Authors:
Rashwan Alkentar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Ótemető Str. 2, 4028, Debrecen, Hungary
Doctoral School of Informatics, Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, Kassai Str. 26, 4028, Debrecen, Hungary

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Máté File Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Ótemető Str. 2, 4028, Debrecen, Hungary

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Tamás Mankovits Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Ótemető Str. 2, 4028, Debrecen, Hungary

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Abstract

The research is dedicated to determine one of the most important mechanical properties which is the Young's modulus. Its value is crucial for clearly explaining and understanding the results of any mechanical loading experiment. Three cylindrical samples of 15 mm height and 7.5 mm diameter were designed using SpaceClaim application in the ANSYS Software and then 3D printed using Direct Metal Laser Sintering via EOS M 290 3D printer. The specimens were then tested under compression in order to determine the value of the Young's modulus for titanium alloy of grade 23 (Ti, Al, V, O, N, C, H, Fe, Y). The finite element method was executed using ANSYS mechanical to run a comparison between laboratory results with nominal results of the Young's modulus. Young's modulus value is affected by the 3D printing accuracy and quality, the material's quality as well; however, the deviation is within 10%.

Abstract

The research is dedicated to determine one of the most important mechanical properties which is the Young's modulus. Its value is crucial for clearly explaining and understanding the results of any mechanical loading experiment. Three cylindrical samples of 15 mm height and 7.5 mm diameter were designed using SpaceClaim application in the ANSYS Software and then 3D printed using Direct Metal Laser Sintering via EOS M 290 3D printer. The specimens were then tested under compression in order to determine the value of the Young's modulus for titanium alloy of grade 23 (Ti, Al, V, O, N, C, H, Fe, Y). The finite element method was executed using ANSYS mechanical to run a comparison between laboratory results with nominal results of the Young's modulus. Young's modulus value is affected by the 3D printing accuracy and quality, the material's quality as well; however, the deviation is within 10%.

1 Introduction

Due to its success with the production of complicated parts, 3D printing techniques like selective laser melting (SLM) and selective laser sintering are being used with different materials and in various areas [1, 2]. In the biomedical field, 3D printing methods have the advantages in fabricating scaffolds and latticed structures with the ability to create complex shapes, geometries and porosities [3]. Bill used SLM to manufacture lattice structures used in biomedical implants in order to investigate the defects resulting from 3D printing methods in comparison to finite element analyzed models [4]. Many researches were conducted for investigating the mechanical properties of 3D printed structures.

Mazur et al. studied the compressive behavior of SLM fabricated titanium alloy structures. The research investigated various topologies sizes and geometries [5]. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), a 3D printing method, was used by Karolewska and Ligaj to prepare specimens of titanium alloys. The study focused on the comparison of 3D printed parts [6].

Since the Young's modulus defines the elastic behavior of the material, several attempts were reported trying to determine its value. Most of these researches investigated the Young's modulus for isotropic metallic structures because of the importance of their performance. The testing setup procedures for such a process are divided into two methods, the dynamic method like the ultrasonic measurement approach and the static method like the mechanical test (compressive, tensile) [7]. Usually, researchers used uniaxial and triaxial compression methods in order to determine the Young's modulus value [8]. The stress-strain curve does not always show a clear linear behavior with all kinds of materials, hence a single value of the Young's modulus is sometimes hard to calculate. This fact redirected the interest to the non-destructive methods which give better results regarding the elastic range [9]. K.T. Chau derived an approximate formula for calculating the Young's modulus using cylinders under compression but assuming the Poisson's ratio is already known [10].

Researchers showed that the only problem with the compression test in the modulus determination is deviated from its intrinsic value. The main reason behind this fact is the existence of friction between the upper and lower end surfaces and the loading platens [10–12]. Wei Liu suggested a correction method in his approach [13] for linear hardening materials to obtain the modulus of cylindrical specimens of aluminum using the compression test. His research showed closer values to the intrinsic modulus than the tested values. Eva Labasova, in [14], was able to determine the Young's modulus using the relative strain with predefined load conditions and universal measurement system Quantum X MX 840.

In the biomedical field, researchers focused on the modification of Young's modulus to cure stress shielding. Mitsuo proposed a study on getting the Young's modulus of titanium alloy as close to the cortical bone as possible [15]. In [16], Anders Ogaard determined the accuracy of measurements of the Young's modulus for the cancellous bone using compression testing, where the strain was measured using an extensometer attached to the compression anvils.

