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Atyurmila Chakraborty Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur - 603 203, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India

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Kavitha Jayaseelan Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur - 603 203, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India

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Seetharaman Rathinam Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur - 603 203, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India

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Kokilambigai K. S. Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur - 603 203, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India

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Nethra K. Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur - 603 203, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India

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Abstract

Hydrochlorothiazide has been utilized clinically for the past half-century, which is popularly known as a “water pill” as it produces increased urine output. The advancement of bioanalytical methods brought a dynamic field with exciting opportunities for future research. The current review emphasis the bioanalytical methods employed for the quantitative estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide as monotherapy and its popularly used combinational medications available from 1956 to till date. A fixed dose of 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide with 43 combinational medications is currently available in the market and these combinations are widely employed in the treatment of hypertensive people; those whose blood pressure does not respond effectively to monotherapy of hydrochlorothiazide and also for the treatment of edema (excess fluid in the body) caused by illness such as heart failure, liver problems, and renal disease. It has been convincingly demonstrated that the combination of any two antihypertensive medications belonging to different groups of the same category, significantly lowers blood pressure, in comparison with the effect produced by increasing the dose of a single medicament. Among the various analytical techniques employed for the estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, the review portrays that hyphenated technique, in specific liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy was widely employed. The validation parameters namely linearity, LOD, LOQ for individual drug and their combinations, were successfully calibrated. The effectiveness of analytical approaches was evaluated and enhanced for chemical factors. The involvement of green chemistry in the optimized methods for the evaluation of Hydrochlorothiazide for the future development, are suggested.

Abstract

Hydrochlorothiazide has been utilized clinically for the past half-century, which is popularly known as a “water pill” as it produces increased urine output. The advancement of bioanalytical methods brought a dynamic field with exciting opportunities for future research. The current review emphasis the bioanalytical methods employed for the quantitative estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide as monotherapy and its popularly used combinational medications available from 1956 to till date. A fixed dose of 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide with 43 combinational medications is currently available in the market and these combinations are widely employed in the treatment of hypertensive people; those whose blood pressure does not respond effectively to monotherapy of hydrochlorothiazide and also for the treatment of edema (excess fluid in the body) caused by illness such as heart failure, liver problems, and renal disease. It has been convincingly demonstrated that the combination of any two antihypertensive medications belonging to different groups of the same category, significantly lowers blood pressure, in comparison with the effect produced by increasing the dose of a single medicament. Among the various analytical techniques employed for the estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, the review portrays that hyphenated technique, in specific liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy was widely employed. The validation parameters namely linearity, LOD, LOQ for individual drug and their combinations, were successfully calibrated. The effectiveness of analytical approaches was evaluated and enhanced for chemical factors. The involvement of green chemistry in the optimized methods for the evaluation of Hydrochlorothiazide for the future development, are suggested.

1 Introduction

Millions of individuals around the world are impacted by public health problems like high blood pressure and hypertension. Angina, stroke, renal failure, and early mortality are all impacted by atherosclerosis-related heart disease. According to the World Health Organization, 45 percent of deaths are caused by hypertension [1]. Most recent guidelines continue to recommend thiazide-related diuretics as first-line treatments for all patients with hypertension in some nations, including Australia, Canada, Europe, International/ASH, and JNCB.

A benzothiadiazide termed hydrochlorothiazide (C7H8ClN3O4S2), molecular weight of 297.739, is thought up of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide that's had a chloro group added to position 6 and a sulfonamide attached to position 7. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is absorbed rapidly when taken orally and is detected in the urine after an hour [2]. The chemical structure of HCTZ has been represented in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chemical structure of HCTZ

(IUPAC name: 6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide)

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2024; 10.1556/1326.2023.01187

HCTZ can be used alone or with a combination with 43 other drugs, including Aliskiren, Amiloride, Atenolol, Amlodipine, Valsartan, Candesartan, Clonidine, Furosemide, Enalapril, Eprosartan, Irbesartan, Lisinopril, Losartan, Metoprolol tartrate, Nebivolol, Nitrendipine, Olmesartan, Quinapril, Ramipril, Reserpine, Telmisartan, Triamterene, Benazepril, Fosinopril, Enalaprilat, Captopril disulfide, Chlorthalidone, Doxazosin, Salicylic acid, Fluvastatin, Nifedipine, Cilazapril, Cilazaprilat, Dehydronitrendipine, Labetalol, Losartan carboxylic acid, (EXP3174), Quinaprilat, Simvastatin, Aspirin, Ramiprilat etc.

Many products has been used in combination with HCTZ like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, Direct Renin Inhibitor, K + Sparing Diuretics, β Adrenergic Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, Central sympatholytics, High ceiling Diuretics, β Adrenergic Blockers, Adrenergic neuron Blockers, Thiazide Diuretics, α adrenergic blockers, keratolytic, HMG- CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), Non- selective COX inhibitors (salicylates) etc. Amongst them angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers are mostly used.

The discovery, development, and manufacture of a new pharmaceutical product necessitate a thoroughly validated analytical plan. Conducting a comprehensive literature analysis is the only way to achieve this. Consequently, multiple search engines were employed to conduct a literature assessment, which revealed that there is no existing analytical review article on HCTZ and its combinations with biological fluids. Hence, the objective of this review is to compile, clarify, and consolidate the several tools and methodologies that have been devised thus far for the bioanalytical development of HCTZ, whether individually or in conjunction with other pharmaceutical formulations. Upon reading this review paper, the analyst will acquire a comprehensive set of facts to create and implement a resilient bioanalytical method in accordance with the ICH and USFDA criteria. This article provides an overview of the several extraction methods that have been successfully employed to recover HCTZ and its numerous combinations from a wide range of biological matrices.

There are plenty of different analytical techniques for detecting HCTZ in biological fluids that have been reported in the literature. UV–visible spectroscopy is one of the spectroscopic techniques. Chromatographic techniques include High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Ion Performance Liquid Chromatography (IP-LC), Micellar Liquid Chromatography (MLC), High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), and Hyphenated techniques include Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS), Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). There are numerous articles that suggest how to find out amount of HCTZ in plasma, urine, and serum.

Antihypertensive patients can benefit from HCTZ monotherapy for oedema, diuresis, and antihypertensive patients. For the majority of patients with these illnesses, effective cardiovascular prevention is relatively attainable if combinations of two or more medicines are used to control of acceptable BP. For cardiovascular patients with high-risk characteristics, this combination drug therapy may be effective and call for more intense drug therapy. It may improve patient compliance and adherence in patients who are not responding to high dose monotherapy, particularly when the fixed-dose combination is used. A stronger antihypertensive response and a higher success rate in maintaining the target blood pressure are two evident benefits of starting treatment with a combination drug rather than a minimum monotherapy and gradual up-titration [3].

HCTZ got FDA approval on February 12, 1959. According to the most current statistics on HCTZ, the FDA has issued a recall because prolonged use of the drug can cause non-melanoma carcinoma or cancer (basal cell skin cancer or squamous cell skin cancer).

1.1 Physiochemical properties of HCTZ

Being a diuretic having insufficient solubility and permeability, HCTZ is characterized as Class IV by the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). HCTZ is a white crystalline powder, odorless and slightly bitter in taste. 60–80% absorption of HCTZ was found to be in duodenum and in upper jejunum. The route of administration is through oral and it can be taken alone or in combination. The range of dosage is (25 mg) minimum, to maximum (1,000 mg). During breastfeeding, 50 mg per day or less dose is appropriate as excessive diuresis in big dosages may reduce breastmilk supply [1–7]. HCTZ is soluble in acetone, sparingly soluble in ethanol, methanol and insoluble in ether, CHCl3 and in mineral acids.

1.2 Pharmacology

Investigations into the anti-cholinergic, anti-histaminic, and spasmolytic effects of HCTZ were performed [8]. Due to their inhibition properties to the sodium chloride symporter, these substances are categorized as sodium chloride symporter inhibitors [9]. In terms of dose-response impact, HCTZ is 6.3 times more powerful than chlorothiazide [8]. Figure 2 represents the mechanism of action of HCTZ.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mechanism of action of HCTZ

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2024; 10.1556/1326.2023.01187

The dosage ranged from 25 mg for the lowest quantity to 1,000 mg orally twice for the highest. The diuretic, natriuretic, and chloruretic effects can be seen in HCTZ [9]. The cortical segment and the early part of distal tubule both function as diuretics similar to thiazides [10]. Moreover natriuretic response is comparatively higher than chloruretic response. A dosage of 100–200 mg of HCTZ administered twice daily appears to have similar natriuretic effects as 1,000 mg of chlorothiazide administered twice daily. The medication should be taken twice-a-day at a dose of not more than 100 mg [9].

