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Zhong-Guang Chen School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

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Hong-Fei Hu School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

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Yu-Ting Dai School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

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Ping Wang Sichuan Academy of Forestry Sciences, Chengdu 610081, China

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Jiao Jiang Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou, 310012, China

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Xiao-Ping Wu School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

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Shan Ouyang School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

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Open access

Abstract

Two new land snail species of the family Enidae, Serina xirong Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. n. and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. n., are described from Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province, China based on conchological morphology. Serina xirong can be distinguished from congeneric species by its ribbed teleoconch, and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis can be distinguished from congeneric species by its micro, conic, weakly keeled shell without color stripes before body whorl. This discovery further enhances our understanding of the enid species diversity in Sichuan Province.

Abstract

Two new land snail species of the family Enidae, Serina xirong Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. n. and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. n., are described from Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province, China based on conchological morphology. Serina xirong can be distinguished from congeneric species by its ribbed teleoconch, and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis can be distinguished from congeneric species by its micro, conic, weakly keeled shell without color stripes before body whorl. This discovery further enhances our understanding of the enid species diversity in Sichuan Province.

Introduction

The family Enidae Woodward, 1903, comprises small to large land snails widely distributed in Eurasia, northern Africa and northern Australia (Wu 2018). Sichuan Province is located in southwest China and is one of the most biodiverse regions of Enidae in the country, with approximately 70 recorded species and subspecies, and new species being discovered constantly (Wu & Fang 2012, Wu 2018, Chen 2020). Jiuzhaigou County (Nanping) is one of the most important distribution regions of Enidae in the Sichuan Province, with endemic species having been recorded here since the beginning of the 20th century (Möllendorff 1901, Yen 1939). Upon examination of the specimens collected from Jiuzhaigou County from 2020 to 2023, two undescribed enid species were discovered, belonging to the genera Serina Gredler, 1898 and Turanena Lindholm, 1922. Serina is a group of small sized land snail endemic in western China and characterized by the turreted shell, the connected peristome and the absence of a palatal tooth. It consists of 10 known species: S. belae (Hilber, 1883), S. cathaica Gredler, 1898, S. prostoma (Ancey, 1884), S. egressa Sturany, 1900, S. ser Gredler, 1898, S. subser Gredler, 1898, S. soluta (Möllendorff, 1901), S. vincentii (Gredler, 1898), S. schileykoi Fang & Wu, 2013 and S. denticulata Wu & Xu, 2013 (Fang & Wu 2013, Wu & Xu 2013, Wu 2018). Turanena is a group of small sized land snails widely distributed from west Asia to west China and characterized by the nearly conic shell without any tooth. It consists of 34 known species, five of which are recorded in China: T. diplochila (Möllendorff, 1901), T. kreitneri (Hilber, 1883), T. kuldshana (Martens, 1882), T. microconus (Möllendorff, 1901) and T. zhoupengi Ge & He, 2017 (Ge & He 2017, Wu 2018).

In this study, one new species each of Serina and Turanena are described from two localities of the dry-hot valley in Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province, China. The discovery of the new taxa shows once more the high level of endemism of land snails in Sichuan of China.

Material and methods

Specimens were collected from Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province, China from 2021 to 2023. Measurements were taken with digital callipers to the nearest 0.1 mm. Whorls were counted as described by Kerney and Cameron (1979). Terminology follows Wu (2018). Photographs were taken under a camera and modified in Adobe Photoshop CC 2015 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, U.S.).

Abbreviations

NCU_XPWU: Laboratory of Xiao-Ping Wu, Nanchang University.

Results

Family Enidae Woodward, 1903

Genus Serina Gredler, 1898

Type species. Serina ser Gredler, 1898, by original designation.

Serina xirong Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang, sp. n.

https://zoobank.org/9CD136A2-DB2D-407D-8F2B-B714F1466B00

Figures 1A–B, 3A

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A–B, Serina xirong sp. n., holotype (21_NCU_XPWU_SX01), paratype (21_NCU_XPWU_SX02); C–D, Turanena jiuzhaigouensis sp. n., holotype (21_NCU_XPWU_TJ01), paratype (21_NCU_XPWU_TJ02)

Citation: Animal Taxonomy and Ecology 70, 2; 10.1556/1777.2024.00026

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Type localities of Serina xirong sp. n. and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis sp. n

