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Joy Dewanjee Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Md Shabiul Islam Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4630-7249
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Abstract

This research paper exhibits the design of a V-shaped cantilever beam as a micro Energy Harvester (EH) having Piezoelectric (PZT) as its energy source for biomedical applications. PZT source based materials have the ability to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. Low-power biomedical devices mostly operate using electrical energy (i.e. batteries). But batteries are treated as a bio-hazard due to the massive use of biomedical applications. To overcome this toxic bio-hazard, the proposed PZT based V-shaped cantilever beam of micro EH can solve the limitations. To perform the experimental work, the cantilever beam design parameters - length, width and thickness have been considered and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics to get the resonant frequency of 156.19 Hz which is lower than previous research work. It was observed that the obtained lower resonant frequency can be converted into AC voltage (mV) using PZT material. To convert the output AC voltage (mV) into DC voltage, a circuit of an Ultra-Low-Power (ULP) EH will be designed in LTSPICE software. Finally, the integration of the both V-shape cantilever beam and the ULP EH circuit will be implemented in PCB hardware to generate the output power (10 µW), will be stored in super-capacitor for biomedical devices-pacemaker.

Abstract

This research paper exhibits the design of a V-shaped cantilever beam as a micro Energy Harvester (EH) having Piezoelectric (PZT) as its energy source for biomedical applications. PZT source based materials have the ability to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. Low-power biomedical devices mostly operate using electrical energy (i.e. batteries). But batteries are treated as a bio-hazard due to the massive use of biomedical applications. To overcome this toxic bio-hazard, the proposed PZT based V-shaped cantilever beam of micro EH can solve the limitations. To perform the experimental work, the cantilever beam design parameters - length, width and thickness have been considered and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics to get the resonant frequency of 156.19 Hz which is lower than previous research work. It was observed that the obtained lower resonant frequency can be converted into AC voltage (mV) using PZT material. To convert the output AC voltage (mV) into DC voltage, a circuit of an Ultra-Low-Power (ULP) EH will be designed in LTSPICE software. Finally, the integration of the both V-shape cantilever beam and the ULP EH circuit will be implemented in PCB hardware to generate the output power (10 µW), will be stored in super-capacitor for biomedical devices-pacemaker.

1 Introduction

In past decades, numerous strategies for producing piezoelectricity have emerged. Low-voltage semiconductor devices can deliver power to electronic equipment with low power consumption [1, 2]. Alireza Khaligh et al. [3] showed several different techniques in their research to produce low-power voltage using sources of solar, thermal, wind energy and vibration. Starner et al. [4] discussed on the limited capacity of these sources in providing useful power.

The Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is heated from a distant location using a laser and the deformation that occurs due to heating, is transformed into power using a piezoelectric bimorph [5, 6]. A prototype of an active energy harvesting technique uses such SMA and piezoelectric devices to convert ambient heat energy into electrical energy. According to Mehraeen et al. [7] the cantilever beam using vibration as one of the sources generates piezoelectricity. The phenomena of piezoelectricity are well-known in every single region of the world. It is used to provide power to electronic equipment with a low power requirement. Experimental and analytical methods have been offered by researchers P.K. et al. [8] in order to determine the natural frequencies of microbeams. Despite this, relatively little effort has been put into developing a model which is capable of giving a comprehensive vibration response by the micro-cantilever beams when loads-in-vibration are applied. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) applications that use them include wind speed sensors, RF switching, biosensors and chemical sensor arrays. The goal of this research was to provide a theoretical framework for estimating the vibrational response to applied forces on micro-cantilever beams subjected to both constant and variable spatial loads. Nagoya Kōgyō Daigaku et al. [9] shows that their findings of the three different thicknesses of the film paves the linearity of the film which is preserved regardless of thickness. The deflection is reduced for the thinner films as compared to the thicker ones. According to Damircheli et al. [10], researchers have been looking at the outcome effects that the V-shaped cantilevers' geometrical dimensions have on some static and dynamic parameters and higher bending modes vibrations and the multifrequency characterized Atomic-Force-Microscopy (AFM). The considered characteristics are cantilever length, top width, bottom width and thickness. A cantilever in the V-shape based on the AFM measurements has been designed in this article. The vibration energy of this device determines the frequency variants whereas the changes of varying frequencies depend on their lengths.