1.3 Therapeutic uses

HCTZ can be used as antihypertensive medications, diuretics, and sodium chloride symporter inhibitors. As a supplementary treatment for edema brought on by congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and oestrogen medication, HCTZ tablets are utilized. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that HCTZ tablets can help with edema brought on by several forms of renal failure, including nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, and renal impairment.

1.4 Route of administration and formulation

The oral route of administration is mostly preferred for administering HCTZ. HCTZ can be given liquid dose of 50 mg/5 mL and solid dose of 25 mg or 12.5 mg to treat essential hypertension. 25 mg of solid oral dose is preferred to treat oedema as diuretics. In case of heart failure 50 mg/5 mL liquid dose and 25 mg of solid dose can be given as preferred medication. Although the intravenous method of delivery is infrequently utilized but label recovery is better than the oral route [11]. This has been one of the challenging requirements for the study of research scholar.

1.5 Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics is the study of how the body impacts drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. A medication's pharmacokinetics are analyzed using the distribution volume, bioavailability, clearance, and elimination half-life [12, 13]. The volume of distribution and clearance have an inverse relationship with the elimination half-life. One or more of these parameters may be impacted by physiological changes brought on by ageing or medical disorder [14]. The pharmacokinetic parameters of HCTZ contain distribution volume (Vd) of 210L, average oral bioavailability of 89.4 ± 25.9%, peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of 2–5 h, creatinine clearance of 106 mL min−1 and elimination half-life of 8.2–12.3 h [2–68–10].

1.6 Toxicity and adverse effects

The most severe effects of HCTZ causes hyponatremia (low Na + level in blood), that can be harmful, particularly for the elderly. Hypokalemia (low K+ level in blood) can result in unfavorable medication interactions and cause encephalopathy in people with severe liver disease. For instance, rashes and blood dyscrasias, are infrequent but serious [15]. The drawbacks of thiazide-like diuretics include carbohydrate intolerance, hypervolemia (volume depletion), elevated blood urea, and hypomagnesemia (magnesium depletion) (more with thiazides). Erectile dysfunction is the most common significant adverse effect of diuretics in the thiazide class. HCTZ therapy may result in thrombocytopenia [10].

2 Techniques employed in the extraction of analyte from biological samples

2.1 Solid-phase extraction (SPE)

The treatment system for extracting organic molecules from a variety of materials, as well as for purification, concentration, and fractionation, is known as SPE [16]. The four steps of the solid phase are further conditioning, sample loading, washing, and elution [17]. This methodology can be used to desalt proteins, store sugar samples and micro pollutants from environmental samples. For all of the studied diuretics, SPE techniques are the best option due to their adaptability, short processing times, and high recovery rates [18]. SPE is the most popular technique for preparing samples of HPLC. It is also used in other applications of derivatization, concentration of pigments, and changing of solvents. SPE takes place between a solid and a liquid phase [19]. In addition to novel materials and sorbent formats, SPE has experienced a number of modifications lately, most of which have been prompted by the shrinking and automation of various phases of the SPE, leading to the creation of new extraction methods [20].

2.2 Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)

LLE is a method for extracting substances from liquids based on the partitioning of molecules between two immiscible liquid phases, one of which is the aqueous sample (biomatrix) and the other is the organic solvent [20]. Distillation and crystallization are the two main applications of liquid extraction where LLE is often used for non-volatile or heat-sensitive compounds, such as antibiotics (e.g., mineral salts) [21]. Micro-extraction is a type of LLE technology that involves Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and Membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) [20].

2.3 Protein precipitation (PP)

Proteins could be extracted from natural sources including human plasma, bacterial extracts, and plant extracts using this method called PP. The processing of feedstocks in biosynthetic and bioanalytical strategies can also be done using the PP method. Precipitation may be the only PP technique employed in some protein purification processes. Blood plasma fractionation offers numerous examples of this approach, most notably in formation of albumin and immunoglobulin products G (IgG) [22]. Since over 130 centuries prior, protein precipitation has been used to separate proteins, and numerous strategies have been developed for this purpose [23].

3 Bioanalytical methods

3.1 Methods for the estimation of HCTZ as a single entity

HCTZ inhibits the sodium chloride co-transporter system in the distal convoluted tubules. This action has a diuretic effect, lowering blood pressure, but it also causes potassium loss in the urine. Majority of the chromatographic techniques reported for the determination of HCTZ as a single moiety in biological materials, such as blood plasma, serum, and urine, rely on HPLC and LC with mass or tandem mass spectrophotometry. For the estimation of the HCTZ as single entity in biological matrices, HPLC is ideally suitable since it provides selective result, which allows the explicit determination of HCTZ and its metabolites. Furthermore, LS-MS and capillary electrophoresis methods were also employed in the detection of HCTZ. Analytical methods for the estimation of HCTZ as a single moiety were given in Table 1.

Table 1.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ as a single moiety

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZHPLCHuman plasmaSPEHibarLichrospher 100 RP-8 (250 × 4 mm)0.025 mol L−1 KH2PO4, pH 5 and 15% CAN230N/A1.210–900310[24]
HCTZHPLCHuman plasmaLLEAgilent XDB-C18 (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm)ACN-0.1% trifluoroacetic acid: H2O (20:40:40)266FLU0.85, 400N/A5[25]
HCTZHPLCHuman plasmaN/AShimadzu Shimpack VPODS analytical column (5 μm, 150 mm × 4.6 mm)15%ACN and 85% TMAHS buffer solution(pH = 4.90)271N/A1.02.0–400N/AN/A[26]
HCTZHPLCHuman plasmaN/AAgilent Zorbax SB column (100 mm ×  2.1 mm, 3.0 μm)MeOH/H2O (80 : 20, v/v)N/ASMZ0.151.070–214.41.070N/A[27]
HCTZHPLCHuman SerumN/A(RP18, 125 × 4 mm I.D. 5 µm; end capped, LiChroCART HPLC-cartridge;)phosphate buffer ACN (90:10, v/v).N/APABA0.85–150N/A5[28]
HCTZHPLCHuman UrineLLEC18 analytical column0.1% aqueous acetic acid: ACN (93:7, v/v)272N/A0.302 to 501N/A[29]
HCTZRP-HPLCHuman plasmaN/AAtlantis d C18 column.10 mM monobasic potassium phosphate: ACN (80:20, v/v)272HFM1.25–300N/A5[30]
HCTZHPLC-MSHuman plasmaSPEThermoHypurity Advance (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) columnACN: 2 mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v)m/z 296.10/205.00ZIDO0.52.036 to 203.621N/A2.036[31]
HCTZHPLC-MSHuman PlasmaLLEmonolithic C18 (50 × 4.6 mm)ACN: H2O (80:20 v/v, add 5% isopropyl alcohol)m/z

296.10, 204.85
CTD1.05–400N/A5[32]
HCTZHPLC-MSHuman UrineLLEUltra-Phenyl guard column (10 4 mm, 3 mm)ACN: 10 mM ammonium acetate (40:60, v/v),m/z 296 and 330HFM10N/AN/AN/A[33]
HCTZLCHuman plasmaN/AA stainless-steel column (5 km; 15 cm x 4.6 mm) Nucleosil C-8.10 mM sodium phosphate monobasic- ACN - MeOH (90:6:4, v/v/v),N/AHBT1.22.0–1,0002.0N/A[34]
HCTZLC-ESI-MSHuman plasmaLLEC18 columnH2O: ACN (68:32, v/v)m/z – 296MP1.02.5–200N/A1.0[35]
HCTZLC- MSHuman plasmaLLEWaters symmetry C1810 mm ammonium acetate: MeOH (15:85, v/v).m/z – 296.1 → 205.0TAMS1.00.5–200N/AN/A[36]
HCTZLC-MSHuman plasmaSPEPhenomenox kromasil C8 columnH2O: MeOH (27: 73)m/z − 295.9IRBE1.00.78–200N/A0.78[37]
HCTZCEHuman Urine, Zhen JujiangYaPianN/AN/ANa2B4O7, NaH2PO4N/AN/AN/A2.0 to 1.05.0

2.0
N/A[38]
HCTZRP-HPLCBiological fluidN/AODS Hypersil C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm)pH (3.497), ACN (10.6%), MeOH (16.2%) optimized using Box-Behnken design210N/A11.25–12.751.093.33[39]

HCTZ- Hydrochlorothiazide; HPLC- High Performance Liquid Chromatography; SPE- Solid Phase Extraction; LLE- Liquid liquid Extraction; RP-HPLC- Reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC-MS- High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; LC- Liquid Chromatography; LC-ESI-MS- Liquid chromatography Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry; LC- MS- Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; CE- Capillary electrophoresis; KH2PO4 – Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate; ACN- Acetonitrile; TMAHS- Tetra methyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate; MeOH- Methanol; Na2B4O7- Sodium tetraborate; NaH2PO4- Sodium dihydrogen phosphate; FLU- Fluconazole; SMZ- Sulfa methazole; PABA- Para-amino benzoic acid; HFM- Hydroflumethiazide; ZIDO- Zidovudine; CTD – Chlorthalidone; HBT-6-bromo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadi- azine-7-sulphonamide l, l-dioxide; MP- Methylparaben; TAMS- Tamsulosin; IRBE- Irbesartan; N/A- Not available; m/z- Mass per charge ratio; nm- Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute.

