Authors:
Fahad Mohanad Kadhim Department of Prosthetic and Orthotics Engineering, University of Al-Nahrain, Baghdad, Iraq

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Muhsin Jaber Jweeg Technical Engineering, Al-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq

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Rowaid Nabeel Yousuf Al-Kkow Iraqi Ministry of Defense, Jiant Headquarter, Engineering Supporting Directorate, Baghdad, Iraq

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Muhammad Safa Al-Din Tahir Department of Computer Engineering Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Imam Ja'afar Al-sadiq University, Baghdad, Iraq

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Open access

Abstract

The pylon is an essential part of lower limb prosthetics. It is usually made of titanium, aluminum, and steel. However, it is expensive and difficult to be available in developing countries, especially for children who suffer from amputation. Moreover, they constantly need new pylon pieces during close periods due to the growth and increase in the child's length.

Purpose

This study aims to design an adjustable pylon that can change in length to suit the increase in the length of the healthy leg of the child without the need for a new pylon and reduce the economic cost.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, an adjustable pylon model was designed using the CAD software (Solid work) and work to manufacture the pylon from low-cost materials (carbon fiber filament) capable of bearing the amputee's weight, and manufacturing printed parts by using additive manufacturing technical (CREALITY CR20 3D printer).

Findings

The results showed that the pylon is successful in design and strength as it bears the patient's weight without any failure or buckling, and the proof that the maximum amount of stress generated is 27.8 MPa, which is far from the value of the yield stress.

Originality/value

The design of the adjustable pylon prototype offers good strength and ability to bear the patient weight, reducing the cost and time of manufacturing.

Abstract

The pylon is an essential part of lower limb prosthetics. It is usually made of titanium, aluminum, and steel. However, it is expensive and difficult to be available in developing countries, especially for children who suffer from amputation. Moreover, they constantly need new pylon pieces during close periods due to the growth and increase in the child's length.

Purpose

This study aims to design an adjustable pylon that can change in length to suit the increase in the length of the healthy leg of the child without the need for a new pylon and reduce the economic cost.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, an adjustable pylon model was designed using the CAD software (Solid work) and work to manufacture the pylon from low-cost materials (carbon fiber filament) capable of bearing the amputee's weight, and manufacturing printed parts by using additive manufacturing technical (CREALITY CR20 3D printer).

Findings

The results showed that the pylon is successful in design and strength as it bears the patient's weight without any failure or buckling, and the proof that the maximum amount of stress generated is 27.8 MPa, which is far from the value of the yield stress.

Originality/value

The design of the adjustable pylon prototype offers good strength and ability to bear the patient weight, reducing the cost and time of manufacturing.

1 Introduction

Amputation refers to the surgical removal of a limb (arm or leg) or another bodily part as a treatment for an illness or injury, such as diabetes or cancer [1, 2]. A prosthetic is a device to replace a natural body part lost due to injury, illness, or a congenital disability (congenital disorder). Prosthetics aim to restore normal bodily function by functioning as artificial replacements for a lost body component [3]. The main components of the lower limb prosthetic consist of the socket, pylon, joints, and foot [4]. The details of the lower limb prosthetic can be shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The main parts of the below-knee prosthetic of amputees