In the paper, Atzori et al. [11] have seen a shift in the emphasis placed on the research and development of analog combined circuits because of the propagation of energy signals to portable device-circuits, implantable circuits of biomedical systems, the rapid development of hybrid-energy harvesting systems for some self-powered wireless sensor and Internet of Things (IoT) modules. Energy constraints are a crucial need for wireless and transmission devices. For example, communication devices require frequent charging which is time-consuming. According to [12–14], energy harvesting has emerged as a promising technique that has the potential to alleviate the issue of limited energy resources in communication devices. Thermoelectric generators, Radio Frequency, and Vibration are the three hybrid energy sources that can be produced using Ultra-Low Power (ULP) circuits. Thermoelectric generators are dependent on the heat or temperature of their surroundings. Intentional transmission of radio frequencies can be accomplished by both antennas and mobile phones. The motor or other shaking devices are the sources of the vibration. An analysis of the hybrid energy harvester's vibration can be found virtually anywhere. It is anticipated that it will be the most effective method of producing electrical power.

Recently there has been an increase in interest in using human movement to gather energy in biomedical applications. Lower frequencies are generally preferred for biomedical applications because the movements and vibrations associated with biological processes often occur at low frequencies. This makes it more efficient to harvest energy from these processes using devices that operate at lower frequencies. Jinthujah Selvarathinam et al. [15] conducted an experiment to generate power by using the movement of human body parts vibration. In the context of energy harvesting for pacemakers, the most effective human body movement for generating electricity is typically the motion of the heart itself. The motion of the heart generates mechanical energy that can be harnessed using piezoelectric or electromagnetic generators to power the pacemaker.

The goal of this study is to design a V-shape cantilever beam in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.5 version software and integrate it with the developed electrical circuit in LTSPICE simulation for Biomedical applications - pacemakers.

2 Literature review

The cantilever beam comprises several shapes such as rectangular, array, T-shape and V-shape. Some research is being conducted on every aspect of various shapes which are discussed below:

Iqbal et al. [16] indicated that seven cantilever beams as a preferred straight beam, straight-tapered beam, T beam, U beam, V beam, V-T beam and Y beam. It also describes which one is the most suitable for generating electrical energy. The beams were designed with aluminum Nitride for energy harvesting. The frequency (1,500–1900 Hz) off all the beams is the same, consisting of universities. Finally, the V-T beam is the most suitable for piezoelectricity.

Uddin et al. [17] a piezoelectric cantilever beam in the shape of a T has been provided and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been carried out on it. The mechanical characteristics, such as stress, elastic strain energy, displacement, and velocity in relation to the frequency spectrum, were established after the T-shaped cantilever beam analysis was accomplished. At the frequency of resonant vibration, the mechanical properties were determined to have their highest values. The resonance frequency of 229.25 Hz is lower than the other specified resonant frequency of the harvester which indicates that proof mass is not being utilized on the T-shaped beam.

Ashok et al. [18] designed the arrow shape of the microcantilever beam. The analysis and design of the beams were focused on enhancing the mass detection's sensitivity. All the heights, widths and lengths were calculated on a micro-scale. Analysis of the resonance frequency and mass sensitivity of this work was done by using FEM software and ANSYS. By comparing with rectangular shapes, the microcantilever beam output at zero free end width was improved by 46% and 283%.

Aamir Saud khan et al. [19] worked on an ARC shape Cantilever beam that operates on radio frequency and is utilized in the switching apparatuses. The software Intellisuite v8.7 was used for the simulation that was reported in this research, which made use of finite element modelling. The fluctuating voltage of the thickness was also improved. Based on the simulation findings, we can conclude that the smallest actuation voltage, also known as the pull-in voltage, is 1.4 V. Regarding defense and research applications, RF MEMS switches have been one of the switches with the most rapid growth. Therefore, there is a considerable amount of room for significant investigation, such as the switch's shape parameters. In the future, we will be able to continue working on improving the switching time, dependability and other aspects in order to get better overall results.