Pursuing reduction of the young's modulus, Yu. N. Loginov tried modifying Young's modulus value for titanium alloy Ti6Al4V used in medical implants via the finite element method analysis. Honeycomb cellular was applied as a structure for the cylindrical specimens used in the experiment. The Young's modulus was indeed reduced three times compared with the solid titanium alloy [17]. G. Rotta also studied the effect of the porous titanium alloy on its Young's modulus using the finite element method. The study showed that the pore size has a strong influence on the Young's modulus [18]. Reconstruction of the Young's modulus using the finite element method was discussed by Yanning Zhu in [19], where the approach depends on relaxing the force boundary condition requirements so that at the compression surface, only the force distribution remains. The finite element method with the help of a network of triangular elements was used to investigate the elastic properties of an isotropic composite material [20]. The finite element model updating method was discussed as a correction of the numerical model of the structure based on the measured data from the real structure [21].

In [22], Stefan derived a formula for calculating the Young's modulus using the average field approximation method in the field of composite materials. J.G. Williams [11] utilized a compression test in determining the value of Young's modulus under the assumption that radial displacement is linearly dependent on the radius of the cylindrical specimens used during the test. FE was also used to validate the results of the laboratorial tests. Jianjun proposed, in [23], the idea of determining the elastic modulus using a piezoelectric ring and electromechanical impedance. The method offered a solution for the on-site determination of mechanical properties since most of the mechanical ways required a large set of testing machines. Bucciarelli et al. [24] tried the sound waves method as a non-destructive testing way to determine the elastic modulus, where an error of 2% was achieved compared with the results of tensile-testing methods of determination. The same approach of the sound factor was used by Nunn [25].

The focus of this paper has been on the determination of the Young's modulus based on the laboratorial compression test followed by a numerical investigation using the FEM method to validate the results. The study prepares the calculation of the Young's modulus to help with an upcoming work with the same type of TI6Al4V alloy.

2 Materials

Over the past few decades, titanium alloys were used in a wide range in the manufacturing of biomedical appliances. In the research, Ti6Al4V alloy of grade 23 was used in the 3D printing of the specimens. This alloy is most famous for its good biomechanical properties such as low density, high strength and high corrosion resistance that are quite necessary to enhance the osseointegration and biocompatibility in biomedical implants. The research seeks to find the exact Young's modulus for the material to generate accurate results in the laboratorial and simulative fields.

The following Table 1 shows the material's composition:

Table 1.

Ti6Al4V alloy composition (based on [26])

ElementChemical composition percentage %
Al5.50–6.50
V3.50–4.50
O0.13
N0.05
C0.08
H0.012
Fe0.25
Y0.005
Other elements each0.1
Other element total0.4

3 Methods

3.1 CAD design and the FEM analysis

The CAD model was designed using the SpaceClaim application within the ANSYS software. The STL file was, then, exported to be processed by the 3D printing machine software. The design is a solid cylinder of height 15 mm and a diameter of 7.5 mm, as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The CAD design of the specimen

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

The FEM analysis was applied using the mechanical application within ANSYS. The compression test was simulated in the FEM process where a force of 10 kN was applied on the upper face of the cylinder. Fixed support constraint was applied on the opposite surface of the cylinder. Adaptive mesh size was chosen in order to conduct a suitable mesh for the cylinder. The following Fig. 2 shows the compression test parameters in the FEM analysis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The settings of the compression test simulation

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

Depending on equation (1), the Young's modulus was calculated using stress and strain values.
E=σε
Where E is the Young's modulus measured in MPa, σ is the stress which was calculated using the force and area of the cylinder measured in MPa, ε is the strain calculated from the change in height value.

3.2 Manufacturing

Direct metal laser sintering was used to 3D print the specimens. EOS M290 machine was used to execute the manufacturing. The machine was chosen based on the characteristics that suit this type of specimen. The machine uses a laser of type Yb fiber with a 400 W power. The focus diameter is 100 μm and the scanning speed is 7 m s−1 [27]. EOSPRINT 2 software was used in the machine to process the CAD data. Three cylindrical samples were manufactured in total as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D-printed specimen

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

After manufacturing the samples, a digital caliper of type Mitutoyo with a precision of ±0.02 mm was used to measure the dimensions. Table 2 shows the average values of both the diameter and the height.

Table 2.

Average measurements of the specimens

SpecimenDiameter [mm]Height [mm]
17.45815.22
27.49414.98
37.48615.09

3.3 Compression test

The compression test was executed with INSTRON 8801 servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine. The compression speed was set at 1 mm min−1. A video extensometer provided with a heavy-duty camera was used in order to detect the changes in displacement along the compression process. The machine is provided with the Wavematrix software as an operating system. The test was done at room temperature to avoid any confliction with the thermal expansion.

