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M. Irshad Ahamed Department of Electronics and Communication, E.G.S. Pillay Engineering College, Nagapattinam-611002, Tamilnadu, India

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Mansoor Ahamed “Bimberg Chinese-German Centre for Green Photonics” of the Chinese Academy of Science at Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Changchun-130033, People’s Republic of China

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R. Muthaiyan Department of Electronics and Communication, University College of Engineering, Thirukkuvalai-610204, Tamilnadu, India

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Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs) or semiconductor nanocrystals are luminous materials with unique optical properties that can be fine-tuned by varying the size of the material. Chalcogenide QDs show strong quantum confinements effects owing to the fact that the exciton Bohr radius is much larger than the particle size, and tunable energy bandgap leads to widespread technological interest in near-infrared optical devices. In this communication, one dimensional Cu2SnS3 and PbSexS1-x QDs is modeled by a particle in a box model which was used to compute energies and density of states. The density of states and the energy level of QDs are determined as a function of the strengths of the potential walls of the inner box. The results exhibit that the density of states decreases exponentially with an increase in the energy level of QDs. The density of states at lower energy levels is more significant than what is observed in higher energy levels.

Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs) or semiconductor nanocrystals are luminous materials with unique optical properties that can be fine-tuned by varying the size of the material. Chalcogenide QDs show strong quantum confinements effects owing to the fact that the exciton Bohr radius is much larger than the particle size, and tunable energy bandgap leads to widespread technological interest in near-infrared optical devices. In this communication, one dimensional Cu2SnS3 and PbSexS1-x QDs is modeled by a particle in a box model which was used to compute energies and density of states. The density of states and the energy level of QDs are determined as a function of the strengths of the potential walls of the inner box. The results exhibit that the density of states decreases exponentially with an increase in the energy level of QDs. The density of states at lower energy levels is more significant than what is observed in higher energy levels.

1 Introduction

Recent advances in light-emitting and detecting devices (LEDs and Photodetectors) layered structures fabrication technology have reached a level pushing the limits [1]; currently, in one or more of the three Cartesian directions, structures with nearly submicron sizes similar to the de Broglie wavelength of the electrons can be fabricated [2]. In telecommunication and optical computing applications, optoelectronic devices play a significant role and are extensively used. Optical switching schemes such as thermo-optic, electro-optic, and all other optic methods have been widely explored in optical communication networks, and on-chip interconnects [3].

In recent years, low-dimensional semiconductor materials have attracted extensive research interest in the field of optoelectronic device applications owing to their inherent structural properties such as ultra-small size and high active edge sites per unit mass [4]. Low-dimensional semiconductor materials have their own distinctive properties at the same time; they have typical applications such as optoelectronic devices. Based on the dimension, low-dimensional semiconductor materials can be classified as zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) depending on their nanoscale range in diverse spatial directions [5].

The two-dimensional nanomaterial is a layered structure. The conduction of electrons will be confined throughout the thickness of the material, but delocalization (electron free to move) is in a plane of sheet. The layers are bonded by Van der Waals forces and the atoms located in the in-plane are connected by covalent bonds [5, 6]. 2D materials attained an ultra-thin thickness at the atomic level, which sets them apart from conventional materials in dimension [7]. In one-dimensional materials, the electrons are confined to two dimensional spaces whereas delocalization occurs along the quantum rod/tube/wire axis. In the case of zero-dimensional nanomaterials, all three dimensions are fully confined, and electrons are not free to move. Hence, no delocalization occurs. Therefore, zero-dimensional nanomaterials electron movements are fully confined. Changes in morphology and spatial structure make zero-dimensional nanomaterials exhibit versatility in chemical and physical properties [8].

