Authors:
Nihal D. Salman Mechanical Engineering Doctoral School, Szent István University, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
Baquba Technical Institute, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq

Search for other papers by Nihal D. Salman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1290-4889
,
György Pillinger Mechanical Engineering Doctoral School, Szent István University, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

Search for other papers by György Pillinger in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Péter Kiss Mechanical Engineering Doctoral School, Szent István University, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

Search for other papers by Péter Kiss in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Open access

Abstract

This study intends to examine the soil behaviour in the case of finite thickness, represented by the hard layer under a soft layer of soil. A further aim is to define load-bearing capacity parameters (n and k). The experimental work is carried out under laboratory conditions by using hydraulic bevameter to apply the load. A circular plate with a diameter of 100 mm is used to push down the load over the targeted area with a penetration rate of about 9 cm/min for sinkage plates. The study was conducted in a soil bin (length of 200 cm, width of 100 cm and variable thickness) using a sandy loam soil. First, the study has been done with loose soil with a thickness of 11 cm, which maintained with 10% moisture content and initial density of 1.190 g/cm3. After that, a two thickness of 6 and 18 cm with 8% moisture content and initial soil density of 1.375 g/cm3 were tested to explain the effect of thickness. In each test, the bevameter plate was loaded at multiple locations, the result showed the soil was near uniform. The result suggests that it is not easy to obtain one equation for the load bearing capacity because the layer near to the surface behaves like soil with infinite thickness and the deeper layer like soil with finite thickness.

Abstract

This study intends to examine the soil behaviour in the case of finite thickness, represented by the hard layer under a soft layer of soil. A further aim is to define load-bearing capacity parameters (n and k). The experimental work is carried out under laboratory conditions by using hydraulic bevameter to apply the load. A circular plate with a diameter of 100 mm is used to push down the load over the targeted area with a penetration rate of about 9 cm/min for sinkage plates. The study was conducted in a soil bin (length of 200 cm, width of 100 cm and variable thickness) using a sandy loam soil. First, the study has been done with loose soil with a thickness of 11 cm, which maintained with 10% moisture content and initial density of 1.190 g/cm3. After that, a two thickness of 6 and 18 cm with 8% moisture content and initial soil density of 1.375 g/cm3 were tested to explain the effect of thickness. In each test, the bevameter plate was loaded at multiple locations, the result showed the soil was near uniform. The result suggests that it is not easy to obtain one equation for the load bearing capacity because the layer near to the surface behaves like soil with infinite thickness and the deeper layer like soil with finite thickness.

1 Introduction

The distribution hardness of the soil with finite thickness is one of the greatest obstacles to evaluate the experimental result and define the load bearing capacity where the rigid layer of a certain depth changes the pressure distribution. The agricultural soils are tilled to a depth which is comparable with the equivalent contact diameter of tyres. The tillage processes and following settling form considerably various local load carrying capacities at different depths where the soil consists of a soft upper layer and a more resistant and rigid lower layer. The difference between the loose upper layer and the hard layers underneath cause difference in the pressure distribution. A firm layer fundamentally modifies the pressure distribution in the soil body [1].

The strength of the soil is highly dependent on several parameters, one of them is the soil moisture content. In unsaturated soils, soil strength decreases progressively with increasing soil moisture content; the soil bulk density effect on the soil compression behaviour, where the low bulk density soils have naturally low strength to support the load [2].

The model of an elastic layer of finite thickness underlain by a rigid layer is widely used in determining foundation displacement [3]. Studies conducted by [4–7] and others have served as the basis for practical use of this model. For the vehicle mobility, the load bearing capacity in infinite thickness, half space and homogeneous soil was studied intensively by [8–11] and others researchers. Ageykin [12] proposed a complex load-bearing capacity formula which gives a description for most soils, including soils with finite thickness and hard layer. This formula considers the effect of footing dimensions on soil deformation and gives an adequately close description of the complex function z = f(D), where z is the sinkage and D the diameter of a circle equal to penetrometer area. Saakyan [13] suggested the simplest load carrying capacity equation as a function of depth for homogeneous soil derived from the Boussinesq theory of the elastic half-space.
p = k ( z D ) n
where D is the diameter of the indenter, z is the sinkage, k is the load carrying capacity factor.