Citation: Animal Taxonomy and Ecology 70, 2; 10.1556/1777.2024.00026

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Living specimens of Serina xirong sp. n. and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis sp. n. A, Serina xirong sp. n.; B, Turanena jiuzhaigouensis sp. n

Citation: Animal Taxonomy and Ecology 70, 2; 10.1556/1777.2024.00026

Type material: Holotype: 21_NCU_XPWU_SX01, Shuanghe Town [双河镇], Jiuzhaigou County [九寨沟县], Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture [阿坝藏族羌族自治州], Sichuan Province [四川省], China, 104°15′53″E, 33°9′57″N, leg. Zhong-Guang Chen & Yan-Shu Guo, July, 2021. Paratypes: 21_NCU_XPWU_SX02–10, other information same as holotype; 23_NCU_XPWU_SX01–10 leg. Zhong-Guang Chen, Meng-Hua Li & Jin-Sheng Mou, August 2023, other information same as holotype.

Measurements: Shell height 9.7–11.0 mm, shell breadth 4.6–4.9 mm.

Diagnosis: Teleoconch ribbed (vs. smooth in all other congeneric species).

Description: Shell turreted with apex not abruptly pointed; shell most swollen (broadest) at body whorl; dextral; solid; semitranslucent; matte; ribbed; not speckled; not spirally grooved; with 7–7.5 whorls. Whorls flattened. Protoconch whorls smooth; polished. Teleoconch ribbed. Growth lines indistinct. Suture well impressed, with a narrow and indistinct defined band on beneath whorl. Body whorl gradually ascending towards aperture; rounded at periphery; without spiral peripheral depression. Aperture in a plane; ovate; oblique; without tooth; with angular tubercle. The peristome insertions connected, with a shallow channel at upper insertion. Peristome yellowish white and reflexed; sharp. Parietal callus distinct. Columellar margin reflected. Columella vertical; without tooth. Umbilicus narrowly open. Shell multicoloured, with reddish brown background and whitish ribs.

Etymology: The species is named after Xirong, a tribe of ancient China, refer to there is a 2500-year-old rock painting of Xirong on the cliff it inhabits.

Vernacular name: 西戎金丝雀螺 xi rong jin si que luo.

Distribution and ecology. This species is only known from the type locality (Fig. 2). It inhabits on the cliff wall facing the river in the dry-hot valley and often co-occur with Subzebrinus beresowskii (Möllendorff, 1901), Laeocathaica distinguenda Möllendorff, 1899 and Pupinidius sp. (Fig. 3).

Remarks: The assignment of the new species in Serina is supported by its morphology: shell small, turreted, absence of the palatal tooth, peristome connected. Although the genitalia of type specimens are too small and difficult to dissect, its unique shell morphology distinguishes it from all other enid species in China. Only three Chinese Enidae have a ribbed shell: Clausiliopsis clathratus (Möllendorff, 1901), Clausiliopsis senckenbergianus Yen, 1939 and Holcauchen multicostatus Chen, Xie, Wang & Wu, 2024 (Wu 2018, Chen et al. 2024). Serina xirong sp. n. can be easily distinguished from them by absence of any tooth (vs. presence) and the different shell shape.

Genus Turanena Lindholm, 1922

Type species. Buliminus (Pseudonapaeus) herzi Boettger, 1889, by original designation.

Turanena jiuzhaigouensis Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang, sp. n.

https://zoobank.org/7C69A144-E14A-45BD-8608-F831FB619ED9

Figures 1C–D, 3B

Type material: Holotype: 21_NCU_XPWU_TJ01, Zhangzha Town [漳扎镇], Jiuzhaigou County [九寨沟县], Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture [阿坝藏族羌族自治州], Sichuan Province [四川省], China, 103°54′16″E, 33°16′26″N, leg. Zhong-Guang Chen & Yan-Shu Guo, July 2021. Paratypes: 21_NCU_XPWU_TJ02–10, other information same as holotype; 23_NCU_XPWU_TJ01–10, leg. Cheng-Ling Zhu, July 2023, other information same as holotype.

Measurements: Shell height 6.0–7.5 mm, shell breadth 3.5–4.1 mm.

Diagnosis: Shell small, conic, weakly keeled, without color stripes before the last half of the body whorl.