3.2 Methods for the estimation of HCTZ in its combinations

This literature survey revealed a need for quantification of HCTZ and its combinations by enduring the following analytical methods in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological samples. The estimation was carried out by various analytical methods. The most commonly used method was Hyphenated Technique especially Liquid Chromatography combined with Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) where acetonitrile (ACN) act as a major solvent followed by methanol and water. The extraction was mainly carried out by SPE, LLE and PP technique. Among which LLE technique was predominantly used. The capillary electrophoresis was the rarest method in estimation of HCTZ which utilizes the Chinese herb and mobile phase used were sodium tetraborate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate.

3.2.1 Chromatographic techniques

3.2.1.1 High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Among the numerous analytical methods, HPLC is the most commonly used chromatographic technique. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography, High-performance liquid chromatography, High price liquid chromatography, High-speed liquid chromatography (HSLC), High-efficiency liquid chromatography (HELC) can separate macromolecules and ionic species, as well as liable natural products, polymeric materials, and a broad range of other high-molecular-weight polyfunctional groups. In HPLC, chromatographic separation is the consequence of interactions between sample molecules and both the stationary and mobile phases [40]. Bioanalytical methods for the quantification of HCTZ and its combinations using HPLC has been represented in Table 2 and proportion of analytical methods available for the estimation of HCTZ as single moiety in bioanalytical Samples has been represented in Fig. 3.

Table 2.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combinations using HPLC

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ + COMBINATION OF DRUGS – AML OLM, VAL.HPLC-UVHuman plasmaLLERP-ColumnACN - MeOH −10 mmol H3PO4 pH 2.5 (7:13:80, v/v/v)235N/A1.00.4–25.6

0.3–22

0.3–15.5

0.1–18.5
N/AN/A[41]
HCTZ + NITREHPLCRat plasmaSPECAPCELL MF C8 SPE columnACN: HCOOH (4 mM) (60:40, v/v)237N/A1.05–500

10–1,000
0.5

0.6
N/A[42]
HCTZ + LOSARP-HPLCHuman SerumN/AC18 reversed-phase column0.01 M KH2PO4: ACN (65:35; v/v)232FURO1.025–10,000

50–10,000
1.02

1.02
3.39

14.96
[43]
HCTZ + CILAZAPRIL + CILAZAPRILATRP- LCHuman urineSPEZorbax

Eclipse XDB-C18 column
MeOH and 10 mM phosphate buffer206ENAL1.02.4–30.0,

1.6–15.0

1.8–20.0
0.9, 0.6 and 0.82.4

1.6

1.8
[44]
HCTZ + IRBEHPLC-MSHuman plasmaPPSupercoil

C (5 mm, 15 cm 34.6 mm) column
10 M KH2PO4: MeOH: ACN (5:80:15 v/v/v)275N/A1.010.0–60.0

4.0–20.0
0.98

0.43
2.98

1.86
[45]
HCTZ + AMILORHPLCHuman plasmaPPShim-pack cyano propyl column10 mM KH2PO4– MeOH (70 : 30, v/v)N/ACTD10.1–10N/AN/A[46]
HCTZ + AMILORHPLCHuman UrineSPECyanopropyl column10 mM KH2PO4 solution (pH 4.5)– MeOH (70 : 30, v/v)214CTD10.1–250.030.1[46]
HCTZ + AMLO + ALISIHPLCHuman Plasma, urineSPERP_C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm, Phenomenex)10 mM H3PO4 containing 0.1% triethylamine (pH 2.5, v/v) and ACN271N/A10.0125–2.50.002, 0.004

0.005, 0.011

0.003,

0.01
0.006, 0.012

0.015,

0.034

0.009

0.03
[47]
HCTZ + AMLO + VALHPLCHuman plasmaPPRP-C18 chromatographic column, PhenomenexKinetex (150 × 4.6 mm)ACN-phosphate buffer (0.05 M) (40/60, v/v)227N/A0.81–121.04, 1.42, 0.393.16, 4.31 0.81[48]
HCTZ + AMLO + VALRP-HPLCHuman plasmaPPGemini

C18 column
70% ACN and 30% ammonium formate pH 3.5 ± 0.2,254TELMI15–400

6–200

50–4,000
N/A6.7 and 109.3

6.4 and 104.2

5.8 and 109.6
[49]
HCTZ + CANDEHPLCHuman plasmaN/ASupercoil C18 (5 mm, 15 cm 4.6 mm) column10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate: methanol: ACN (2:80:18, v/v/v)260N/A1.030.0–2500.0 and 20.0–1000.02.011.0[50]
HCTZ + ENALHPLCHuman plasmaPPC18 reversed-phase columnphosphate buffer: ACN (80: 20) v/v265Caffeine anhydrous10.005–0.1

0.01–0.2
0.002550.0085[51]
HCTZ + EPROHPLCHuman plasmaN/ASymmetry C18 column 250 × 4.6 mm idACN –0.1M phosphate buffer275N/A10.5–50, 0.1–100.06–0.020.20

0.08
[52]
HCTZ + IRBEHPLCHuman plasmaN/AN/Aphosphate buffer: ACN: MeOH272N/A1N/A0.015,

1.5
N/A[53]
HCTZ + OLME + IRBEHPLCHuman SerumN/AC18 column (15 cm u 4.6 mm, 5 µm)ACN - 0.2%, AA aqueous solution (50:50, v/v)260N/A1.06.25–18.75,

20–60, 75–225
1,

2,

2
3[54]
HCTZ + RESLCHuman urinePPElite C18 columnACN (A) and 0.2% NH4 Cl solution (B) A: B at (30:70)N/ARIF0.80.05–20

0.02–5.0
5.5 18.27.1

23.6
[55]
HCTZ, TELMIHPLC-UVHuman plasmaLLEshim-pack cyanopropyl columnMeOH: 10 mM Ammonium acetate, isocratic elution270INDN/A1–10 0.31–3.120.018 0.0220.052

0.068
[56]
HCTZ + CAPTORP-HPLCHuman plasmaPPC18 column (DIAMONSIL 150 × 4 mm, 5 µm)ACN– trifluoroacetic acid–H2O gradient elution263Sulphaimidine1.210–1,200

20–4,000
N/A3.3

7
[57]
HCTZ + BZL + ENL + FSP + LSP + RMP + CPD + ENTHPLC – UVHuman plasma, urineSPEExtend RP-C18 (25_m particle size, 4.6 × 250 mm, Agilent) HPLC column25 mM ammonia buffer: ACN mixture.215l-Aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester1.0N/A17–6456–212[58]
HCTZ + LABIHPLCHuman plasmaLLEMicrobondapak C18 column (4.6 i.d. x 250 nm)0.05 M phosphate buffer: ACN (7:3)302PARA0.70.3–100.050.25[59]
HCTZ + OLMEHPLChuman plasmaN/AKromasil C18 columnACN -0.02 mol L−1KH2PO4 buffer (32:68, v/v)272CANDEN/A0.005–0.64

0.01–4.0
N/AN/A[60]
HCTZ + EPRO MesylateRP-HPLCHuman plasmaN/AC18 (150  mm × 4.6  mm, 5m)0.1% orthophosphoric acid pH (2.2): ACN (60:40)240N/A18.5–340

80–3,200
N/AN/A[61]

HCTZ- Hydrochlorothiazide; HPLC- High Performance Liquid Chromatography; SPE- Solid Phase Extraction; IND – Indapamide; LLE- Liquid liquid Extraction; RP-HPLC- Reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC-MS- High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; LC- Liquid Chromatography; PP- Protein Precipitation; AMILOR- Amiloride; AMLO- Amlodipine; ALIS- Aliskiren; VAL- Valsartan; CANDE- Candesartan; ENAL- Enalapril maleate; EPRO- Eprosartan; IRBE- Irbesartan; LOSA- Losartan; NITRE- Nitrendipine; OLME- Olmesartan; RES- Reserpine; TELMI- Telmisartan; BZL- Benazepril HCl; FSP- Fosinopril sodium; LISI- Lisinopril; RMP- Ramipril; CPD- Captopril disulfide; ENT- Enalaprilat; CAPTO- Captopril; LABI-Labetalol; RAMI-Ramiprilat; KH2PO4-Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate; ACN – Acetonitrile; MeOH- Methanol; H3PO4 -Orthophosphoric acid; HCOOH-Formic acid; NH4 Cl-Ammonium Chloride; CTD- Chlorthalidone; FURO- Furosemide; PARA-Paracetamol; N/A-Not available; nm-Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Proportion of analytical methods available for the estimation of HCTZ as single moiety in bioanalytical Samples

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2024; 10.1556/1326.2023.01187

In this review, a wide range of HPLC methods have been discussed with different extraction techniques, different bio-matrix by several authors which can be utilized in further clinical trial research work.