The load carrying capacity factor k depends on the soil type, density and moisture content. The exponent n defines the deformation and compaction behaviour of soil under vertical loading. It is mainly affected by the particle size distribution of the soil and moisture content. An extension of the infinite half space to the finite half space exists but is not widely known. In the agricultural soil, because of the tillage process, the load carrying capacities differ at different depths and the load carrying capacity factor k would be correct [1].

Elasticity theory in soil mechanics [14] proposed that excess in vertical stress from a uniformly load applied on the surface diminishes to a depth of about 1.8 times the diameter of the load. In the case of a hard layer, the pressure and stress propagation throughout the soil would have been significantly modified and not diminished.

The aim of this work was to study the influence of the hard layer on the sinkage by modifying the deformation of the soil in Saakyan model as a function of a thickness (z = f(H)). So, one soil thickness (11 cm) with moisture content (10%) and the initial bulk density of 1.190 g/cm3 tested to show the effect of the hard layer. Also, two soil thicknesses (6 and 18 cm) examined with moisture content of 8% and the initial density of 1.375 g/cm3 examined to explain the effect of the hard layer in the case of one variable change and two constants. In addition, the load bearing capacity parameters with finite thickness and the transient point from infinite to finite space was studied in this work.

2 Experimental procedure

The work was conducted at the vehicle engineering laboratory at Szent Istvan University (Godollo, Hungary) where the bevameter (plate–sinkage test) was built and constructed to do the experiments. Figure 1 shows the bevameter test setup. It consists of a hydraulic cylinder to apply load. Soil bin has a dimension of 200, 100 and changeable thickness up to 70 cm. A circular plate of 100 mm is connected to the hydraulic cylinder and it is in contact with the soil on which a known force is applied. Load cell (RSCC, HBM, Germany) with a capacity of 5,000 kg for measuring the applied vertical load. Linear position transducer (MLO, Festo, USA) with a linear displacement of 360 mm to measure sinkage. The slider of the linear position transducer is connected to the cylinder rod and they move at the same time. The hydraulic cylinder is able to move transversely and longitudinally by using rail for testing all the point of soil surface in the soil bin.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Bevameter equipment

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

Spider8 Data Acquisition System (HBM, Germany) was used to display the values of force and displacement, by transferring the data from the linear position transducer and output load cell to the computer.

The soil was brought from one of the fields that belong to the university. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a texture analysis of sand (2–0.05 mm), mud (0.05–0.002 mm) and clay (<0.002 mm), which is the same soil that Pillinger [15] and Máthé [16] used in their work. The soil has been filtered to remove the coarse parts like small stone and root of the plants as seen in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Purified soil

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

The soil was maintained at approximately 8% moisture content throughout the tests with an initial bulk density of 1.375 g/cm3 for the thickness of the soil (6 and 18 cm) and thickness of 11 cm, maintained at 10% moisture content with initial soil density (1.190 g/cm3). These parameters used to test the relationship of the pressure with the relative sinkage (z/H). To fill the bin with the soil, the soil density and the volume of the bin up to the specific thickness are known, the mass of the soil has been calculated. Thereafter the soil was weighed on the scale to the specified mass then discharged into the bin. Leveller was used to level the soil surface; Fig. 3a shows the soil surface with levelling. The soil was compressing gently and uniformly with a large wood plate to the set thickness, Fig. 3b shows the soil surface while pressing. The thickness of 11 cm was achieved by filling one layer without pressing to get loose soil, while the 18 cm was achieved by filling three layers of soil, each layer of around 39 mm thickness and each layer was pressed with a wood plate to get more pressed soil, the levelling and pressing procedure applied for each layer. Experiments were carried out at a penetration rate of sinkage plates of 9 cm/min.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Filling and levelling the soil inside the bin, (b) Pressing the soil surface