Chaudhuri et al. [20] used AC machine to generate vibration for the long-life solution to recharge the battery in Wireless Sensor Node (WSN). In this study, rectangular, tapered, perforated tapered cantilever shapes were compared. Several piezoelectric cantilever beams of the equivalent area were explored for the development of an energy harvester with a resonance frequency of 101 Hz, which is nearly comparable to the vibration of AC machines. The innovative perforated tapering structure offered has permitted for the improvement in frequency. It has been demonstrated that the proposed framework, when operated at the design frequency, generates the highest voltage output of 7.5 V, while similarly sized rectangular and tapered structures generate 0.35 and 0.8 V, respectively.

Kumar et al. [21] worked on a cantilever beam design whose shape was rectangular. In this study, the authors found the eigenfrequency of rectangular shapes and the stress measurement associated with such shapes. The structural integrity of a cantilever beam constructed from Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Bimorph (PFCB) W14 piezoelectric material was analyzed using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In order to use piezoelectric material for energy harvesting, the maximum deflection at a vibration frequency of 30.375 Hz was correlated to a higher electrical voltage supply.

Rai et al. [22] compared the output power between the conventional (Rectangular shape) and modified (E-shape) structure of the cantilever beam. The parameters (i.e. length, width and thickness) were also selected in millimeter (mm) scale. Various structures of the cantilever beam are designed by using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1. the output voltage obtained from rectangular shapes is 0.278 V and E-shaped is 0.32 V. So, the maximum output comes from the E-shape cantilever beam.

Sarkar et al. [23] developed a spiral-shaped cantilever beam designed for a piezoelectric energy harvester. In this work, Instead of PZT-5H material, ZnO was chosen. COMSOL Multiphysics was used for building and simulated the structure. This simulation model was used for operating the pacemaker. In order to increase the pacemaker's longevity, the system is made to recharge the pacemaker's battery. The resonance frequency is obtained from human vibration. The output power is 3.5 µW and the resonant frequency was also obtained at 45.8 Hz which is reliable with the human heartbeat.

Nabavi et al. [24] built a T-shape cantilever beam on a micro-scale by using this vibration. The motive of this work is to reduce the operational frequency by 36% and the conventional energy is 4.8 times. A large quantity of stress/strain can be harvested from the tip of the T-shaped piezoelectric construction, besides the anchor region, which is analogous to the typical straight cantilever harvesters.

P.K. et al. [8], demonstrates a mathematical model cross-section of a rectangular form microcantilever beam under different stress. This work involves the measurement of natural frequency. 15–19% of the frequency does not contain any errors. In order to explain the pattern, the frequency response of a micro-cantilever beam detected using the acquired model is compared which was described in the literature for a step-up micro-cantilever beam. The created model allows for the harvesting of micro-cantilever beams using natural frequencies. The model's mass (M) and stiffness (K) matrices determine the beam's natural frequencies. These frequencies are acquired from the model. The square root of the matrix can be used to determine the workpiece's natural frequencies.

Anand et al. [25] designed a Piezoelectric (PZs) cantilever beam in the L shape developed with PZEH, which is used for appropriate low frequency. The simulation of the proposed structure was run at an acceleration of 1 g, producing a voltage of 11.6 V at a frequency of 79.5 Hz. The suggested L-shaped PZEH has an output power of 10.8 W at the frequency that corresponds to its resonant mode. There is a margin of error of not more than 5 mm in the EH measurement.

Borodich et al. [26] the AFM techniques compare the V-shape and rectangular shape cantilever beams by fundamental and numerical. The dimensions, length and width are the same. Polycarbonate materials were used to construct the models. The sheet thickness is 1 mm, 2 and 3 mm. After the comparison, the 3 mm thickness gives the 46% spring constant from V-shape.