Ozkan et al. reported with RP-HPLC where human serum has been used as a bio-matrix in the estimation of HCTZ and Losartan potassium which has been detected at 232 nm. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate and ACN in ratio 65:35 v/v was a choice of solvent [43].

Shang et al. has discussed about the peculiar use of rat plasma as a bio matrix for the estimation of HCTZ and nitrendipine. The linear concentration of HCTZ and nitrendipine was found to be 5–500 ng mL−1 and 10–1,000 ng mL−1 respectively [42].

Salama et al. reveals the estimation of HCTZ and Telmisartan (TELMI) by the combined method of HPLC-UV by LLEE which are detected at 270 nm. The linearity was found to be in the range of 1–10 ng mL−1 and 0.3–3.12 ng mL−1 for HCTZ and TELMI respectively [56].

In this review, three authors discussed about determining 7 ACE inhibitors with HCTZ and spiked human plasma and urine using HPLC - UV in isocratic chromatographic separation, which is cost-effective and suitable for many samples [41].

3.2.1.2 High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)

HPTLC is a more sophisticated variant of traditional Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) in which automation plays a significant role. It is also called flatbed chromatography. In comparison to TLC, HPTLC delivers more efficient separation. TLC and HPTLC work on the same basic principles however, HPTLC varies in several ways, including the use of a precoated stationary phase, automated sample application, densitometric detection using multiple detectors, and photo documentation. These advancements make HPTLC a preferable approach to TLC [62].

In this review, 5 methods have been discussed in this HPTLC. Human plasma used as a biological matrix and silica gel 60 F254 used as a mobile phase in all five reported methods. Rote et al. has discussed double drug combinations of HCTZ and metoprolol tartrate (METO) using Human Plasma where PARA is an internal standard and PP as a bioanalytical extraction technique. The linearity range was found to be 2–12 ng mL−1 and 20–120 ng mL−1 for HCTZ and METO respectively [63]. Table 3 depicted the bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combinations using HPTLC.

Table 3.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combinations using HPTLC

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ + ALISHPTLCHuman plasmaSPEsilica gel 60 GF254

plates
MeOH – CHCl3 (6:4, v/v)225NEBIN/A1.00–10.0 0.10–1.000.2060.624[64]
HCTZ + METOHPTLCHuman plasmaPPprecoated silica gel Plate 60F254CHCl3: MeOH: ammonia (9:1:0.5v/v/v)239PARAN/A2–12

20–120
N/A2

20
[63]
HCTZ, TELMITLC- DENSI-SPECTROPHOTO-SPECTROFLUHuman plasmaN/ASilica gel 60 F 254Butanol: NH3 25% (8:2 v/v)295,

225
N/AN/A0.50–4.50N/AN/A[65]
HCTZ,

TELMI
HPTLCHuman plasmaLLEsilica gel Plate 60F254CHCl3, MeOH, toluene278PARAN/A200–1,200N/AN/A[66]
HCTZ + AMLO + LISI + VALHPTLCHuman plasmaSPEsilica gel 60 F254MeOH -dichloromethane-GAA (9.0:1.0:0.1, v/v/v)215N/A2.4200–1,500

300–1,500

400–2,000

1,000–7,000
54.21

77.27

83.45

156.48
164.28

234.15

252.87

474.19
[67]

HCTZ- Hydrochlorothiazide; HPTLC-High performance thin layer chromatography; TLC-Thin later chromatography; DENSI-Densitometric; SPECTROPHOTO –Spectrophotometric; SPECTROFLU-Spectrofluorometric; ALIS- Aliskiren; TELMI- Telmisartan; METO-Metoprolol tartrate; AMLO- Amlodipine; VAL- Valsartan; LISI-Lisinopril; SPE- Solid Phase Extraction; LLE- Liquid liquid Extraction; PP- Protein Precipitation; CHCl3-Chloroform; MeOH- Methanol; GAA-Glacial acetic acid; PARA-Paracetamol; NEBI-Nebivolol; N/A-Not available; nm-Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute.

3.2.1.3 Ion-pair liquid chromatography (IP-LC)

Ion pair chromatography, a type of reverse-phase chromatography, may deal with ionized or ionizable species on reverse-phase columns. Conventional liquid chromatography methods include samples that are widely used, multiply ionized, and/or highly basic. Organic ions have weak peak morphologies and insufficient retention in conventional reverse-phase HPLC; has used in spiked human urine to report double drug combinations of HCTZ and aliskiren (ALIS). As an internal standard, paracetamol (PARA) is applied [68]. Table 4 represents the bioanalytical methods for the quantification of HCTZ and its combinations using IP-LC.

Table 4.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combinations using IP-LC

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ + ALISIP-LCHuman UrineN/AC18 column (250 mm × 4.6  mm, 3 m)25% MeOH, 50% SMBP aqueous solution containing 6 mm TBAB and 25% H2O210PARA10.2–30.0750.198[68]

HCTZ- Hydrochlorothiazide; ALIS- Aliskiren; PARA-Paracetamol; IP-LC-Ion-pair liquid chromatography; N/A-Not available; nm-Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute; MeOH- Methanol; SMBP-Sodium mono basic phosphate; TBAB-Tetra butyl ammonium bromide.

3.2.1.4 Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC)

Micelles are surfactants with a polar group at the head and a lipid group at the tail. When the concentration of the solution exceeds the critical micellar level, micelles form. Alkyl-bonded C18 is often employed as the stationary phase of RP-MLC. The adoption of the MLC approach saves time in sample preparation and allows for the direct insertion of samples with minimal retention time.

Rambla et al. reported an utilization of special parameter, column temperature which is very useful in MLC optimization where the temperatures ranging from 25 to 40 °C were studied. This approach, represent its ternary combination of HCTZ, amiloride (AMILOR) and atenolol (ATE) in human urine which was examined using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) bonded stationary phase. The concentration range was found to be 0.005–50 μg mL−1 [69], Table 5 represents the bioanalytical methods for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using MLC.

Table 5.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using MLC

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ + AMILOR + ATEMLCHuman UrineLLEHP-β-CD bondedPB (5.0 mmol L−1, pH 7.0)280N/A0.50.05–20.00.007 0.011 0.010.021 0.05 0.04[69]

HCTZ- Hydrochlorothiazide; AMILOR- Amiloride; ATE-Atenolol; MLC-Misceller Liquid Chromatography; HP-β-CD- Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin; LLE-Liquid Liquid Extraction; N/A-Not available; m/z-Mass per charge ratio; nm-Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute.

3.2.2 Hyphenated techniques

A hyphenated technique is the concept of combination of the separation/chromatographic approach with an online spectroscopic detection technology. The goal is to determine the chromatographic approach coupled with the spectroscopic approach is to get an information-rich detection for both identification and quantification [70].

3.2.2.1 LC-MS

LC-MS comes under double hyphenated technique. The commonly used ionization technique in the development of bio analytical methods was Electron Spray Ionization (ESI) and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) [70]. The sample preparation which was carried out by PP in tandem LC-MS is massively a parallel approach which was often employed in analysis of biological matrix [71]. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC with UV and mass spectrometry has proven a beneficial conjunction with biological screening of pharmaceutical drugs [70].