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

This study focuses on enhancing the design and manufacture of a pylon. In this field, there are some researchers as Luca Gabriele De Vivo Nicoloso et al., whose study presents the design and fabrication of a 3D printed transtibial prosthesis, complete with socket, pylon, foot, and monocoque construction [5]. Athmar T. N. et al. research was done to determine how to select the best design for a 3D printing prosthetic pylon [6]. Ameer A. Kadhim et al. worked on manufacturing an ABS prosthetic shank with Adapters by 3D Printer [7]. Samah F. H. et al. worked to select the appropriate density of the material in accordance with the mechanical prosperities required by the 3D-printing application in which it will be employed in the manufacture of the prosthetic pylon [8]. The research of Hayder Zaher Abdalikhwa et al. aims to show the hung improvements and developments of new suggested composite materials, to change the prosthetic pylon by boosting the user's comfort and extending the life of the prosthetic pylon [9]. Zainab H. Zaier and Kadhim K. Resan worked on manufacturing prosthetic shanks from porous functionally graded materials (ABS filament materials) by additive fabricating technique [10]. Ammar M. and Mahmud R. Ismail designed an elastically curved shank of below knee prosthesis to reduce patient effort and consumption of metabolic energy [11]. Raihan Kenji Rizqillah searches for the best material selection of below-knee leg prosthetics and finds the PLA carbon fiber is the best material for pylon of below knee in respect to weight, cost performance, and strength [12]. Schmitz worked to quantify the fatigue properties of three-dimensional printed carbon fiber has been used to create lower limb prosthetics [13].

Muhsin J.J. et al. developed three prosthetic pylons, each designed and manufactured using different composite material layers (6, 9, and 12) [14]. Jawad K. Oleiwi investigated the tensile and buckling properties of PMMA-reinforced jute fibers for prosthetic pylons [15]. Muhammad S. et al. [16] designed a low-cost, easily manufacturing prosthetic that can simulate the gait cycle of an amputee from carbon fiber filament material, as it has high strength and good resistance to variation of temperature, so it can be used in extreme climates in different countries. Fariborz Tavangarian et al. [17] studied pylon of lower limb prosthetic, which was manufactured using an additive fabricating technique. ABS materials were used as the filament materials of pylons for 3D printing. The 3D printed specimens have good compression requirements. This result confirms that additive fabricating can easily and efficiently create shanks without using conventional methods. At the same time, this study aims to design a pylon that can change in length to be suitable for the growth of the length of the healthy limb without the need to use a new pylon.

2 Materials and methods

The experimental producer of this study is summarized as follows: Design of the pylon using CAD software. Then, the carbon fiber filament material was chosen to be suggested in manufacturing of the designed pylon. Then the proposed material was printed using the 3D printer as samples for the tensile and fatigue test.

The ground reaction force values were calculated by laboratory tests that were previously conducted on children suffering from lower limb amputations. The ground reaction force data were used to apply the boundary conditions in the analysis and engineering simulation of the designed pylon test.

2.1 Pylon design

The pylon is designed from two overlapping parts of different diameters. The upper part is a hollow shaft with an outer diameter of 30 mm and a thickness of 3 mm. The top of the lower part contains a lock connecting the pylon's two parts at the appropriate length. The inner diameter of the lock and the lower part of the pylon is 30 mm, and its thickness is 3 mm. The lock consists of an open cylinder connected to two rectangular lips attached to two screws. The lock is controlled by tightening and loosening the screws. When the screw is tightened, the diameter of the lock is reduced, and the two parts of the pylon are connected at the appropriate length. When the screw is loosened, the lock diameter increases and allows sliding of the two parts of the pylon to move to the required length. Figure 2 shows the design and parts of the pylon in the case of lengthening and shortening.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The design of the pylon model

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

2.2 Material selection

Carbon fiber filament material was selected to manufacture pylon because it is low-cost, has good mechanical properties, and is suitable for prosthetic and orthotic parts. Also, this material was chosen because it can be used in the 3D printer technic to manufacture parts, in contrast to the selection of metal materials that require expensive techniques such as CNC machines and lathes to manufacture pylon. The parameters of the filament are 1.75 mm in diameter with a specific weight = 1.5 g m−1, and the printing temperature was 250–265 °C.

2.3 3-D printer device

An additive manufacturing technology was chosen because it is low-cost, easy to use, and quick to accomplish compared to other technologies. Due to its rapid prototyping, print on demand, sturdy and lightweight parts, fast design and production, minimizing waste, cost-effectiveness, and accessibility, 3D printing allows for the design and printing of more complicated structures than conventional manufacturing processes. In this study a CREALITY CR20 3D printer was used.