The following Fig. 4 shows one of the samples under compression. Stress-strain graphs were extracted and analyzed in order to calculate the Young's modulus of the samples.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Specimen under compression

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

4 Results

4.1 Compression test

As mentioned above, the values of the strain were generated with the help of the video extensometer, which was able to record the displacement during the compression stage. Stress values were calculated based on the reaction forces values generated by the testing machine, which were applied on the cross-sectional area of the specimens.

Figure 5 shows the stress-strain results for all three specimens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Stress-strain graphs for all three specimens

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

As shown in the previous figure, the Young's modulus has an average value of 106,247 MPa, which is close to the nominal value of 113,800 MPa with a deviation of 6.6%.

4.2 FEM simulation results

The calculated value of the Young's modulus taken from the laboratorial test was applied in the finite element study. The resulting deformation of the simulated compression test was recorded taking into consideration that the compression was executed in the linear range of the material only.

In order to guarantee the accuracy of the FEM solution, a deformation divergence analysis was executed on the design based on the mesh element size. Figure 6 shows how the deformation diverges with a change of less than 5%, which gives an acceptable result.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Deformation divergence with mesh element size

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

The following Fig. 7 shows the deformation distribution along the specimen. The maximum deformation shown was 0.0315 mm in response to the maximum force applied of 10 kN.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Deformation within the specimen

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

The stress-strain graph is displayed in Fig. 8. As shown in the graph, the Young's modulus value is 108,151 MPa, which is close to the nominal known Young's modulus value of the Ti6Al4V alloy of 113,800 MPa; however, there has been a deviation of 4.9%. The average Young's modulus was shown with a value of 106,247 MPa, which represents a deviation of 1.7% from the FEM results.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Stress-strain graph

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 2; 10.1556/1848.2022.00536

5 Conclusions

Young's modulus values were investigated using a simple compression test and validated using the FEM analysis for three specimens. As seen from the results, the Young's modulus value was affected by the amount of displacement and deformation in the material. A deviation was noticed from the nominal known value of the Young's modulus for the TI6Al4V alloy of grade 23 due to the following reasons:

  • Printing accuracy,

  • Printing quality,

  • Material's quality.

Designers apply the lattice structure design on the medical implants in order to reduce the Young's modulus of the titanium alloy to a range close to that of the human bone, thus preventing the stress shielding phenomena.

Conflict of interest

The third author, Tamás Mankovits is a member of the Editorial Board of the journal. Therefore, the submission was handled by a different member of the editorial team and he did not take part in the review process in any capacity.

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  • [1]

    W. J. Sames, F. A. List, S. Pannala, R. R. Dehoff, and S. S. Babu, “The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing,” Int. Mater. Rev., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 315360, Jul. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/09506608.2015.1116649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    K. V. Wong and A. Hernandez, “A review of additive manufacturing,” ISRN Mech. Eng., vol. 2012, p. 208760, 2012. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/208760.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    U. Jammalamadaka and K. Tappa, “Recent advances in biomaterials for 3D printing and tissue engineering,” J. Funct. Biomater., vol. 9, no. 1, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    B. Lozanovski, et al., “Computational modelling of strut defects in SLM manufactured lattice structures,” Mater. Des., vol. 171, p. 107671, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2019.107671.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    M. Mazur, M. Leary, S. Sun, M. Vcelka, D. Shidid, and M. Brandt, “Deformation and failure behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V lattice structures manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM),” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 13911411, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7655-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    K. Karolewska and B. Ligaj, “Comparison analysis of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V produced by metallurgical and 3D printing method,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2077, no. 1, p. 20025, Feb. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5091886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    S. Suttner and M. Merklein, “A new approach for the determination of the linear elastic modulus from uniaxial tensile tests of sheet metals,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 241, pp. 6472, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.10.024.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    J. Martínez-Martínez, D. Benavente, and M. A. García-del-Cura, “Comparison of the static and dynamic elastic modulus in carbonate rocks,” Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 263268, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-011-0399-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    O. A. Quaglio, J. Margarida da Silva, E. da Cunha Rodovalho, and L. de Vilhena Costa, “Determination of Young’s modulus by specific vibration of basalt and diabase,” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 2020, p. 4706384, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4706384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    C. K. T., “Young’s modulus interpreted from compression tests with end friction,” J. Eng. Mech., vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 17, Jan. 1997. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1997)123:1(1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    J. G. Williams and C. Gamonpilas, “Using the simple compression test to determine Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and the Coulomb friction coefficient,” Int. J. Sol. Struct., vol. 45, no. 16, pp. 44484459, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2008.03.023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    R. M. Jones, “Apparent flexural modulus and strength of multimodulus materials,” J. Compos. Mater., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 342354, Oct. 1976. https://doi.org/10.1177/002199837601000407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [13]