Jangidet al. has reported simple and rapid estimation of HCTZ and AMILOR in human plasma using HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry applied to a bioequivalence study. The drug was extracted by SPE technique and the linearity range was found to be 0.1–10 ng mL−1 for both HCTZ and AMILOR [72].

Shankar et al. reported an estimation of HCTZ, AMLO and valsartan (VAL) by the hyphenated technique of LC-MS in rat plasma where ESI is a chosen a choice of ionization technique. The extraction process was carried out by PP. As result the linearity range was found to be 1–1,000 ng mL−1 where losartan (LOS) as an internal standard [70].

Salvadori et al. describes the estimation of HCTZ and LOS which was carried out by LC with double tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS), in human plasma. ACN and AA in ratio of 70:30 v/v is used as a solvent. The linearity range was found to be 4–800 ng mL−1 and 4–500 ng mL−1 for HCTZ and LOS respectively [73]. Bioanalytical methods for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using LC – MS were given in Table 6. The available fragmentation and spectra of HCTZ has been represented in Figs 4a and 4b respectively.

Table 6.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using LC – MS

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ + AMILORLC-MS-ESIHuman plasmaPPPhenomenexCurosil-PFP (250T4.6 mm, 5 mm) column by a gradient elution0.15% HCOOH 0.23% NH₄CH₃CO₂ and MeOHpositive m/z 230→171

negative m/z 296→205
RIZA1.0N/AN/A100[74]
HCTZ + AMILORLC-MSHuman plasmaSPEReverse‐ phase column with an isocratic2 Mm NH₄CH₃C₂; pH 3.0 and ACN (30:70, v/v)m/z 254.1→237.1

m/z 230.1→116.0
13C, d20.50.1–10N/A100[72]
HCTZ + LISILC-MSHuman plasmaSPEHypersil

Gold C18 (50 mm × 3.0 mm, 5 μm)
ACN with 4.0 mM NH₄HCO₂ pH 4.0(80:20, v/v)m/z 230.6/116.0, m/z

233.6/116.m/z 296.0/204.9 and m/z 299.0/205.9
15N3, 13C, d20.7000.050–50.0 and 0.50–500N/A0.1[75]
HCTZ + AMLO + VALLC-ESI-MSRat plasmaPPAquasil C18 (50 mm × 25 2.1 mm, 5 µm) reversed phase columnACN and water containing 0.1% HCOOH (50:50, v/v)m/z −408, 435, 297LOS0.21–1,0000.51[70]
HCTZ + AMLO + VALLC-MSHuman plasmaN/AACE 5C8 (50 × 2.1 mm) column0.5 mM Ammonium Chloride & 0.04% FA- MeOH (45:55% v/v)N/AAML-D4, HCTZ-D2, C13 and VAL-D33.5N/AN/A0.2, 50.0 2.0[71]
HCTZ + CANDEHPLC-MSHuman plasmaN/APerfect Bond ODS-HD HPLC-column 5 µm 250 × 3.0 mmACN solution with HCOOH (0.3%) (70:30 v/v)m/z 295.80→268.80

m/z 439.00→309.10
N/A0.210–250

10–150
N/A10[76]
HCTZ + CANDELC-MSHuman plasmaLLEZorbax eclipse C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5µ) columnacetate buffer: ACN (25:75%, v/v)m/z 439.00→309.10 295.80→268.80Isotopic standards1N/AN/A1.080 1.092[77]
HCTZ + CANDELC-MSHuman plasmaLLEcolumn oven (CTO-10AS)10 mM ammonium acetate: ACN (20:80, v/v)m/z 296, 206.8

m/z 439, 308.9
D-4 CAN, 15N2 13C D-2 HCTZ0.52–160

1–160
N/AN/A[78]
HCTZ + IRBEHPLC-MSHuman plasmaPPC18 column (50 mm × 4  mm, 3 µm)H2O with 2.5%: HCOOH: MeOH: ACN (40:45:15, v/v/v (%))m/z 296→269 and m/z 296→205LOSA0.700.06–6.00

1.00–112.00
0.01

0.51
0.06

1.00
[79]
HCTZ + IRBELC-MSHuman plasmaLLEElite SinoChrom ODS-BP C18 columnACN: H2O (35:65, v/v)m/z 295.95

m/z 427.25
N/AN/A10–5,000

1–200
N/A10

1
[80]
HCTZ + IRBELC-MSHuman plasmaSPEHLB cartridgeMeOH: miliQ/HPLC grade H2O 50: 50, v/vm/z 427.3/193.0

m/z 295.8/205.1
LOSA0.6N/AN/AN/A[81]
HCTZ + IRBELC-MSHuman plasmaN/AAce 5C18 column (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm)MeOH: 0.1% HCOOH in H2O (70:30)427.1 → 193.0 295.8 → 269.013C 15N2 D2

D4
1.01–500

10–5,000
N/A10

1
[82]
HCTZ + IRBELC-MS/MSHuman plasmaPPPhenomenexCuroSil-PFP (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column4% GAA: H2O solution: MeOH: ACN (1 : 1, V/V)N/ALOSAN/A10–4,000

1.0–400
N/A10

1.0
[45]
HCTZ + LOSALC-MS/MSHuman plasmaLLEC18Phenomex 4 × 3 mm, 5 μm, guard-columnACN – 0.05% AA (70:30, v/v)m/z 295.9 → 205

m/z 421.0 → 127.0
VAL

CTD
0.64–800

4–500
N/A4[73]
HCTZ + METOLC-MSHuman plasmaLLEVenusil MP-C18 columnMeOH: ammonium acetate (10 mM): HCOOH (pH 3.4) (50:50:0.05, v/v/v)m/z 296.1→269.0

m/z 268.3→116.2
5-Br U0.83–1,000N/AN/A[83]
HCTZ + NIBIHPLC-MS- BIOEQUHuman plasmaLLEN/AACN/H2O (50/50, v/v)m/z- 295.6 > 204.4, m/z- 406.2 > 151.0N/A9000.02 to 5

1 to 500
N/A0.02

0.01
[84]
HCTZ+

QUINA
LC-MS/MSHuman plasmaPPPhenomenax guard cartridge C18, 4 mm 2 mmACN: MeOH (8:2) v/vm/z – 439–234,

m/z – 411–206
CARVE0.81,000N/A5[85]
HCTZ+

RAM
LC-MSHuman plasmaLLEC18 G column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm)MeOH:0.1% HCOOH in H2O (85:15)m/z 296.1 → 205.0

m/z 417.2 → 234.1
CARB0.58–680

2–170
N/AN/A[86]
HCTZ + RAMLC-ESI-MS/MSHuman plasmaSPEHypurity C18 (150  mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) ColumnMeOH: 0.2% (v/v) HCOOH in H2Om/z 296.1 → 204.6

m/z 417.3 → 234.3
N/A0.9000.750–300

0.125–80.0
0.750, 0.225N/A[87]
HCTZ, TELMILC-MS/MSHuman plasmaSPEC18(150 × 4. 6, 5µ)ACN: Buffer in the ratio (80:20)m/z 296–269.1.

515. 3–276. 2
HCTZ 13c1, d2, TELMI3,0. 7 mL0. 809–350. 026

1. 094–601. 86
N/AN/A[88]
HCTZ, TELMILC-MSHuman plasmaLLEVenusil XBP-C8 columnACN, MeOH, HCOOH, Ammonium acetatem/z 295.9→268.9

m/z 513.0→469.4
PROB1.21.00–600N/A0.5–1.0[89]
HCTZ + TRIAMLC-MSHuman plasmaLLEZorbax Eclipse Plus RRHD C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm)0.1% HCOOH: MeOH: ACN (5:4:1)m/z 295.9 → 269.0

m/z 254.0 → 237.1
D5

15N2–13C-D2
0.40.5–200

2.5–400
N/A0.5

2.5
[90]
HCTZ + VALLC-MSHuman plasmaPPPhenomenexKromasil C8 columnH2O: MeOH (27:73,)m/z 295.9

m/z 434.2
HFM, IRBE103.13–800

11.72–3,000
N/AN/A[91]
HCTZ + VALLC-MSHuman plasmaPPZorbax SB-Aq C18 columnACN:10 mM ammonium acetate (60:40 v/v)m/z 434.2–350.2 m/z 295.9–268.9PROB1.24–3,600

1–900
N/AN/A[92]
HCTZ + VALLC-MSHuman plasmaLLEC8 columnACN: MeOH: aqu NH3 (75: 15: 10)m/z 432.32 – 179.22

m/z 295.85–204.86
N/A0.52–400N/A50.0 and 2.0[93]
HCTZ + ATE + BISO + CTD + SALIC + ENALA + ENALAPRILAT + VALS + FLUVALC-MSHuman