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

3 Results and discussion

In each test, the bevameter plate was loaded at multiple locations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) on the soil surface in the bin, as seen in Figs 4, 5 and 6, which showed approximately repeatable pressure-sinkage measurements. This reveals the uniformity and homogeneity of the soil. Table 1 displays the sinkage parameters and the max applied force for each test.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pressure-sinkage curves for soil thickness of 6 cm

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pressure-sinkage curves for soil thickness of 11 cm

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pressure-sinkage curves for soil thickness of 18 cm

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

Table 1.

Sinkage parameters

Thickness of the soil (cm) Max. sinkage (mm) Sinkage thickness ratio, z/H (–) Max force (kN)
6 37.47 62.46 8
11 69.60 63.27 4
18 145.28 81.02 14

Figure 7 shows the form of the falling of the soil around the test point for each thickness. It reveals the reaction of the firm layer effect clearly on the soil in the case of a thickness of 6 cm and less in the case of other thicknesses.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The shape of the soil collapse around the penetration point for each thickness

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

Figure 8 shows the logarithmic scale of the soil pressure with respect to relative soil deformation that resulted from the experimental work of applied load on the soil with two thicknesses of pressed soil and one thickness of loose soil. The soil’s container’s base worked as a hard layer affecting the soil behaviour with all the thicknesses. This resulted in the upper layer behaving as infinite space and the lower layer as finite space. There was no possibility to gain one simple equation as in formula (1) for the measurements, instead of that separate parts of the curves of the measurements can be obtained with formula (1). The transition points from the infinite to finite space can be seen clearly in Fig. 8, for example in the curve of (11 cm) thickness, line 1 showed the infinite and line 2 shows finite, after that line 3 represents the increase of the soil compaction. This procedure is the same for the two thicknesses (6 and 18 cm). The pressure relative sinkage curves are shown in Fig. 7, which were used to determine the parameters for Eq. (1). Table 2 summarises the results. It can be seen from Table 1 that the value of n for all the thicknesses increased, which means the deformation of the soil increased. The value of n for the line (3, 3‵ and 3‶) was high, which means the compaction of the soil increased. Higher differences can clearly be seen in the values of n with a thickness of 11 cm compared to 6 and 18 cm because the moisture content was different. The value of load bearing capacity factor (k) also increased for all the thicknesses but increasing the soil thickness (6 and 18 cm) resulted no bigger difference because it had the same density, however, for the 11 cm thickness the difference was more considerable because the density was different.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The logarithmic scale of the relationship between the soil pressure and relative sinkage z/H

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 12, 1; 10.1556/1848.2020.00114

Table 2.

Model parameters

Soil thickness [cm] Line number n K R 2
6 1‵ 0.781 5.192 0.998
2‵ 1.192 10.915 0.995
3‵ 2.246 32.584 0.991
11 1 0.501 0.183 1
2 1.192 2.307 0.981
3 3.078 16.798 0.979
18 1‶ 0.532 4.714 0.998
2‶ 0.966 8.050 0.948
3‶ 4.011 35.630 0.987

4 Conclusion

This paper presented the experimental results of normal bevameter tests. The overall motivation was to determine the affection of the hard layer on the sinkage and to define the relationship of soil pressure and the relative sinkage z/H. The experimental results with three thicknesses demonstrated that the upper layer of the soil behaves like infinite space. Then because of the firm layer, the layers underneath behave like finite space and the pressure increases as a result of that. For the loose soil, the transition from infinite to finite space happened at a pressure of (0.22 bar). While the other thickness required higher pressure due to the soil being more compressed and the density was being higher. The value of (n) for all the thicknesses increased, which means the deformation of the soil increased. In addition, the reaction of the hard layer affects the soil behaviour which increases the compaction as seen in Fig. 7 for the line (3, 3‵ and 3‶). It can be clearly seen that the value of (n) differs significantly for the thickness of 11 cm in comparison with the thicknesses of 6 and 18 cm because the moisture content was different. The value of load bearing capacity factor (k) also increased for all thicknesses. However, the increase with the soil thicknesses (6 and 18 cm) is not notably different. That is because it had the same density. While for the 11 cm thickness, the difference was more considerable because the density was different. The hard layer modified the soil behaviour and the load-bearing capacity parameters (n and k).