2.4 Material test

The material was tested to determine its mechanical properties and use mechanical properties as inputs to the numerical analysis process. First, the material was tested using the tensometer tensile device, where three samples were printed using the CREALITY CR20 3D printer with a density of 100% according to the dimensions of ASTM 638D [18]. The details of the specimen dimension of the tensile test are shown in Fig. 3, while the printed specimens of the tensile test are shown in Fig. 4. Also, a fatigue test was done, where the samples were printed with a density of 100% according to the device dimensions, as shown in Fig. 5. A machine (HI-TEICH) was used to test fatigue [19]. The printed fatigue specimen are shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The dimension of the tensile specimen

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The tensile specimen was printed from a carbon fiber filament

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The dimension of the fatigue test specimen

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The printed fatigue specimen from a carbon fiber filament

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

2.5 Ground reaction force (GRF)

GRF is the value of the reaction force of the ground on the human body while walking. GRF data is divided into three components, two horizontal and one vertical. A vertical force is directed upwards towards the body through the leg. The vertical force is the same force that passes through the prosthesis, and it is the same that will be applied to the pylon during the numerical analysis process. With the help of the Medical Rehabilitation Laboratory at Al-Nahrain University, several data were quoted to measure the ground reaction force of the children suffering from amputation above the knee using the prosthesis.

Data were extracted for three children with amputated, one of whom weighed 35 kg and had an above-knee amputation of his right leg. Another child weighed 42 kg, and the third child weighed 29 kg and had an above-knee amputation of his right leg. Data for the child who weighed 42 kg was selected to apply the maximum load on the pylon during the numerical analysis. The ground reaction diagrams of children's amputations with a weight of (42, 35, 29) are shown in Figs 79.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The ground reaction force for an amputee child weighed 42 kg

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The ground reaction force for an amputee child weighed 35 kg

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The ground reaction force for an amputee child weighed 29 kg

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

2.6 Finite element analysis method (FEM)

The design of the adjustable pylon model was tested by the Finite element method as a case study to know the ability of the pylon to bear the weight of the amputee child, the stresses generated, and the deformations that occur due to applying the patient's weight. The simulation process on the pylon requires the application of the boundary conditions on the pylon model. The boundary conditions include applying the weight of the amputation child, which is equivalent to the amount of ground reaction, on the upper top of the pylon while the pylon is fixed from its lower end. The applied boundary conditions can be shown in Fig. 10. Mesh convergence tests were done previously to determine the best mesh size. A mesh size of 1.5 mm was chosen for this model based on the convergence analysis. The nodes number are 6,455, and the elements are equal to 3,157. The meshing is done with the tetrahedrons method, as shown in Fig. 11. The effect of friction was not taken into account between the two parts of the pylon, because the bonding process between the two parts occurred as a result of tightening the screws. As for the numerical analysis of the screws, they can be found in Figs 12 and 13.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The boundary conditions are applied to the adjustable pylon

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The mesh the adjustable pylon model

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

The boundary condition of friction for contact region, the value of coefficient friction 0.35

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The boundary condition for applied weight of patient at upper tip of the pylon and fixed at lower tip with bolt pretension for two bolt

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

3 Results and discussions

The mechanical tests showed that carbon fiber has excellent properties that can be employed to manufacture prosthetic parts. The tensile test results can be observed in the stress-strain diagram shown in Fig. 14 where the yield stress = 53.25 MPa, Ultimate stress = 81.57 MPa, and modulus of elasticity = 2.14 GPa. Also, the fatigue test results in the (stress-number of cycles) curve are shown in Fig. 15. At the 1.32E + 07 cycle number, the carbon fiber's stress endurance equals 31 MPa. The results of the mechanical test agree with the results of previous or other works [5, 6, 8, 12].