The representatives in the family of low-dimensional semiconductor materials focus on nanodiamond, metal nanoparticles, quantum dots (QDs), graphene QDs are zero-dimensional nanomaterials. Nano bars, nanoribbons, carbon nanotubes are one-dimensional nanomaterials, and graphene oxide, nanofilms, carbon nanowall are two-dimensional nanomaterials. These 1D and 2D nanomaterials offer unique advantages such as lightweight, extreme thinness, high transparency, high sensitivity, and the possibility for large-area fabrication. Along with obvious advantages, 1D and 2D nanomaterials have some disadvantages, which in some cases can significantly limit their application [9]. With such unique properties as tunable wavelength photoluminescence, high optical stability, chemical inertness, 0D nanomaterials offer great adaptability to optoelectronic applications such as light-emitting and detecting devices and solar cells. QDs with 3 dimensionally confined electrons constitute a crucial role of recent semiconductor studies [10–12].

Luminous QDs are generally composed of I-IV-VI, II-VI, and I-III-V elements. The most important property of QDs is the large “surface to volume ratio,” which results in discrete electronic states called “traps” on the surface. As a result of size confinement, the continuum of states in valence and conduction band is divided into discrete energy levels relating to energy bandgaps that are approximately and inversely proportional to the size of QDs radius [13, 14].

The density of states determines the various properties of nanomaterials, and this key freedom provides for designing and tuning nanomaterials for various applications. This phenomenon allows us to study the mechanical and optical properties of the same semiconductor nanomaterials with different sizes exhibiting various properties. For example, photoluminescence spectroscopy, thermal analysis, excitons in semiconductor nanocrystal, energy bandgap, etc., overall provide the ability to control the density of states and are significant for various applications of optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting devices, photodetector, biological devices, optical memories, and advanced photonic nanostructures. The density of states calculation is very helpful in investigating the electron transport properties of a system, since the variation in the density of states directly disturbs the electron transport properties of the system as a result of a reduction in size [15–18].

Recently Ilouno et al. [19, 20] reported about energy level and density of states variations of low dimensional quantum structures which are determined by using particle in a box model. Remarkably surface to volume ratio of the semiconductor nanostructures plays a significant role in investigating their properties. One of the foremost properties of semiconductor is density of states which plays a key role in the electronic properties of semiconductors. Golovatenko modeled the density of ground excitonic states of epitaxial growth binary alloy showing much wider emission and the photoluminescence peak is shifted towards higher energy level [21]. The modelling results suggested the effective energy transfer in the dense array of epitaxial growth QDs. Hence, it is important to study energy level and density of states variations of semiconductor nanostructures to better understand the opportunity.

Ternary Cu2SnS3 & PbSexS1-x chalcogenide QDs have been chosen in this research, for the application of light emitting and detecting devices and solar cells, due to their relatively low toxicity and availability in abundance. Cu2SnS3 is a promising substitute for quaternary systems, which provides an alternative to rare metal elements such as indium-based compounds and avoids a complex preparation process. Cu2SnS3 is a p-type semiconductor with high absorption coefficient value of 104 cm−1 and with a bandgap range of 0.93–1.77eV, making it a suitable absorber material for solar cell and lighting sensor applications. Similarly, ternary semiconductors such as PbSeS from the group of IV-VI semiconductors are most commonly used in infrared optoelectronics. It offers potential uses for intermediate wavelength detectors and produces a unique response to cover wavelength ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 nm. Moreover, these materials show excellent optical absorption and emission properties. For solar cell applications, it exhibits excellent absorption and is highly compatible for designing light-emitting devices such as LDs, LEDs, and sensing devices [22–27].

2 Theory of analysis

The density of states are different energy states that electrons are allowed to occupy at a specific energy level, i.e., the number of electron states per unit energy per unit volume. The unit of density of states is expressed as eV−1cm−3 and it offers information on how the energy states are distributed in a given solid. It is usually denoted as g (E). Further, the density of states points to the availability of the number of states in a system which is important for determining the energy distribution of carrier and carrier concentration within a semiconductor [28].

