The biodiversity and species richness of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are under the strong pressure of environmental variables compounded with geographical and historical processes. Numerous studies that have investigated biodiversity and assemblage stability have shown the importance of choosing proper methodologies and paradigms. Consequently, the use of diversity measures and the partitioning of biodiversity at different spatial and temporal scales are of particular significance. Within habitats, only those species whose preferences remain within a tolerable range of the variability of abiotic factors are able to survive. The structure of biocoenosis at the local scale is determined mainly by current velocity/discharge, granulometry of the inorganic bottom substrate, quantity and quality of particulate organic matter, as well as water quality variables. Dispersion plays a key role in shaping regional diversity gradients, which supports the permanent inflow of individuals and their exchange between riverine basins. However, dispersion is also one of the basic aspects of the saturation/non-saturation of local communities with species from the regional species pool; a respective concept tries to determine how, why and to what degree local species richness is dependent on regional species richness.
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