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

The Stress-Strain diagram of the printed carbon fiber filaments specimen

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

The S-N curve of the printed carbon fiber filaments spermine

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

The simulated pylon was weighted numerically, where its weight was equal to 110 g. The cost of carbon fiber filament of 110 g does not exceed 4$ for manufacturing the prosthetic pylon. The finite element analysis of simulated a geometrical pylon model shows the following results:

Von Mises stress analysis: As the patient dresses the lower limb prosthesis, the patient's weight will be applied as a compression force to the adjustable pylon, which is equivalent to the ground reaction force. Consequently, the load applied to the pylon will generate stresses in various region, as depicted in Fig. 16. The results show that the pylon has maximum Von Mises stress of 27.84 MPa. There is a significant difference between the Von Mises stress and yield stress values of carbon fiber filament material. The result means that the selected pylon model and material have passed in design.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

The simulated adjustable pylon's Von Mises stress

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

The deformation analysis detected the total deformation of the adjustable pylon's values and location. The pylon's maximum deformation value is 0.2 mm, as shown in Fig. 17.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Deformation values for pylon model analysis

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

The results show that the Von Mises stress at the screws and nut has maximum value equal to 15.702 MPa as shown in Fig. 18. The bolt and nut material is steel-4310.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Von Mises stress at the screws and nut

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

FEM software was used to analyze the pylon models and calculate the fatigue safety factor. The simulated pylon's safety factor is passed during design. It is worth noting that the safety factor value varies by region, depending on the stress distribution and endurance stress. Figure 19 shows that the safety factor is greater than (1.25). If the fatigue safety factor is equal to or greater than (1.25), the design will be safe [20].

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

The safety factor values for the simulated adjustable prosthetic pylon

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

Buckling analysis: buckling is the sudden deformation of a structural component under load, such as the bowing of a pylon under compression. The pylon is buckling if the value of the applied load is higher than the critical load of buckling; therefore, the pylon in this study is buckling simulated to know if it is buckled or not. The result showed the critical load on the pylon was equal to 2462.9 N. The results indicated the pylon could bear the patient's weight without buckling because the applied load resulting from the patient's weight is less than the critical load at which the pylon buckles. The buckling analysis is illustrated in Fig. 20. The results of numerical analysis are approximate and in agreement with the other works dealing with analyzing the prosthetic pylon [8, 12].

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

The buckling analysis for the pylon model

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 14, 3; 10.1556/1848.2023.00569

4 Conclusions

  1. The adjustable pylon has a low cost and costs less than the conventional pylon manufactured from metal. The cost of the printed pylon is 4$.

  2. The new adjustable pylon design is lightweight, as its weight is 0.11 kg.

  3. Due to the low cost, the pylon will be available to amputees with limited income or amputees in poor and developing countries.

  4. The adjustable pylon is passed in design and has no mechanical failure when applying the patient's weight.

  5. The new pylon design will save the costs incurred to buy a new pylon to compensate for the new length of the pylon due to the increase in the length of the healthy leg of the child.

  6. The designed pylon has enough strength to bear the amputee's weight due to the stress generated in the pylon due to the applied ground reaction force having a big gap between the yield force and the safety factor value between (6.7–15).

  7. The designed pylon is safe in terms of buckling.

Acknowledgment

The researchers would like to thank the Movement and Rehabilitation Laboratory at the Department of orthotics and Prosthetics Engineering at Al-Nahrain University for facilitating the taking of data for amputees and for helping to complete the tests.

References

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    F. M. Kadhim, M. S. Al-Din Tahir, and A. T. Naiyf, “The effect of vibrations on the mechanical properties of laminations,” Pollack Period., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 6265, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    F. M. Kadhim, A. M. Takhakh, and J. S. Chiad, “Modeling and evaluation of smart economic transfemoral prosthetic,” Defect and Diffusion Forum, vol. 398, pp. 4853, 2020.