Generally, in semiconductors, the motion of free electrons is limited with zero, one, and two spatial dimensions. Knowledge of the density of states of low dimensional nanostructures is required when applying semiconductor states to the systems of these dimensions.

The number of states achieved by a quantum system is the possible number of available states, mathematically expressed as
( E ) = V s y s t e m V s i n g l e s t a t e × N
Where,

( E ) represents the number of states, V system represents the volume of the whole systems (sphere, line, and circle), V single state represents the volume of a single state of the system, and N is the number of atoms in the crystal.

In an excited state, the density of states depends on the energy gained by an electron. It is the first derivative of the state with respect to energy. It is mathematically expressed,
g ( E ) = d ( E ) d E

2.1 Density of states of low dimensional systems

One dimensional QDs are considered in the analysis of the energy level per unit energy per unit volume. It can be derived from the Schrodinger equation.
2 ψ ( x ) + 2 m ( E V ) ħ 2 ψ ( x ) = 0
Where, m* – Effective mass of the particle, V – Volume of the system, ψ ( x ) – Electron wave function, ħ – Reduced Planck’s constant, E – Energy, a real number
2 = 2 x 2
2 ψ ( x ) = 2 ψ ( x ) x 2
Put Equation (5) in Equation (3)
d 2 ψ ( x ) d x 2 + 2 m ( E V ) ħ 2 ψ ( x ) = 0
Put V = 0 in Equation (6)
d 2 ψ ( x ) d x 2 + 2 m E ħ 2 ψ ( x ) = 0
2 m E ħ 2 = K 2 , then K = 2 m E ħ 2
d 2 ψ ( x ) d x 2 + K 2 ψ ( x ) = 0
Where,
ψ ( x ) = A s i n K x + B c o s k x
Substituting K = 2 m E ħ 2 in Equation (10)
n = 2 m E ħ 2 l π = ( 2 m E ) 1 2 l ħ π
The density per unit energy is obtained by using chain rule as given below,
d N d E = d N d K d k d E = ( 2 m E ) 1 / 2 × m l ħ π
The density of states per unit energy per unit volume divided by the volume of the crystal,
g ( E ) = ( 2 m E ) 1 / 2 × m l ħ π l = ( 2 m E ) 1 / 2 × m ħ π = m 2 m E π ħ
g ( E ) = 1 π ħ m 2 E

The above equation shows that the density of states for QDs depends on energy [17].

3 Results and discussion

Quantum confinement effects constitute the unique property of QDs, which becomes discrete the density of states near the band edges with the ability to determine the spacing between the energy bands in semiconductors. A simple theoretical model has been formulated to study the variation of density of states with respect to increase in the energy level of QDs.

Figures 1 and 2 show the density of states as a function of the energy of Cu2SnS3 and PbSexS1-x QDs. The result reciprocates an exponential decrease in the density of states with an increase in energy levels of QDs. The density of states of lower energy levels is more significant than what is observed at higher energy levels. This energy variation in PbSexS1-x QDs is much higher than Cu2SnS3 QDs, which is due to the effective mass of electrons in the compound.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Variation of the density of states with respect to the energy level of Cu2SnS3 QDs

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 13, 1; 10.1556/1848.2021.00288

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of the density of states with respect to the energy level of PbSexS1-x QDs

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 13, 1; 10.1556/1848.2021.00288

The density of states and the energy level spacing change with a reduction in material size as well as a constituent element in the ternary alloy and temperature. It also indicates the dependence of the density of states on the quantum number with respect to energy. The most important characteristic of the low dimensional nanostructure is their density of states which shows a sharp dependence on energy level, especially QDs systems.

The density of states is remarkably kindred to the optoelectronic properties of a semiconductor nanostructure through its due absorption coefficient, which directly affects the characteristics of the optoelectronic devices. Hence these parameters significantly affect the energy band.