Plasma
PPC18(2) (150 mm × 4.6  mm, 3 µm) columnACN and H2O containing 0.01% and HCOOH 10 Mm ammonium formateN/APRAV0.82 to 1,000

2.5 to 250

187.5 to 7,500

20 to 2,000

5 to 500

3.5 to 3,500

1.5 to 150

10 to 5,000

1 to 500
N/A2.0

2.5

75.0

20.0

5.0

3.5

1.5

2.0

1.0
[94]
HCTZ + BISOHPLC-MSHuman plasmaPPPurosphere® STAR C8 column (125 mm × 4  mm, 5_m)Ammonium acetate solution (1 mM) with HCOOH (0.2%): MeOHACN (65:17.5:17.5, v/v/v (%))m/z 296→205

m/z 326→116
MOXI0.650.10–30.0

1.00–80.00
0.100

1.00
0.10

1.00
[95]
HCTZ + ENAL + NITRELC-MS/MSHuman

Plasma
PPSymmetry C18 columnH2O: ACN (10:90, v/v)m/z 295.9–205.1

m/z 377.1–234.1

m/z 349.2–206.1
FELO0.31–200, 20–500, 5–200, 2–100,

5–200
N/AN/A[96]
HCTZ + LOSA + EXP 3174LC- ESI - MSHuman plasmaSPECyano,

C8 and C18 columns (50 mm)
78% ACN and 22% 5 mM ammonium acetate (v/v)m/z 296.0→268.8

m/z 421.1→127.0

m/z 435.3→157.0
Furosemide0.5N/AN/AN/A[97]
HCTZ + NIFILC-MSHuman plasmaLLEreversed-phase Polaris 5C18-Aanalytical columnMeOH containing 0.1% (v/v) HCOOH: 5 mM aqueous ammonium formatem/z296.1→m/z205.2

m/z347.2→m/z 315.1
DZP3005–2,000

5–400
N/A5[98]
HCTZ + OLME + AMYLOLC- MS/MSHuman plasmaLLEZorbaxSB-Aq(150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) columnHCOOH: MeOH: ACN (35:50:15, v/v/v)m/z -(409.00→238.00, 413.10→238.00), (447.10→207.00,

451.20→211.00) and (295.90→268.90, 299.00→269.80)
TELMI0.70.10–15.00,

5.00–1200.00 2.00–150.00
N/A40[99]
HCTZ + QUIN + QUINALC-MSHuman plasmaSPEhypurity C8 (100 × 2.1 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) column0.5% (v/v) HCOOH: ACN (25:75, v/v)m/z 296.0→205.0

m/z 437.2→187.8

m/z 409.1→176.0
N/A0.205–500

5–1,500
N/A5[100]
HCTZ + SIM + RAMI + ATE + ASPLS-MSHuman plasmaPPPhenomenex

Synergi Polar-RP (30 × 2 mm, 4 µm) column
ACN and 5 mM ammonium formate – positive mode

0.1% HCOOH in both

H2O and ACN – negative mode.
m/z 295.9

m/z 436.3

m/z 417.3

m/z 267.2

m/z 178.8
CBZ

7-HC
1.00.1–2,000N/AN/A[101]
HCTZ+

LOSA+

RAMI+

RAMI
LC-MSRat plasmaSPEEC-C18 (50 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 2.7 μm) columnMeOH/H2O (85:15, v/v)m/z 296.8/269.9

m/z 423.2/207.1

m/z 417.2/234.0

m/z 389.1/206.0
IRBE

MET
0.43–3,000

0.1–200

1–1,500
N/A3

0.1

1
[102]
HCTZ + LOSA + LCALC-MS/MSHuman plasmaSPEC18

Discovery column (4.6 ′ 50 mm, 5 µm)
ACN – ammonium formate buffer (90:10 v/v)m/z 427.2/193.1

m/z 421.3/156.9

m/z 435.3/157.1 for LCA
HFMZ0.52.54 to 1509.56 3.27 to 1946.38 2.10 410.40N/AN/A[103]
HCTZ + OLMELC-ESI-MShuman K3 EDTA plasmaSPESynergi MAX RP-18A, (4.6_150 mm, 4 mm) column0.2% HCOOH solution/ACN (30:70, v/v)445.5–149.3,

296.0–269.0, 449.2–149.3, 299.1–270.0
13C, d2 (HCTZD2) d4 (OLMED4)0.51.087–1061.373 to 4.051–

2500.912 0.956–

318.586 to 0.506–304.109
N/A10.899[104]
HCTZ + OLMELC-MShuman plasmaSPEX Terra RP18, (4.6150 mm, 5lm) column2 mM ammonium formate buffer, (pH 3.500.10 with HCOOH): ACN (30:70, v/v)445.6–148.4, 295.9–268.9, 449.4–148.4, 329.9–238.3,OLMED4, HFM0.50.11, 1.06, 0.10, 0.32N/A0.27[105]
HCTZ + OLMELC-MShuman plasma, urineSPEC18 column with isocratic elutionACN/0.05HCOOH/MeOH (60/36/4, v/v/v)m/z 445.1→148.8, 459.1→162.9, 295.9→268.8 329.9→238.9RNH-6272/HFM0.2N/AN/AN/A[106]
HCTZ + OLMELC-MShuman plasmaLLEUNISOL C18 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm columnMeOH: 2 mM ammonium acetate pH 5.5 (80:20, v/v)m/z 445.20 → 148.90

m/z 295.80 → 205.10
OLME D6 and HCTZ 13C D20.85.002–2599.934N/A3.005

5.002
[107]
HCTZ + VALLC-MS/MShuman plasmaSPELichrocart RP Select (125 × 4 mm), 5 nmACN: 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer: 95:05, v/v,m/z 295.70→ 204.90

m/z 434.10→

179.10
IRBE and HFM0.51.25–507.63

50.2–6018.6
N/A3.35

145.5
[108]
HCTZ + IRBELC-MS/MShuman plasmaSPEChromolith Column, (100 × 4.6 mm), 5µACN:2 mM ammonium acetate(80:20, v/v)m/z 427.200 → 193.100

m/z 296.000 → 268.800
IRBE D4 and HCTZ 15N213CD211.021–408.480

50.197–6038.206
N/AN/A[109]

HCTZ- Hydrochlorothiazide AMILOR- Amiloride; AMLO- Amlodipine; VAL- Valsartan; CANDE- Candesartan; ENAL- Enalapril maleate; LOSA- Losartan; NITRE- Nitrendipine; OLME- Olmesartan; TELMI- Telmisartan; LC-ESI-MS- Liquid chromatography Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry; LC- MS- Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry; SPE- Solid Phase Extraction; LLE- Liquid liquid Extraction; HPLC-MS- High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; LISI- Lisinopril; METO- Metoprolol tartrate; NEBI- Nebivolol; QUINA- Quinapril; RAMI- Ramiprilat; ATE- Atenolol; BISO- Bisoprolol fumerate; SALIC- Salicylic acid; ENT- Enalaprilat; FLUVA- Fluvastatin; NIFE- Nifedipine; QUIN- Quinapril; SIM- Simvastatin; ASP- Aspirin; LC-MS/MS- Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; MeOH- Methanol; GAA- Glacial acetic acid; ACN – Acetonitrile; HCOOH- Formic acid; NH3 – Ammonia; NH₄CH₃CO₂- Ammonium acetate; NH₄HCO₂- Ammonium formate; RIZA- Rizatriptan; PRAV-Pravastatin; PP- Protein Precipitation; CTD- Chlorthalidone; CARVE-Carvedilol; PROB- Probenecid; HFM- Hydroflumethiazide; MOXI- Moxifloxacin; FELO- Felodipine; DZP- Diazepam; CBZ- Carbamazepine; IRBE-Irbesartan; N/A- Not available; m/z- Mass per charge ratio; nm- Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute.

Fig. 4a.
Fig. 4a.

MS/MS fragmentations of HCTZ [106].

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2024; 10.1556/1326.2023.01187

Fig. 4b.
Fig. 4b.

Zero order absorption spectra of HCTZ in distilled water [110].

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2024; 10.1556/1326.2023.01187

3.2.2.2 UPLC - MS

When paired with MS, UPLC detects the chemicals with great precision and accuracy. It operates on the vendeemeter principle, which asserts that the flow rate of the large particle is less than the flow rate of the smaller particle. It also discusses the relationship between flow rate and chromatogram height. This method is commonly utilized in the food sector [111]. In this literature, eight methods have been mentioned. Plasma is a widely used biological matrix in UPLC-MS method.