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Stipendium Hungaricum Programme and by the Mechanical Engineering Doctoral School, Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary.

References

  • [1]

    G. Sitkei , G. Pillinger , L. Máthé , L. Gurmai , and P. Kiss , “Methods for generalization of experimental results in terramechanics,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 81, pp. 2334, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jterra.2018.05.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    D. L. Antille , D. Ansorge , M. L. Dresser , and R. J. Godwin , “Soil displacement and soil bulk density changes as affected by tire size,” Am. Soc. Agric. Biol. Eng., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 16831693, 2013. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.56.9886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    S. G. Kushner , “Stress-strain state of a bed of finite thickness under an arbitrary strip load applied to the surface,” Soil Mech. Found. Eng., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 27, 1998. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315846484.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    M. A. Biot , “Effect of certain discontinuities on the pressure distribution in a loaded soil,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 367375, 1935. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1745279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    H. G. Poulos , “Stresses and displacements in an elastic layer underlain by a rough rigid base,” Géotechnique, vol. 17, pp. 378410, 1967. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1967.17.4.378.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    I. Sovinc , “ Stresses and displacements in a limited layer of uniform thickness, resting on a rigid base, and subjected to an uniformly distributed flexible load of rectangular shape,” 5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. and Found. Eng., pp. 823827, 1961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    D. M. Milovic and J. P. Tournier , “Stress and displacment due to rigid rectangular foundation on a layer of finite thickness,” Soil Found., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 2943, 1973. https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.13.4_29.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    M. G. Bekker , Introduction to Terrain-Vehicle Systems: Book, 1st ed., University of Michigan Press, (March 1, 1969), pp. 3869, 1969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    A. R. Reece , “Principles of soil-vehicle mechanics,” Proc. Instit. Mech. Eng., vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 4566, 1965. https://doi.org/10.1243/PIME_AUTO_1965_180_009_02.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    O. Onafeko and A. R. Reece , “Soil stress and deformation beneath rigid wheels,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 59, no. l, pp. 5980, 1967. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(67)90104-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    V. V. Kacigin and V. V. Guskovt , “The basis of tractor performance theory,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 4366, 1968. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(68)90080-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    Y. S. Ageykin , “Evaluation of ground deformability with respect to vehicle mobility,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 105111, 1973. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(73)90051-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [13]

    P. Kiss , Some Questions About Energy On Field Vehicles. Doctoral dissertation, Godollo, Szent Istvan University, p. 13, 2001.

  • [14]

    M. Budhu , Soil Mechanics Fundamentals: Book, John Wiley & Sons, p. 157, 2015.

  • [15]

    G. Pillinger , Deformation and Damping of Soil under Tire. Doctoral dissertation, Szent Istvan University, p. 31, 2016.

  • [16]

    L. Máthé , Analysis of the Motion of Vehicles Running onto Terrain. Doctoral dissertation, Szent Istvan University, p. 74, 2014.

  • [1]