In the case of PbSexS1-x QDs, the effective mass of the electron is much lower (9.276 × 10−32 kg), almost equivalent to the mass of an electron at rest. In return, the corresponding energy level variation is high. At the same time, in Cu2SnS3 QDs, the effective mass electron is in the range between 2.18 × 10−30 kg and 2.78 × 10−30 kg, and the energy level is relatively low, resulting in a high density of states. Energy bandgap is not much affected by Cu2SnS3 QDs at lower energy levels, which confirms the stability of the material.

4 Conclusion

Cu2SnS3 and PbSexS1-x QDs have been successfully modeled with respect to energy level and density of states by the particle in a box model. It is reported from the theory that energy level increases with a decrease in the density of states. Furthermore, it has been found that the low effective mass of electrons and holes in semiconductor nanomaterials may not vary the density of states at a higher level. This model would highly contribute to calculating and understand the electronic properties of various nanomaterials.

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank Dr. E. Edward Anand, Professor, E.G.S. Pillay Engineering college for his technical guidance and support during this work.

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  • [1]

    Q. Ma , G. Ren , A. Mitchell , and J. Ou , “Recent advances on hybrid integration of 2D materials on integrated optics platforms,” Nanophoton, vol. 9, pp. 21912214, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    D. Li , K. Jiang , X. Sun , and C. Guo , “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opti. Photon., vol. 10, p. 43, 2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    K. Xu , B. Y. Zhang , Y. Hu , M.W. Khan , R. Ou , Q. Ma , C. Shangguan , et al.A high-performance visible-light-driven all-optical switch enabled by ultra-thin gallium sulfide,” J. Mater. Chem. C, Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 31153121, 2021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    Z. Wang , T. Hu , R. Liang , and M. Wei , “Application of zero-dimensional nanomaterials in biosensing,” Front. Chem., vol. 8, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    J. Fang , Z. Zhou , M. Xiao , Z. Lou , Z. Wei , and G. Shen , “Recent advances in low‐dimensional semiconductor nanomaterials and their applications in high‐performance photodetectors,” Info Mat, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 291317, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/inf2.12067.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    Q. Ma , G. Ren , K. Xu , and J. Ou , “Tunable optical properties of 2D materials and their applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater., vol. 9, no. 2, p. 2001313, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/adom.202001313.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    K. Khan , et al., “Recent developments in emerging two-dimensional materials and their applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 387440, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9tc04187g.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    F. A. Michael , J. F. Paulo , and L. S. Daniel , Eds. Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies and Design: An Introduction for Engineers and Architect, Armsterdam: Elsevier, 2009. Available from: Elsevier books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    G. Korotcenkov , “Current trends in nanomaterials for metal oxide-based conductometric gas sensors: advantages and limitations. Part 1: 1D and 2D nanostructures,” Nanomaterials, vol. 10, no. 7, p. 1392, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071392.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    F. Rodríguez-Mas , J. Ferrer , J. Alonso , D. Valiente , and S. Fernández de Ávila , “A comparative study of theoretical methods to estimate semiconductor nanoparticles’ size,” Crystals, vol. 10, p. 226, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    M.I. Ahamed , and K.S. Kumar , “Modelling of electronic and optical properties of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots for optoelectronics applications,” Mat.Sci.-Poland, vol. 37, pp. 108115, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    S. Dias , K. Kumawat , S. Biswas , and S. Krupanidhi , “Heat-up synthesis of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots for near infrared photodetection,” RSC Adv., vol. 7, pp. 2330123308, 2017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [13]

    S. Nath , D. Chakdar , G. Gope , and D. Avasthi , “Effect of 100 MeV nickel ions on silica coated ZnS quantum dots,” J. Nanoelectro.Optoelectro., vol. 3, pp. 180183, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    D. Mohanta , S. Nath , A. Bordoloi , A. Choudhury , S. Dolui , and N. Mishra , “Optical absorption study of 100-MeV chlorine ion-irradiated hydroxyl-free ZnO semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phy., vol. 92, pp. 71497152, 2002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    M. Omar , Introduction to Nanomaterials and Devices. [e-book]. New Jersey, Wiley, 2011, Available through: Wiley Online Library https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781118148419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [16]