Description: Shell conic with apex not abruptly pointed; shell most swollen (broadest) at body whorl; dextral; fragile; semitranslucent; glossy; not spirally grooved; with 6.75–7.25 whorls. Whorls flattened. Protoconch whorls smooth; polished. Teleoconch smooth; with distinct growth lines. Suture shallow; without a narrow defined band on beneath whorl. Body whorl gradually ascending towards aperture; angulate below periphery; without spiral peripheral depression. Aperture in a plane; truncate-ovate; oblique; without tooth; with very weak angular tubercle. The peristome insertions not connected. Peristome brown and slightly reflexed; sharp. Parietal callus indistinct. Columellar margin reflected. Columella vertical; without tooth. Umbilicus narrowly open. Shell multicoloured; with dark brown background; the last half of the body whorl with weak but distinct whitish stripes.

Etymology: The species is named after Jiuzhaigou County, its type locality.

Vernacular name: 九寨沟图灵螺 jiu zhai gou tu ling luo.

Distribution and ecology: This species is only known from the type locality (Fig. 2). It inhabits on the vertical and exposed high cliff adjacent to the river in the dry-hot valley and often found co-occurring with Bradybaena diplodesma (Möllendorff, 1899) and several unidentified species of minute snails (Fig. 3).

Remarks: Given the wide distribution range and relative poor identification characters, it is probable that Turanena is not monophyletic and requires further study. According to the current generic definition, the assignment of the new species in Turanena is supported by its morphology: shell small, conic, parietal callus very thin, without any apertural or columellar tooth. Even without dissection, its unique shell morphology makes it distinguishable from all the congeners. Turanena jiuzhaigouensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from all congeneric species in China by the weakly keeled body whorl (vs. rounded) and the different shell shape. Its further distinguished from T. kuldshana and T. zhoupengi by the smaller shell size (Shell height 6.0–7.5 mm vs. 8.9–9.5 mm in T. kuldshana, 9.1–16.0 mm in T. zhoupengi), from T. kreitneri and T. microconus by presence of color stripes only on the last half of the body whorl (presence of color stripes on the post-nuclear whorls); from T. diplochila by the separated peristome insertions (vs. connected).

Acknowledgements

We thank Yan-Shu Guo (Sichuan Academy of Forestry Sciences), Cheng-Ling Zhu (Shanghai), Meng-Hua Li (Sichuan Agricultural University) and Jin-Sheng Mou (Sichuan Agricultural University, China Agricultural University) for assistance in collecting specimens, Min Wu and Ruud Bank for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32360132, 31772412), and the Integrated Scientific Expedition on the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (5132202019000439).

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ancey CF (1884) Contributions à la Faune malacologique Indo-Thibétaine. Annales de Malacologie 1(4): 381397.

  • Boettger O (1889) Die Binnenmollusken Transkaspiens und Chorassans. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abtheilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere 4(5): 925982, pl. 26–27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen ZY (2020) A conical new species of Pupopsis Gredler, 1898 from China (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Enidae). Folia Malacologica 28(2): 132134. https://doi.org/10.12657/folmal.028.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen ZG, Dai YT, Xie GL, Wang P, Jiang J, Ouyang S, Wu XP (2024) Two new species of enid land snail from Sichuan, China (Stylommatophora: Enidae). Journal of Conchology 45(1): 1923. https://doi.org/10.61733/jconch/4503

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fang YX, Wu M (2013) A new species of the genus Serina from south Gansu, China (Stylommatophora, Enoidea). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 38(1): 3337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ge L, He J (2017) Description of two terrestrial gastropod species from Yunnan Province, China. Shell discoveries 2(1): 1416.

  • Gredler VM (1898) Neue Buliminiden aus Gansu. Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 30(7–8): 104107. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28228522

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hilber V (1883) Recente und im Löss gefundene Landschnecken aus China. II. SB. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien 88: 13491392, pls. 3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerney MP, Cameron RAD (1979) A field guide to the land snails of Britain and North- west Europe. Collins, London, 288 pp.

  • Lindholm WA (1922) Description of two Bulimini (Gastropoda Pulmonata) from Russian Central Asia. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie des Sciences de Russie 23 [1918–1922](2): 273275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martens E von (1882) Über centralasiatische Mollusken. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg 7 30(11): 165. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/46871758

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Möllendorff OF von (1899) Binnen-Mollusken aus Westchina und Central-Asien. Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskago Muzeia Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk 4(1): 46144, pls. 2–8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Möllendorff OF von (1901) Binnenmollusken aus Westchina und Centralasien. II. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 6(2): 299412, tables 1–11, pls. 12–17. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/9136456

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sturany R (1900) W. A. Obrutschew's Mollusken-Ausbeute aus Hochasien 148, pls. 1–4. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/13301188

  • Woodward BB (1903) List of British non-marine Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 10: 352367.