    G. Sitkei , G. Pillinger , L. Máthé , L. Gurmai , and P. Kiss , “Methods for generalization of experimental results in terramechanics,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 81, pp. 2334, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jterra.2018.05.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    D. L. Antille , D. Ansorge , M. L. Dresser , and R. J. Godwin , “Soil displacement and soil bulk density changes as affected by tire size,” Am. Soc. Agric. Biol. Eng., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 16831693, 2013. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.56.9886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    S. G. Kushner , “Stress-strain state of a bed of finite thickness under an arbitrary strip load applied to the surface,” Soil Mech. Found. Eng., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 27, 1998. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315846484.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    M. A. Biot , “Effect of certain discontinuities on the pressure distribution in a loaded soil,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 367375, 1935. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1745279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    H. G. Poulos , “Stresses and displacements in an elastic layer underlain by a rough rigid base,” Géotechnique, vol. 17, pp. 378410, 1967. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1967.17.4.378.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    I. Sovinc , “ Stresses and displacements in a limited layer of uniform thickness, resting on a rigid base, and subjected to an uniformly distributed flexible load of rectangular shape,” 5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. and Found. Eng., pp. 823827, 1961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    D. M. Milovic and J. P. Tournier , “Stress and displacment due to rigid rectangular foundation on a layer of finite thickness,” Soil Found., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 2943, 1973. https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.13.4_29.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    M. G. Bekker , Introduction to Terrain-Vehicle Systems: Book, 1st ed., University of Michigan Press, (March 1, 1969), pp. 3869, 1969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    A. R. Reece , “Principles of soil-vehicle mechanics,” Proc. Instit. Mech. Eng., vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 4566, 1965. https://doi.org/10.1243/PIME_AUTO_1965_180_009_02.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    O. Onafeko and A. R. Reece , “Soil stress and deformation beneath rigid wheels,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 59, no. l, pp. 5980, 1967. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(67)90104-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    V. V. Kacigin and V. V. Guskovt , “The basis of tractor performance theory,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 4366, 1968. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(68)90080-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    Y. S. Ageykin , “Evaluation of ground deformability with respect to vehicle mobility,” J. Terramechanics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 105111, 1973. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(73)90051-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [13]

    P. Kiss , Some Questions About Energy On Field Vehicles. Doctoral dissertation, Godollo, Szent Istvan University, p. 13, 2001.

  • [14]

    M. Budhu , Soil Mechanics Fundamentals: Book, John Wiley & Sons, p. 157, 2015.

  • [15]

    G. Pillinger , Deformation and Damping of Soil under Tire. Doctoral dissertation, Szent Istvan University, p. 31, 2016.

  • [16]

    L. Máthé , Analysis of the Motion of Vehicles Running onto Terrain. Doctoral dissertation, Szent Istvan University, p. 74, 2014.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.
Submit Your Manuscript
 

Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Ákos, Lakatos University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Founder, former Editor-in-Chief (2011-2020): Ferenc Kalmár University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Founding Editor: György Csomós University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Associate Editor: Derek Clements Croome University of Reading (UK)

Associate Editor: Dezső Beke University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Editorial Board

  • Mohammad Nazir AHMAD Institute of Visual Informatics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Murat BAKIROV Center for Materials and Lifetime Management Ltd. Moscow Russia

    Nicolae BALC Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Umberto BERARDI Ryerson University Toronto Canada

    Ildikó BODNÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Sándor BODZÁS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Fatih Mehmet BOTSALI Selçuk University Konya Turkey

    Samuel BRUNNER Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

    István BUDAI University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Constantin BUNGAU University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Shanshan CAI Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan China

    Michele De CARLI University of Padua Padua Italy

    Robert CERNY Czech Technical University in Prague Czech Republic

    György CSOMÓS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Tamás CSOKNYAI Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Eugen Ioan GERGELY University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    József FINTA University of Pécs Pécs Hungary

    Anna FORMICA IASI National Research Council Rome

    Alexandru GACSADI University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Eric A. GRULKE University of Kentucky Lexington United States

    Janez GRUM University of Ljubljana Ljubljana Slovenia

    Géza HUSI University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Ghaleb A. HUSSEINI American University of Sharjah Sharjah United Arab Emirates

    Nikolay IVANOV Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University St. Petersburg Russia

    Antal JÁRAI Eötvös Loránd University Budapest Hungary

    Gudni JÓHANNESSON The National Energy Authority of Iceland Reykjavik Iceland

    László KAJTÁR Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Ferenc KALMÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Tünde KALMÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Milos KALOUSEK Brno University of Technology Brno Czech Republik

