impact Factor 1,418
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1,374
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,936
Immediacy
Index
0,460
Citable
Items
50
Total
Articles
50
Total
Reviews
0
Cited
Half-Life
6,2
Citing
Half-Life
8,3
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00048
Article Influence
Score
0,164
% Articles
in
Citable Items
100,00
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,05895
Average
IF
Percentile
20,349
Scimago
H-index
26
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,255
Scopus
Scite Score
226/167=1,4
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Chemistry (miscellaneous) 240/398 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,494
Acceptance
Rate
41%

 

Acta Chromatographica
Publication Model Online only
Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 400 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Purchase per Title  

Acta Chromatographica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1992
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia
Founder's
Address
PL-40-007 Katowice, Poland, Bankowa 12
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2083-5736 (Online)

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