  • Wu M (2018) Mollusca, Gastropoda: Enoidea. Fauna Sinica, Invertebrata. Vol. 58. Science Press, Beijing, 298 pp.

  • Wu M, Fang YX (2012) A new species of the Holcauchen from north Sichuan, China (Stylommatophora, Enoidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 37(3): 546549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu M, Xu Q (2013) Serina Gredler (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora: Enidae), the continuous-peristomed mountain snails endemic to the eastern slope of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Zootaxa 3620: 4366. http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3620.1.2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yen TC (1939) Die chinesischen Land- und Süßwasser-Gastropoden des Natur-Museums Senckenberg. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 444: 1234, pls. 1–16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Barna PÁLL-GERGELY, PhD; Attila HETTYEY, PhD
Plant Protection Institute, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural Research
Address: 1022 Budapest, Herman Ottó út 15.
E-mail: pallgergely2@gmail.com; hettyey.attila@atk.hun-ren.hu

2023  
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Animal Taxonomy and Ecology
Language English
Size B5
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1955
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Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
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H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
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Cover photo:  Miklós Laczi: Nászruhás mocsári béka (Rana arvalis)

 

 

Co-Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Barna PÁLL-GERGELY, PhD - taxonomy

(Plant Protection Institute, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural Research, Budapest, Hungary)

Attila HETTYEY, PhD - ecology

(Plant Protection Institute, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural Research, Budapest, Hungary)

 

Associate Editors

  • Gergely HORVÁTH (Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Zoltán IMREI (Plant Protection Institute, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural Research, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Péter KÓBOR (Plant Protection Institute, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural Research, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Petr KOČÁREK (Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Czechia)
  • Zoltán KORSÓS (Department of Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Robin KUNDRATA (Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Palacky University in Olomouc, Czechia)
  • Zoltán LÁSZLÓ (Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania)
  • György MAKRANCZY (Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Daniel Fernández MARCHÁN (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Madrid, Spain)
  • Gergely SZÖVÉNYI (Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tamás SZŰTS (Department of Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, Budapest, Hungary)

External advisers

  • Zoltán BARTA (Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • András BÁLDI (Centre for Ecological Research, Vácrátót, Hungary)
  • Péter BATÁRY (Centre for Ecological Research, Vácrátót, Hungary)
  • Csaba CSUZDI (Department of Zoology, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary)
  • András DEMETER (European Commission, Directorate-General for the Environment, Brussels, Belgium)
  • Sergey ERMILOV (Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia)
  • László GALLÉ (Department of Ecology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Mark E. HAUBER (Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, USA)
  • Gábor HERCZEG (Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Erzsébet HORNUNG (Department of Ecology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Ladislav JEDLIČKA (Department of Zoology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • András LIKER (Department of Limnology, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary)
  • Gábor LÖVEI (Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Denmark)
  • Tibor MAGURA (Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • József MAJER (Department of Hydrobiology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary)
  • Wayne N. MATHIS (Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA)
  • István MATSKÁSI (Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Csaba MOSKÁT (Animal Ecology Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Maxim NABOZHENKO (Caspian Institute of Biological Resources, Dagestan Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Russia)
  • Roy A. NORTON (State University of New York, Syracuse, USA)
  • Tatsuo OSHIDA (Laboratory of Wildlife Biology, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan)
  • Tomas PAVLÍČEK (Institute of Evolution, Haifa, Israel)
  • Dávid RÉDEI (National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan)
  • Rudolf ROZKOŠNÝ (Department of Zoology and Ecology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic)
  • Lajos RÓZSA (Institute of Evolution, Centre for Ecological Research, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Ferenc SAMU (Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Mark A. SARVARY (Investigative Biology Teaching Laboratories, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA)
  • Spyros SFENTHOURAKIS (Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus)
  • Emma SHERLOCK (The National History Museum, London, UK)
  • Péter SÓLYMOS (Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada)
  • Zoltán VARGA (Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Zsolt VÉGVÁRI (Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Centre for Ecological Research, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Judit VÖRÖS (Department of Zoology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary)

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