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    • Export Citation
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    F. M. Kadhim, J. S. Chiad, and M. A. Salam Enad, “Evaluation and analysis of different types of prosthetic knee joint used by above knee amputee,” Defect and Diffusion Forum J., vol. 398, pp. 3440, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    S. F. Awad, F. M. Kadhim, W. S. Aboud, and M. S. Al-Din Tahi, “Strain and deformation measurement for prosthetic parts using the Arduino microcontroller and strain gauges instruments,” Int. J. Mech. Eng., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17, 2022, Part 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    L. G. D. V. Nicoloso, J. Pelz, H. Barrack, and F. Kuester, “Towards 3D printing of a monocoque transtibial prosthesis using a bio-inspired design workflow,” Rapid Prototyp. J., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 6780, 2021.

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    T. N. Athmar, F. M. Kadhim, S. F. Hasan, and M. S. Al-Din Tahir, “Optimal design and manufacturing of 3D printable prosthesis pylon,” Pollack Period., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 2429, 2022.

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    A. A. Khadim, E. A. Abbod, A. K. Muhammad, K. K. Resan, and M. Al-Waily, “Manufacturing and analyzing of a new prosthetic shank with adapters by 3D printer,” Int. J. Mech. Prod. Eng. Res. Dev., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 383391, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    Z. H. Zaier and K. K. Resan, “Manufacturing of a new prosthetic shank from porous functionally graded materials and measuring of properties it,” Int. J. Mech. Eng., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 22302236, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    M. Ammar, M. R. Ismail, and M. Ismail, “Optimal design of elastic curved shank of below knee prosthesis,” Int. J. Energy .Environ., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 4552, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    R. Kenji Rizqillah, “Material selection of below-knee leg prosthetics,” J. Mater. Exp. Find. (JMEF), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 6, 2022.

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    M. J Jweeg, K. K Resan, and M. N Mohammed, “Design and manufacturing of a new prosthetic low cost pylon for amputee,” J. Eng. Dev., vol. 14, pp. 119131, 2010.

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    M. S. Al-Din Tahir and F. M. Kadhim, “Design and manufacturing of new low (weight and cost) 3D printed pylon prosthesis for amputee,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2021.

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  • [1]

    F. M. Kadhim, M. S. Al-Din Tahir, and A. T. Naiyf, “The effect of vibrations on the mechanical properties of laminations,” Pollack Period., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 6265, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    F. M. Kadhim, A. M. Takhakh, and J. S. Chiad, “Modeling and evaluation of smart economic transfemoral prosthetic,” Defect and Diffusion Forum, vol. 398, pp. 4853, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    F. M. Kadhim, J. S. Chiad, and M. A. Salam Enad, “Evaluation and analysis of different types of prosthetic knee joint used by above knee amputee,” Defect and Diffusion Forum J., vol. 398, pp. 3440, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    S. F. Awad, F. M. Kadhim, W. S. Aboud, and M. S. Al-Din Tahi, “Strain and deformation measurement for prosthetic parts using the Arduino microcontroller and strain gauges instruments,” Int. J. Mech. Eng., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17, 2022, Part 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    L. G. D. V. Nicoloso, J. Pelz, H. Barrack, and F. Kuester, “Towards 3D printing of a monocoque transtibial prosthesis using a bio-inspired design workflow,” Rapid Prototyp. J., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 6780, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    T. N. Athmar, F. M. Kadhim, S. F. Hasan, and M. S. Al-Din Tahir, “Optimal design and manufacturing of 3D printable prosthesis pylon,” Pollack Period., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 2429, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    A. A. Khadim, E. A. Abbod, A. K. Muhammad, K. K. Resan, and M. Al-Waily, “Manufacturing and analyzing of a new prosthetic shank with adapters by 3D printer,” Int. J. Mech. Prod. Eng. Res. Dev., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 383391, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    F. H. Samah, F. M. Kadhim, and Y. Muhammed, “3D printed carbon-fiber filament density effects on mechanical properties,” Pollack Period., 2022. https://doi.org/10.1556/606.2022.00655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    H. Z. Abdalikhw, M. A. Al-Shammari, and E. Q. Hussein, “Characterization and buckling investigation of composite materials to be used in the prosthetic pylon manufacturing,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 1094, no. 1. IOP Publishing, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    Z. H. Zaier and K. K. Resan, “Manufacturing of a new prosthetic shank from porous functionally graded materials and measuring of properties it,” Int. J. Mech. Eng., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 22302236, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    M. Ammar, M. R. Ismail, and M. Ismail, “Optimal design of elastic curved shank of below knee prosthesis,” Int. J. Energy .Environ., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 4552, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    R. Kenji Rizqillah, “Material selection of below-knee leg prosthetics,” J. Mater. Exp. Find. (JMEF), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 6, 2022.