    W. Liu, Y. Huan, J. Dong, Y. Dai, and D. Lan, “A correction method of elastic modulus in compression tests for linear hardening materials,” MRS Commun., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 641645, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1557/mrc.2015.76.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    E. Labašová, “Determination of modulus of elasticity and shear modulus by the measurement of relative strains,” Res. Pap. Fac. Mater. Sci. Technol. Slovak Univ. Technol., vol. 24, no. 39, pp. 8592, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1515/rput-2016-0021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    M. Niinomi, Y. Liu, M. Nakai, H. Liu, and H. Li, “Biomedical titanium alloys with Young’s moduli close to that of cortical bone,” Regen. Biomater., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 173185, Sep. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1093/rb/rbw016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [16]

    A. Odgaard and F. Linde, “The underestimation of Young’s modulus in compressive testing of cancellous bone specimens,” J. Biomech., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 691698, 1991. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(91)90333-I.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    Y. N. Loginov, A. I. Golodnov, S. I. Stepanov, and E. Y. Kovalev, “Determining the Young’s modulus of a cellular titanium implant by FEM simulation,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 1915, no. 1, p. 30010, Dec. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5017330.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • [18]

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Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Ákos, LakatosUniversity of Debrecen, Hungary

Founder, former Editor-in-Chief (2011-2020): Ferenc Kalmár, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Founding Editor: György Csomós, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Associate Editor: Derek Clements Croome, University of Reading, UK

Associate Editor: Dezső Beke, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Editorial Board

  • Mohammad Nazir AHMAD, Institute of Visual Informatics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Murat BAKIROV, Center for Materials and Lifetime Management Ltd., Moscow, Russia

    Nicolae BALC, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Umberto BERARDI, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Canada

    Ildikó BODNÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Sándor BODZÁS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Fatih Mehmet BOTSALI, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey

    Samuel BRUNNER, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

    István BUDAI, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Constantin BUNGAU, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Shanshan CAI, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

    Michele De CARLI, University of Padua, Padua, Italy

    Robert CERNY, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Erdem CUCE, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey

    György CSOMÓS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Tamás CSOKNYAI, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Anna FORMICA, IASI National Research Council, Rome, Italy

    Alexandru GACSADI, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Eugen Ioan GERGELY, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Janez GRUM, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Géza HUSI, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Ghaleb A. HUSSEINI, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Nikolay IVANOV, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia

    Antal JÁRAI, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

    Gudni JÓHANNESSON, The National Energy Authority of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

    László KAJTÁR, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Ferenc KALMÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Tünde KALMÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Milos KALOUSEK, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republik

    Jan KOCI, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Vaclav KOCI, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Imre KOCSIS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Imre KOVÁCS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Angela Daniela LA ROSA, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    Éva LOVRA, Univeqrsity of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Elena LUCCHI, Eurac Research, Institute for Renewable Energy, Bolzano, Italy

    Tamás MANKOVITS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Igor MEDVED, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Ligia MOGA, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Marco MOLINARI, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

    Henrieta MORAVCIKOVA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Phalguni MUKHOPHADYAYA, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada

    Balázs NAGY, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Husam S. NAJM, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA

    Jozsef NYERS, Subotica Tech College of Applied Sciences, Subotica, Serbia

    Bjarne W. OLESEN, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

    Stefan ONIGA, North University of Baia Mare, Baia Mare, Romania

    Joaquim Norberto PIRES, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

    László POKORÁDI, Óbuda University, Budapest, Hungary

    Roman RABENSEIFER, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovak Republik

    Mohammad H. A. SALAH, Hashemite University, Zarqua, Jordan

    Dietrich SCHMIDT, Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology IWES, Kassel, Germany

    Lorand SZABÓ, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Csaba SZÁSZ, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Ioan SZÁVA, Transylvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania

    Péter SZEMES, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Edit SZŰCS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Radu TARCA, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Zsolt TIBA, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    László TÓTH, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    László TÖRÖK, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Anton TRNIK, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovakia

    Ibrahim UZMAY, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey

    Andrea VALLATI, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy

    Tibor VESSELÉNYI, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Nalinaksh S. VYAS, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India

    Deborah WHITE, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Address of the institute: Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen
H-4028 Debrecen, Ótemető u. 2-4. Hungary
Email: irase@eng.unideb.hu

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2023  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.249
Scimago Quartile Score Architecture (Q2)
Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q3)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
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2.3
Scopus
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General Engineering (Q2)
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Management Science and Operations Research (Q3)
Information Systems (Q3)
 
Scopus
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0.751


International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Online only
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Limited number of full waivers available. Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2010
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Debreceni Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-0810 (Print)
ISSN 2063-4269 (Online)

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