Chaudhuri et al. [27] it is possible to identify the flaw in the cracked beam and see how it differs from the non-defective shaft through modal vibration analysis. It was discovered that the natural frequencies of the beam dropped when the size of the cracks in the beam became more extensive. It is found that the amplitudes of vibration grew as the extent of the damage became more extensive. In the event of an increased location, the natural modal frequencies also rose. This occurred because the distance between the crack and the fixed end grew. When the point of the crack was enhanced from its fixed-end position, the results showed that the amplitude at higher natural frequencies grew. In comparison, the amplitude at lower natural frequencies decreased.

An investigation into the resonance frequency response was carried out and it involved changes to the beam structure. The effect of making several different adjustments to the beam was analyzed. The findings demonstrate that resonant frequencies are influenced by modifications made to the beam. These findings can be applied to determining the appropriate dimensions for fabricating devices with particular resonant frequencies [28, 29].

ULP EH circuit investigates through this model. A mechanical trembling to transpire the piezoelectric transducer instigates the electric charge. The converter is treated for low-power to high-power (MV). The circuit is simulated in LTSPICE software. It works in standard-scale electronic devices like charging batteries, wireless sensors, bugging devices and many more MEMS. It may be enhanced by changing IC and rectified to reduce the voltage drop [30]. Gong et al. [31] Piezoelectric can be rehabilitated at low-power, which is intended for micro energy. A triple layer piezoelectric circuit is synchronized by the authors. Expanding this PZT material to perform energy harvesting and strategy for a power generator.

The summarization results with past researchers' work are given in Table 1. According to the table, the lower resonant frequency depends on the three parameters: length, width and thickness. Other shapes, for example, T-, arrow, L-, V-T, Perforated Tapered, Rectangular and E-shape have an issue with the same parameters (length, width and thickness). The generated power of these shapes is low and also the resonant frequency is high. The V-shape of the beam allows for greater flexibility and displacement, which is crucial in converting mechanical vibrations into electrical energy. When the beam is subjected to mechanical vibrations, it bends and flexes, generating a voltage across the piezoelectric material that is attached to the beam. Additionally, the V-shape allows for greater strain and stress concentration at the tip of the beam, which further enhances the piezoelectric effect. This effect is maximized when the length and thickness of the beam are properly designed to match the frequency of the mechanical vibrations.

Table 1.

Comparison of the various types of cantilever Shapes (with present work)

NOAuthors nameCantilever shapeCantilever beam sizeResonance frequency (Hz)PowerApplications
Length (L)Width (W)Thickness (T)
1Abid Iqbal et al. (2015)V-T1,225 µm250 µm1 µm1,560 HzN/AFinite Element Analysis
2Md Naim et al. (2016)T18 mm8.64 mm0.15 mm229.25 Hz149.1 µWBio-medical Device
3Akarapu Ashok et al. (2018)Arrow ()200 µm40 µm0.96 µm1,224 HzN/ALaser vibrometer
4Aamir Saud Khan et al. (2017)ARC300 µm100 µm1 µmN/AN/ASwitching device
5Dipta Chaudhuri et al. (2017)Perforated Tapered5 mm600 µm2 µm101 HzN/AWireless Sensor Node
6Akash Kumar et al. (2019)Rectangular132 mm14 mm1.1 mm30.375 HzN/APiezoelectric Fiber Composite Bimorph
7Newton Rai et al. (2019)E100 mm60 mm0.276 mm29.456 HzN/ALow power Electronics Device
8Ashutosh Anand et al. (2019)Spiral5 mm5 mm0.85 mm45.8 Hz3.5 µWThe permitted size of a modern pacemaker
9Sayed Fakhreddin Nabavi et al. (2019)T(2,100 + 500) µm(3,100 + 500) µm10 µm269.1 Hz0.38 µWself-supplied power management system
10Mehrnoosh Damircheli et al. (2020)V90 µm254 µm0.35 µmN/AN/ABimodal AFM
11Ashutosh Anand et al. (2021)L5,000 µm1,000 µm13 µm79.5 Hz10.8 µWWireless sensor machine monitoring system
12Feodor M. Borodich et al. (2021)V250 mm307 mm3 mmN/AN/AAtomic force microscopy
13Present work, (2023)V90 mm(20 + 20) mm1.5 mm156.19 Hz__