  • [13]

    A. Schmitz, “Fatigue properties of 3D printed carbon fiber,” in ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Vol. 85598. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    M. J Jweeg, K. K Resan, and M. N Mohammed, “Design and manufacturing of a new prosthetic low cost pylon for amputee,” J. Eng. Dev., vol. 14, pp. 119131, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    J. K. Oleiwi and S. J. Ahmed, “Tensile and buckling of prosthetic pylon made from hybrid composite materials,” Eng. Tech (Journal), vol. 34, pp. 111122, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [16]

    M. S. Al-Din Tahir and F. M. Kadhim, “Design and manufacturing of new low (weight and cost) 3D printed pylon prosthesis for amputee,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    F. Tavangarian, C. Proano, and C. Zolko, “Performance of low-cost 3D printed pylon in lower limb prosthetic device,” in Conference of 148th Annual Meeting and Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, TMS, United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05861-6_115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    ASTM D638, Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics. American Society for Testing and Materials International, 2000.

  • [19]

    Alternating bending fatigue machine instruction manual High tec. HSM 20 Rotating Fatigue device (HSM20), 2001. Available: https://www.scribd.com/document/126559537/Rotating-Fatigue-pdf.

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    • Export Citation
  • [20]

    B.A. Miller, “Failure Analysis and Prevention, Fatigue Failures,” ASM International Handbook, vol. 11, p. 1470, 2002.

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Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Ákos, Lakatos University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Founder, former Editor-in-Chief (2011-2020): Ferenc Kalmár University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Founding Editor: György Csomós University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Associate Editor: Derek Clements Croome University of Reading (UK)

Associate Editor: Dezső Beke University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Editorial Board

  • Mohammad Nazir AHMAD Institute of Visual Informatics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Murat BAKIROV Center for Materials and Lifetime Management Ltd. Moscow Russia

    Nicolae BALC Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Umberto BERARDI Ryerson University Toronto Canada

    Ildikó BODNÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Sándor BODZÁS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Fatih Mehmet BOTSALI Selçuk University Konya Turkey

    Samuel BRUNNER Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

    István BUDAI University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Constantin BUNGAU University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Shanshan CAI Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan China

    Michele De CARLI University of Padua Padua Italy

    Robert CERNY Czech Technical University in Prague Czech Republic

    György CSOMÓS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Tamás CSOKNYAI Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Eugen Ioan GERGELY University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    József FINTA University of Pécs Pécs Hungary

    Anna FORMICA IASI National Research Council Rome

    Alexandru GACSADI University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Eric A. GRULKE University of Kentucky Lexington United States

    Janez GRUM University of Ljubljana Ljubljana Slovenia

    Géza HUSI University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Ghaleb A. HUSSEINI American University of Sharjah Sharjah United Arab Emirates

    Nikolay IVANOV Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University St. Petersburg Russia