    Jan KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague Prague Czech Republic

    Vaclav KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague Prague Czech Republic

    Imra KOCSIS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Imre KOVÁCS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Angela Daniela LA ROSA Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    Éva LOVRA Univeqrsity of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Elena LUCCHI Eurac Research, Institute for Renewable Energy Bolzano Italy

    Tamás MANKOVITS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Igor MEDVED Slovak Technical University in Bratislava Bratislava Slovakia

    Ligia MOGA Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Marco MOLINARI Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm Sweden

    Henrieta MORAVCIKOVA Slovak Academy of Sciences Bratislava Slovakia

    Phalguni MUKHOPHADYAYA University of Victoria Victoria Canada

    Balázs NAGY Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Husam S. NAJM Rutgers University New Brunswick United States

    Jozsef NYERS Subotica Tech College of Applied Sciences Subotica Serbia

    Bjarne W. OLESEN Technical University of Denmark Lyngby Denmark

    Stefan ONIGA North University of Baia Mare Baia Mare Romania

    Joaquim Norberto PIRES Universidade de Coimbra Coimbra Portugal

    László POKORÁDI Óbuda University Budapest Hungary

    Antal PUHL (1950–2023) University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Roman RABENSEIFER Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Bratislava Slovak Republik

    Mohammad H. A. SALAH Hashemite University Zarqua Jordan

    Dietrich SCHMIDT Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology IWES Kassel Germany

    Lorand SZABÓ Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Csaba SZÁSZ Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Ioan SZÁVA Transylvania University of Brasov Brasov Romania

    Péter SZEMES University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Edit SZŰCS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Radu TARCA University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Zsolt TIBA University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    László TÓTH University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    László TÖRÖK University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Anton TRNIK Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Nitra Slovakia

    Ibrahim UZMAY Erciyes University Kayseri Turkey

    Tibor VESSELÉNYI University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Nalinaksh S. VYAS Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur India

    Deborah WHITE The University of Adelaide Adelaide Australia

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Address of the institute: Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen
H-4028 Debrecen, Ótemető u. 2-4. Hungary
Email: irase@eng.unideb.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • DOAJ
  • ERIH PLUS
  • Google Scholar
  • ProQuest
  • SCOPUS
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory

 

2022  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.235
Scimago Quartile Score Architecture (Q2)
Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q3)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.6
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 46/170 (73rd PCTL)
General Engineering 174/302 (42nd PCTL)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 93/150 (38th PCTL)
Environmental Engineering 123/184 (33rd PCTL)
Management Science and Operations Research 142/198 (28th PCTL)
Information Systems 281/379 (25th PCTL)
 
Scopus
SNIP
0.686

2021  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
7
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,199
Scimago Quartile Score Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,2
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 48/149 (Q2)
General Engineering 186/300 (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 79/124 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 118/173 (Q3)
Management Science and Operations Research 141/184 (Q4)
Information Systems 274/353 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,457

2020  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,165
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q3
Environmental Engineering Q4
Information Systems Q4
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
102/116=0,9
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 205/297 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 107/146 (Q3)
Information Systems 269/329 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 139/166 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 64/98 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,26
Scopus
Cites
57
Scopus
Documents
36
Days from submission to acceptance 84
Days from acceptance to publication 348
Acceptance
Rate

23%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
4
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,229
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q2
Environmental Engineering Q3
Information Systems Q3
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
46/81=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 227/299 (Q4)
Environmental Engineering 107/132 (Q4)
Information Systems 259/300 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 136/161 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 60/86 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,866
Scopus
Cites
35
Scopus
Documents
47
Acceptance
Rate
21%

 

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Limited number of full waiver available. Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2010
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Debreceni Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-0810 (Print)
ISSN 2063-4269 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2023 0 16 10
Oct 2023 0 45 7
Nov 2023 0 31 3
Dec 2023 0 91 6
Jan 2024 0 56 2
Feb 2024 0 116 11
Mar 2024 0 15 2