    J. Heremans , “Low-dimensional thermoelectricity,” Acta Physica Pol. A, vol. 108, pp. 609634, 2005.

  • [17]

    S. Lee , N. Shin , J. Ko , M. Park , and R. Kummel , “Density of states of quantum dots and crossover from 3D to Q0D electron gas,” Semiconductor Sci. Technol., vol. 7, pp. 10721079, 1992.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    K. Langfeld , B. Lucini , A. Rago , R. Pellegrini , and L. Bongiovanni , “The density of states approach for the simulation of finite density quantum field theories,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 631, p. 012063, 2015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [19]

    J. Ilouno , I. Audu , M. Mafuyai , and N. Okpara , Asian J. Res. Rev. Phys., vol. 1, pp. 16, 2018.

  • [20]

    J. Ilouno , N. Okapara , and M. Mafuyai , Int. J. Sci. Eng. Tech. Res., vol. 7, pp. 364375, 2018.

  • [21]

    A. Golovatenko , M. Semina , A. Rodina , and T. Shubina , “Density of states and photoluminescence spectra in the dense arrays of epitaxial CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots with Gaussian potential profile,” Acta Physica Pol. A, vol. 129, pp. A-107–A-110, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [22]

    S. Dias , K. Kumawat , S. Biswas , and S. Krupanidhi , “Solvothermal synthesis of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots and their application in near-infrared photodetectors,” Inorg. Chem., vol. 56, pp. 21982203, 2017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [23]

    K. M. H. Shamima , G. Ram , and V. Kamlanathan , “Influence of solvents on solvothermal synthesis of Cu2SnS3 nanoparticles with enhanced optical, photoconductive and electrical properties,”Mat. Technol., vol. 33, pp. 7278, 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [24]

    M. Irshad Ahamed , and K. Sathish Kumar , “Studies on Cu2SnS3 quantum dots for O-band wavelength detection,” Mat. Sci.-Poland, vol. 37, pp. 225229, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [25]

    S. Dias , and S. Krupanidhi , “Solution processed Cu2SnS3 thin films for visible and infrared photodetector applications,” AIP Adv., vol. 6, p. 025217, 2016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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    S. Jathar , et al.Ternary Cu2SnS3: synthesis, structure, photoelectrochemical activity, and heterojunction band offset and alignment,” Chem. Mater., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 19831993, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c03223.

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    M.I. Ahamed , K.S. Kumar , E.E. Anand , and A. Sivaranjani , “Optical attenuation modelling of PbSexS1-x quantum dots for optoelectronic applications,” J. Ovonic Res., vol. 16, pp. 245252, 2020.

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    Density of states, gerogia institute of technology. Available: http://alan.ece.gatech.edu/ECE6451/Lectures/StudentLectures/King_Notes_Density_of_States_2D1D0D.pdf. [Accessed: Jan. 24, 2021].

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Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Ákos, LakatosUniversity of Debrecen, Hungary

Founder, former Editor-in-Chief (2011-2020): Ferenc Kalmár, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Founding Editor: György Csomós, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Associate Editor: Derek Clements Croome, University of Reading, UK

Associate Editor: Dezső Beke, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Editorial Board

  • Mohammad Nazir AHMAD, Institute of Visual Informatics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Murat BAKIROV, Center for Materials and Lifetime Management Ltd., Moscow, Russia

    Nicolae BALC, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Umberto BERARDI, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Canada

    Ildikó BODNÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Sándor BODZÁS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Fatih Mehmet BOTSALI, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey

    Samuel BRUNNER, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

    István BUDAI, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Constantin BUNGAU, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Shanshan CAI, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