    Antal JÁRAI Eötvös Loránd University Budapest Hungary

    Gudni JÓHANNESSON The National Energy Authority of Iceland Reykjavik Iceland

    László KAJTÁR Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Ferenc KALMÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Tünde KALMÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Milos KALOUSEK Brno University of Technology Brno Czech Republik

    Jan KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague Prague Czech Republic

    Vaclav KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague Prague Czech Republic

    Imra KOCSIS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Imre KOVÁCS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Angela Daniela LA ROSA Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    Éva LOVRA Univeqrsity of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Elena LUCCHI Eurac Research, Institute for Renewable Energy Bolzano Italy

    Tamás MANKOVITS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Igor MEDVED Slovak Technical University in Bratislava Bratislava Slovakia

    Ligia MOGA Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Marco MOLINARI Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm Sweden

    Henrieta MORAVCIKOVA Slovak Academy of Sciences Bratislava Slovakia

    Phalguni MUKHOPHADYAYA University of Victoria Victoria Canada

    Balázs NAGY Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Husam S. NAJM Rutgers University New Brunswick United States

    Jozsef NYERS Subotica Tech College of Applied Sciences Subotica Serbia

    Bjarne W. OLESEN Technical University of Denmark Lyngby Denmark

    Stefan ONIGA North University of Baia Mare Baia Mare Romania

    Joaquim Norberto PIRES Universidade de Coimbra Coimbra Portugal

    László POKORÁDI Óbuda University Budapest Hungary

    Antal PUHL (1950–2023) University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Roman RABENSEIFER Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Bratislava Slovak Republik

    Mohammad H. A. SALAH Hashemite University Zarqua Jordan

    Dietrich SCHMIDT Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology IWES Kassel Germany

    Lorand SZABÓ Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Csaba SZÁSZ Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Ioan SZÁVA Transylvania University of Brasov Brasov Romania

    Péter SZEMES University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Edit SZŰCS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Radu TARCA University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Zsolt TIBA University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    László TÓTH University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    László TÖRÖK University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Anton TRNIK Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Nitra Slovakia

    Ibrahim UZMAY Erciyes University Kayseri Turkey

    Tibor VESSELÉNYI University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Nalinaksh S. VYAS Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur India

    Deborah WHITE The University of Adelaide Adelaide Australia

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Address of the institute: Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen
H-4028 Debrecen, Ótemető u. 2-4. Hungary
Email: irase@eng.unideb.hu

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2022  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.235
Scimago Quartile Score Architecture (Q2)
Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q3)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.6
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 46/170 (73rd PCTL)
General Engineering 174/302 (42nd PCTL)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 93/150 (38th PCTL)
Environmental Engineering 123/184 (33rd PCTL)
Management Science and Operations Research 142/198 (28th PCTL)
Information Systems 281/379 (25th PCTL)
 
Scopus
SNIP
0.686

2021  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
7
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,199
Scimago Quartile Score Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,2
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 48/149 (Q2)
General Engineering 186/300 (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 79/124 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 118/173 (Q3)
Management Science and Operations Research 141/184 (Q4)
Information Systems 274/353 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,457

2020  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,165
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q3
Environmental Engineering Q4
Information Systems Q4
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
102/116=0,9
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 205/297 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 107/146 (Q3)
Information Systems 269/329 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 139/166 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 64/98 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,26
Scopus
Cites
57
Scopus
Documents
36
Days from submission to acceptance 84
Days from acceptance to publication 348
Acceptance
Rate

23%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
4
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,229
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q2
Environmental Engineering Q3
Information Systems Q3
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
46/81=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 227/299 (Q4)
Environmental Engineering 107/132 (Q4)
Information Systems 259/300 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 136/161 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 60/86 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,866
Scopus
Cites
35
Scopus
Documents
47
Acceptance
Rate
21%

 

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Limited number of full waiver available. Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2010
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Debreceni Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-0810 (Print)
ISSN 2063-4269 (Online)

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