View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Restricted access


The preparation of CpRu(MeCN)3PF6 using an easily assembled continuous flow reactor is described. This scalable, reproducible method provides the title compound in excellent yield and purity, and eliminates the need for any purification steps. Under our optimized conditions, the residence time required for complete conversion was only 5 min at an initial substrate concentration of 0.06 M, as compared to a reaction time of 12–36 h for the batch process at 0.02 M. This threefold increase in concentration and significant decrease in reaction time increases the throughput and efficiency of the synthesis. Using the simple laboratory equipment described herein, ruthenium catalyst of >99% purity was produced with a throughput of 1.56 g/h (5 mL reactor), which is 10 times the highest reported throughput for the batch process.

  • 1. Crabtree, R. H. The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ. For a review of the organometallic chemistry of vinylidines and unsaturated carbenes, see: Bruce, M. I. Chem. Rev. 1991, 91, 197257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Gill, T. P.; Mann, K. R. Organometallics 1982, 1, 485488.

  • 3. Gill, T. P.; Mann, K. R. Inorg. Chem. 1984, 23, 26332640.

  • 4. For reviews on non-metathesis, ruthenium-catalyzed reactions, see: (a) Trost, B. M.; Frederiksen, M. U.; Rudd, M. T. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 44, 66306666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    (b) Trost, B. M.; Toste, F. D.; Pinkerton, A. B. Chem. Rev. 2005, 101, 20672096.

  • 5. Trost, B. M.; Older, C. M. Organometallics 2002, 21, 25442546.

  • 6. Albini, A.; Germani, L. In Handbook of Synthetic Photochemistry; Albini, A., Fagnoni, M., Eds.; Wiley-VCH: Weinhheim, 13 p. ff and references therein.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. (a) For an excellent review of photochemistry conducted in continuous flow microreactors, see: Coyle, E. E.; Oelgemöller, M. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2008, 7, 13131322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Hook, B. D.; Dohle, W.; Hirst, P. A.; Pickworth, M.; Berry, M. B.; Booker-Milburn, K. I. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 75587564.

  • 9. (a) Sniady, A.; Bedore, M. W.; Jamison, T. F. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 21552158. (b)

    Zaborenko, N. ; Bedore, M. W.; Jamison, T. F.; Jensen, K. F. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2011, 15, 131139.

    (c) Zhang, Y.; Jamison, T. F.; Patel, S. J.; Mainolfi, N. Org. Lett. 2010, 13, 280283.

    (d) Bedore, M. W.; Zaborenko, N.; Jensen, K. F.; Jamison, T. F. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2010, 14, 432440.

  • 10. Webb, D.; Jamison, T. F. Chem. Sci. 2010, 675680.

Manuscript Submission: HERE

  • Impact Factor (2019): 3.622
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.795
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 20
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q1 Chemistry (miscellenous)
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q1 Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q2 Organic Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.277
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.58
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 17
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q1 Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Organic Chemistry

Journal of Flow Chemistry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
per Year
per Year
Founder Áramlásos Kémiai Tudományos Társaság
H-1031 Budapest, Hungary Záhony utca 7.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-249X (Print)
ISSN 2063-0212 (Online)