    Michele De CARLI, University of Padua, Padua, Italy

    Robert CERNY, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Erdem CUCE, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey

    György CSOMÓS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Tamás CSOKNYAI, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Anna FORMICA, IASI National Research Council, Rome, Italy

    Alexandru GACSADI, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Eugen Ioan GERGELY, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Janez GRUM, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Géza HUSI, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Ghaleb A. HUSSEINI, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Nikolay IVANOV, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia

    Antal JÁRAI, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

    Gudni JÓHANNESSON, The National Energy Authority of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

    László KAJTÁR, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Ferenc KALMÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Tünde KALMÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Milos KALOUSEK, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republik

    Jan KOCI, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Vaclav KOCI, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Imre KOCSIS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Imre KOVÁCS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Angela Daniela LA ROSA, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    Éva LOVRA, Univeqrsity of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Elena LUCCHI, Eurac Research, Institute for Renewable Energy, Bolzano, Italy

    Tamás MANKOVITS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Igor MEDVED, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Ligia MOGA, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Marco MOLINARI, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

    Henrieta MORAVCIKOVA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Phalguni MUKHOPHADYAYA, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada

    Balázs NAGY, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Husam S. NAJM, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA

    Jozsef NYERS, Subotica Tech College of Applied Sciences, Subotica, Serbia

    Bjarne W. OLESEN, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

    Stefan ONIGA, North University of Baia Mare, Baia Mare, Romania

    Joaquim Norberto PIRES, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

    László POKORÁDI, Óbuda University, Budapest, Hungary

    Roman RABENSEIFER, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovak Republik

    Mohammad H. A. SALAH, Hashemite University, Zarqua, Jordan

    Dietrich SCHMIDT, Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology IWES, Kassel, Germany

    Lorand SZABÓ, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Csaba SZÁSZ, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Ioan SZÁVA, Transylvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania

    Péter SZEMES, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Edit SZŰCS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Radu TARCA, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Zsolt TIBA, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    László TÓTH, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    László TÖRÖK, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Anton TRNIK, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovakia

    Ibrahim UZMAY, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey

    Tibor VESSELÉNYI, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Nalinaksh S. VYAS, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India

    Deborah WHITE, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Address of the institute: Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen
H-4028 Debrecen, Ótemető u. 2-4. Hungary
Email: irase@eng.unideb.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

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2022  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.235
Scimago Quartile Score Architecture (Q2)
Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q3)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.6
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 46/170 (73rd PCTL)
General Engineering 174/302 (42nd PCTL)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 93/150 (38th PCTL)
Environmental Engineering 123/184 (33rd PCTL)
Management Science and Operations Research 142/198 (28th PCTL)
Information Systems 281/379 (25th PCTL)
 
Scopus
SNIP
0.686

2021  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
7
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,199
Scimago Quartile Score Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,2
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 48/149 (Q2)
General Engineering 186/300 (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 79/124 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 118/173 (Q3)
Management Science and Operations Research 141/184 (Q4)
Information Systems 274/353 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,457

2020  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,165
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q3
Environmental Engineering Q4
Information Systems Q4
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
102/116=0,9
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 205/297 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 107/146 (Q3)
Information Systems 269/329 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 139/166 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 64/98 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,26
Scopus
Cites
57
Scopus
Documents
36
Days from submission to acceptance 84
Days from acceptance to publication 348
Acceptance
Rate

23%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
4
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,229
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q2
Environmental Engineering Q3
Information Systems Q3
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
46/81=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 227/299 (Q4)
Environmental Engineering 107/132 (Q4)
Information Systems 259/300 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 136/161 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 60/86 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,866
Scopus
Cites
35
Scopus
Documents
47
Acceptance
Rate
21%

 

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Limited number of full waiver available. Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2010
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Debreceni Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-0810 (Print)
ISSN 2063-4269 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

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Jan 2024 0 59 39
Feb 2024 0 47 31
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May 2024 0 46 33
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