Khan et al. discussed the estimation of HCTZ and TELMI in human plasma by UPLC/Q-TOF (Quadrupole- Time of Flight)/MS where quadrupole - time of flight was used as an analyzer in Mass spectroscopy. The linearity range is 1–1,000 ng mL−1 for both the drugs [112].

Amir et al. described the estimation of HCTZ and TELMI in human plasma by UPLC with double tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS). As internal standard Irbesartan (IRBE) was used and PP was the choice of extraction technique [111].

Alam et al. reported the quantification of HCTZ and LOS in rabbit plasma which was the unique matrix in the overall review. The linearity range was 3–400 ng mL−1 [113]. Table 7 depicted the bioanalytical methods for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using UPLC.

Table 7.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using UPLC

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ + LOSAUPLC-MSHuman plasmaSPEBEH C18 column1.0% HCOOH in H2O and ACN (15:85, v/v)N/AN/AN/A0.5–500, 1.0–750, 0.25–150N/AN/A[114]
HCTZ + IRBEUHPLC-MSHuman plasmaPPAcquity U-HPLC BEH C18 column

QTrap5500
ACN: HCOOH (0.1%)N/ALOSA0.455–3,000

0.5–300
N/A5

0.5
[115]
HCTZ + LOSAUPLC-MSRabbit plasmaPPAcquity UPLC ® BEH C18 1.7 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm columnH2O (0.1% HCOOH) (A) and ACN (0.1% HCOOH) (B)N/AEPRO2503–400N/A6[113]
HCTZ, TELMIUPLC-MS/MSHuman plasmaPPC18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm)ACN: MeOH:10 Mm Ammonium acetate: HCOOH (50:30:20:0.1% v/v/v)N/AIRBE0.31–500N/AN/A[111]
HCTZ, TELMIUPLC/Q- TOF-MSHuman plasmaN/ABEH C18 (100.0 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm)ACN: 2 mM Ammonium acetate (50: 50, v/v)m/z 513.18 to 469.13N/A0.251–1,000N/AN/A[112]
HCTZ + AMLO

+ ATE

+ CLONI + CTD + DOXA + NIFE + OLME + RAMI + TELMI,
UHPLC – MS/MSHuman urineSPEAcquity ® UPLC HSS T3 1.8 µm 2.1 × 150 mm columnH2O: ACN (90:10)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A[116]
HCTZ + AMYLO + ATE + CLONI + DOXA + NIFE + OLME + RAMI + TELMIUHPLC – MS/MSHuman

Plasma
PPAcquity ® UPLC HSS T3 1.8 µm 2.1 × 150 mm columnH2O and ACN, both added with 0.05% HCOOHN/AN/AN/AN/A0.039

0.019

0.098

0.195

0.390

1.953

9.765
N/A[117]
HCTZ + ALIS + AMLOUPLC-MS/MSHuman plasmaLLEXBridge BEH (50 3 2.1 mm ID, 5 mm) C18 column0.1% HCOOH in ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 M,) and MeOH (25:75, v/v)N/AVALN/A2.0–400.0, 0.3–25.0

5.0–400.0
N/AN/A[118]

HCTZ-Hydrochlorothiazide; UHPLC-MS -Ultra performance Liquid chromatography tandem Mass spectroscopy; UPLC/Q-TOF-MS- Ultra performance Liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem Mass spectroscopy; AMLO- Amlodipine; ALIS- Aliskiren; IRBE- Irbesartan; LOSA- Losartan; TELMI- Telmisartan; ATE- Atenolol; CLONI-Clonidine; NIFE- Nifedipine; DOXA- Doxasoxin; RAMI-Ramiprilat; SPE- Solid Phase Extraction; LLE- Liquid liquid Extraction; PP- Protein Precipitation; MeOH- Methanol; ACN – Acetonitrile; HCOOH-Formic acid; VAL-Valsartan; EPRO-Eprosartan; N/A-Not available; m/z-Mass per charge ratio; nm-Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute.

3.2.3 Spectroscopic techniques

Spectroscopy is concerned with the development, measurement and interpretation of spectra which includes varieties of partial molecular energy level diagrams with absorption and vibrational relaxation [18].

3.2.3.1 UV Spectroscopy

UV Spectroscopy was the first technique to be emerged, which is extensively used in the analytical field from 1930. It proposes the measurement of light intensities with a deuterium lamp for UV and a tungsten (tungsten – halogen) lamp for visible (VIS) [119].

Heinz et al. reported the quantification of HCTZ and clonidine from bio samples using egg albumin was documented with simple three-point geometrical tweak and evaluated under ICH guidelines. The egg albumin was used as biological medium for the detection of HCTZ and clonidine at 235 nm [119]. Table 8 represents the bioanalytical methods for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using UV Spectrophotometry.

Table 8.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using UV Spectrophotometry

AnalyteMethodMatrixExtractionStationary phaseMobile phaseDetection (nm)ISFR (mL min−1)Linearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ+

CLONI
UVEGG ALBUMINPPN/ACH3OH: H2O317 nm,

269 nm

226 nm

315 nm

280 nm

296 nm.
N/AN/A6–14

2–10
0.063 0.13 0.100.19

0.39

0.31
[119]

HCTZ-Hydrochlorothiazide; CLONI-Clonidine; UV-VIS- Ultra violet visible spectrophotometry; PP-Protein Precipitation; N/A-Not available; nm-Nanometer; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter; mL min−1- Milliliter per minute; MeOH- Methanol.

3.2.4 Electrochemical method

Electrochemical techniques are distinguished by their excellent accuracy, sensitivity, and selectivity. Electrochemical techniques have been widely developed, and each fundamental electrical parameters namely current, resistance, and voltage has been utilized for analytical purposes either alone or in combinations. The most basic and commonly used electrochemical method involves flow of electricity through a solution for comprehensive electrolysis [120]. Author has been updated and reported unique up to date Batch- injection analysis with multiple-pulse amperometric detection (BIA-MPA) simultaneous determination of diuretics furosemide plus HCTZ in synthetic urine. The author has explained the electrolyte conditions where Britton Robinson buffer solution is used. A boron-doped working electrode was used in this simultaneous determination of furosemide and HCTZ [22]. Bioanalytical methods for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using BIA-MPA Detection have been depicted in Table 9.

Table 9.

Bioanalytical methods represented for the quantification of HCTZ and its combination using BIA-MPA Detection

AnalyteMethodMatrixElectrolyte conditionsPotential regionRecoveryLinearity (ng mL−1)LOD (ng mL−1)LOQ (ng mL−1)Ref
HCTZ + FUROBIA-MPAHuman Urine+1.10V

+1.30V
+1.25V

+1.13V
92%–113%

92%–107%
2 to 100

2 to 300
0.63

0.65
1.92

1.97
[120]

HCTZ- Hydrochlorothiazide; FURO-Furosemide; BIA-MPA- Batch- injection analysis with multiple-pulse amperometric detection; ng mL−1-Nanogram per milliliter.

4 Discussion

The development and validation of a new bioanalytical method for a pharmaceutical entity in accordance with ICH and USFDA requirements presents numerous hurdles for an analyst. In addition, there are other factors that must be taken into account while developing a technique, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug molecule (including solubility, polarity, pKa, and pH), the initial setup conditions of the instrument, sample preparation, method optimization, and validation. The analyst must exercise great caution when performing these stages, since they have a significant impact on essential properties such as specificity, accuracy, precision, and ultimately affect the quality of the result. Since the analyst's knowledge and capacity to interpret are crucial to this procedure, it must be carried out by well-trained individuals following solid protocols. Obtaining market approval for any pharmaceutical or biological product is extremely challenging unless there is proper development and validation of analytical methods. Modern pharmaceutical and natural product industries are well-equipped with extremely advanced analytical tools, which are increasingly useful for the development of desired pharmaceutical products with targeted therapeutic effects.

In the food and health industries, HPLC is frequently used for pharmaceutical research, assessing the nutritional benefits of various foods, and upholding food safety regulations. It can be stated that, despite the abundance of publications on HPLC methods in the literature, the most advantageous method for assessing HCTZ and its combination is LC-MS/MS when different analytical methodologies are taken into account. This is attributed to its capacity to integrate the separation capabilities of LC with the identification and quantification capabilities of MS. LC-MS/MS provides superior precision, sensitivity, and selectivity in comparison to HPLC, which is restricted to screening applications only. ACN is a primary solvent utilized in both the LC-MS and HPLC methods. While in combinational therapy, HPLC, and LC-MS are conventionally discussed, and UPLC-MS has been used in a small circle. Sample pre-treatment is a crucial step in drug analysis from biological samples, as it accounts for about 50% of the cost, labor involvement, and errors in the process. Hence, it is consistently recommended to streamline the sample pre-treatment procedure to be more straightforward, economical, and resilient, while maintaining the desired level of selectivity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. Primarily, SPE is employed as a method of extraction, which can be laborious and expensive due to the necessary utilization of SPE cartridges. Consequently, this leads to a rather lengthy duration for the extraction process and places additional financial strain on the laboratory's budget. Thus, employing the LLE method instead of the SPE method may be the preferred approach for doing pharmacokinetic research in clinical investigations.

Arvind Kumar et al. devised a method that is both extremely sensitive and selective for quantitatively determining OLM and HCTZ in human plasma. They employed LC-MS/MS with turbo-ion spray in negative ion mode, and used the LLE method for sample preparation. With less organic solvent consumption, a shorter analytical time, a simpler technique, resilience, good extraction efficiency, and environmental friendliness, this method can be recommended for future research [107]. Using response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design, SK M. Haque developed an isocratic HPLC method to quantify HCTZ and its impurities. The method maximizes the effects of four independent factors: pH (2–4%), ACN (2–15%), MeOH (2–15%), and flow rate (0.7–1.3 mL min−1) against the response. This method is a novel and efficient approach for quantifying HCTZ in biological fluid [39]. The utilization of AQbD (Analytical Quality by Design) in analytical techniques enables researchers to optimize time and resource utilization, eliminates the need for revalidation, facilitates direct transferability of the method to other systems, and ensures compliance with regulatory standards. In future investigations, the analyst can utilize AQbD in different ways to determine the necessary design space for the development of HCTZ, as well as its numerous combinations in biological fluid. De Nicolo et al. developed and confirmed the accuracy of a UHPLC–MS/MS method for measuring ten commonly used antihypertensive drugs in urine samples. The method has a fast chromatographic run time of 10 min and involves a simple dilution step for sample extraction. This method could be recommended for routine clinical use to screen patients who are potential candidates for invasive surgery [116]. There is just one approach established for UV Spectroscopy, IP-LC, and Micellar LC, which may prove beneficial to researchers in the future. The analyst can devise novel derivative spectroscopic procedures for HCTZ due to its many benefits over the traditional spectroscopic method. Batch Injection Analysis with multiple plus Amperometry Detection (BIA-MPA) is one of the latest top-notch methods in the year 2020, this was found to be analytically closeness at the 95% confidence level.

Currently, it is imperative to implement the twelve fundamental principles of Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC) in order to create analytical techniques that are both environmentally friendly and safe for the analyst. The pharmaceutical sector should decrease the utilization of solvents, substitute harmful compounds, recycle the produced waste, and eliminate unimportant processes. As per the literature, the most commonly utilized solvents are MeOH and ACN, which are extremely toxic on the environment and analysts. A green bioanalytical approach for HCTZ and its combinations has not been published to date, while a green analytical HPLC method is available [121]. In order to adhere to the twelve fundamental principles of GAC, researchers should endeavor to substitute highly hazardous solvents with environmentally acceptable alternatives. While there are numerous efficient quantification processes available, there is a requirement for a remarkable strategy to get an environmentally friendly and economically efficient approach. In the very near future there should be an increase in supporting infliction of medication understanding. Proportion of analytical methods available for the estimation of HCTZ and its combinations in bioanalytical samples has been depicted in Figs. 5 and 6 represents the annual publication database for the estimation of HCTZ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Proportion of analytical methods available for the estimation of HCTZ and its combinations in bioanalytical Samples

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2024; 10.1556/1326.2023.01187

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Annual Publication Database for the estimation of HCTZ

Citation: Acta Chromatographica 2024; 10.1556/1326.2023.01187

5 Conclusion

A thorough review of the study for the measurement of HCTZ and its 43 biological fluid combinations has been carried out. HCTZ, as the name implies, is a thiazide diuretic that also includes the treatment of congestive heart failure, oedema, diabetic insipidus, and renal tubular acidosis. Overall the article suggests that human plasma is one of the most utilized biological fluids. Recent advances in the applications of more than 40 hyphenated techniques have been discussed in the combination of HCTZ till date. Scholars doing clinical trials can benefit from the coverage of all bioanalytical techniques. The prime challenges for the future research on the determination of HCTZ can be on progression of gas chromatography and hyphenated techniques like gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It may be desirable to use two different combinations or more than two that have been utilized effectively in outcome studies. The analyst can apply AQbD in various techniques to get the requisite area of design space to develop HCTZ along with its various combinations in biological fluid. In future, there is a necessity for the development of novel techniques to lower the consumption of hazardous chemicals and waste generation for pharmaceutical analysis is of utmost importance to rising awareness of the necessity to approach green chemistry.

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Abbreviations

7HC

7-hydroxy coumarin

AA

acetic acid

ACN

acetonitrile

ALIS

Aliskiren

AMILOR

Amiloride

AMLO

Amlodipine

ASP

Aspirin

ATE

Atenolol

BIA-MPA

Batch- injection analysis with multiple-pulse amperometric detection

BISO

Bisoprololfumerate

BZL

Benazepril HCl

CANDE

Candesartan

CAPTO

Captopril

CARB

Carbamazepine

CARVE

Carvedilol

CBZ

Carbamazepine

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

CHCl3

Chloroform

CLONI

Clonidine

CPD

Captopril disulfide

CTD

Chlorthalidone

DENSI

Densitometric

DOXA

Doxasoxin

DZP

Diazepam

ENL

Enalapril maleate

ENT

Enalaprilat

EPRO

Eprosartan

ESI

Electrospray ionization

FELO

Felodipine

FLU

Fluconazole

FLUVA

Fluvastatin

FR

Flow rate

FSP

Fosinopril sodium

FURO

Furosemide

GAA

Glacial acetic acid

H2O

Water

H3PO4

Orthophosphoric acid

HBT

6-bromo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadi- azine-7-sulphonamide l, l-dioxide

HCOOH

Formic acid

HCTZ

Hydrochlorothiazide

HFM

Hydro flumethiazide

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

HPLC-MS

High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

HPTLC

High performance thin layer chromatography

HP-β-CD

Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin

IND

Indapamide

IP-LC

Ion - pair liquid chromatography

IRBE

Irbesartan

IS

Internal standard

KH2PO4

Monosodium phosphate

KH2PO4

Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate

LABI

Labetalol

LC-ESI–MS

Liquid chromatography Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

LC-MS/MS

Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

LISI

Lisinopril

LLE

Liquid Liquid Extraction

LOD

Limit of detection

LOQ

Limit of quantification

LOS

Losartan

MeOH

Methanol

MET

Metolazone

METO

Metoprolol tartrate

MOXI

Moxifloxacin

MP

Methylparaben

N/A

Not available

Na2B4O7

Sodium tetraborate

NaH2PO4

Sodium dihydrogen phosphate

NEBI

Nebivolol

ng ml−1

Nanogram per milliliter

NH3

Ammonia

NH4Cl

Ammonium Chloride

NH₄CH₃CO₂

Ammonium acetate

NH₄HCO₂

Ammonium formate

NIFE

Nifedipine

NITRE

Nitrendipine

nm

Nanometer

OLME

Olmesartan

PABA

Para-amino benzoic acid

PARA

Paracetamol

PB

Phosphate buffer

PP

Protein Precipitation

PRAV

Pravastatin

PROB

Probenecid

QUIN

Quinapril

QUINA

Quinaprilat

RAMI

Ramiprilat

RES

Reserpine

RIF

Rifampicin

RIZA

Rizatriptan

RMP

Ramipril

RP-HPLC

Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

SALIC

Salicylic acid

SIM

Simvastatin

SMBP

Sodium mono basic phosphate

SMZ

Sulfa methazole

SPE

Solid phase extraction

SPECTROFLU

Spectrofluorometry

SPECTROPHOTO

Spectrophotometry

TAMS

Tamsulosin

TBAB

Tetra butyl ammonium bromide

TELMI

Telmisartan

TLC

Thin later chromatography

TMAHS

Tetra methyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate

TRIAM

Triamterene

UPLC/Q-TOF-MS

Ultra performance Liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight

UV

Ultra violet visible spectrophotometry

VAL

Valsartan

ZIDO

Zidovudine

GAC

Green Analytical Chemistry

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the management, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur for providing various reprographic sources for carrying out this work successfully.

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