3 Problem statement

Biomedical applications devices such as pacemakers, Blood Pressure machines, smart health watches and Internet of Things (IoT) sensors are operated using batteries. Balaji et al. [32] sometimes batteries need to be replaced or recharged periodically. This is because it is a bio-hazard. To overcome the limitations, replacement of the batteries is also being developed through enhancing the energy harvesting circuit. Uddin et al. [33] mechanical vibration is one of the sources to produce electrical energy using piezoelectric material. After producing electrical energy, the maximum output voltage will gain at a low frequency using a cantilever beam structure to generate the frequency from mechanical vibration. Different types of shapes were used in previous work with the change of length, width and thickness to get the lowest resonant frequency and high electrical power. Investigate the literature review of this proposed system based on designing a V-Shape cantilever beam to get better frequency and power based on the cantilever beam's length, width and thickness. The majority of the shapes were studied. Finally, it will be noticed that V-shape cantilever beam would be the best output generator for EH.

4 Proposed block diagram

The piezoelectric based energy harvester system can be used to generate power using ambient energy for biomedical applications like pacemakers. Thanach-Issarasak et al. [34] In a traditional energy harvester, vibrations from the environment are used as input energy to produce electricity. Usually, the piezoelectric material is used to turn mechanical vibrations into electrical energy. A cantilever beam is one of the most moveable components of a structure. Its highest electrical power is found at its resonant frequency.

Figure 1 shows the completed proposed block diagram of the V-shape beam cantilever beam design, consisting of the Mechanical part and Electrical part for biomedical applications.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed block diagram

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 1; 10.1556/1848.2023.00652

Mechanical part: Input Vibration energy has been supplied through the V-shape cantilever beam, which is designed by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The dimension of cantilever beams can be optimized with respect to the eigenfrequency. A PZT material has been used to convert the resonant frequency in Hz to electrical voltage in mV.

Electrical part: The obtained AC voltage (mV) of the mechanical part will be delivered to the electrical conditioning circuit. It consists of a DC rectifier circuit, DC step-up booster, voltage regulator and super capacitor. The rectifier circuit will convert the AC into DC. The step-up booster will be used to raise the voltage to the desired level. A voltage regulator is used to maintain the voltage level. The voltage regulator is needed when the vibration does not appear well so that it can supply the same voltage level to the output devices. The super capacitor is to store the generated voltage for applying biomedical applications.

5 Research methodology

Figure 2 shows the proposed flow chart diagram to implement the V-shape cantilever beam design of micro energy harvester for biomedical applications. The EH flowchart started with a survey of relevant literature focused on the concept of a piezoelectric cantilever, by examining the various shapes and dimensions, such as length, width, and thickness, of a V-shaped cantilever beam. This proposed method has been used to design the beam. The processes of complete simulation have been divided into three portions considered as: i) Pre-processing (Geometry design, Material Properties, Boundary Conditions and Mesh), ii) Solver (FEA Model in COMSOL Multiphysics) and iii) Post-processing (Plots and others). After the simulation, mechanical properties like frequency and displacements were obtained. Here if any unwanted and uncertain results exist then it will be essential to check the pre-processing portions of the solver and select a proper harvester for the next operation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Design flow chart for the proposed Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 1; 10.1556/1848.2023.00652

An electrical conditioning circuit will be designed by LTSPICE simulation software. This circuit consists of a rectifier, boost-up converter, voltage regulator and supercapacitor. In the simulation process electrical component will be defined from the library. After the simulation, electrical properties such as Voltage, Current and frequency will be obtained. If any issues occur, then it will be required to check the electrical component from the library and select suitable components for the next operation.

After completing the both mechanical and electrical simulation processes, it will be integrated with the developed V-shape cantilever beam and the ULP EH circuit. In the hardware implementation processes, a mechanical shaker has been used for creating vibration on the developed V-shape cantilever beam and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) has been used for the electrical conditioning circuit to complete the system. The result has been found in micro Watt and used for biomedical applications.

6 Simulation and result

In Fig. 3 (mechanical part), two cross-sections of rectangular shape are used to design the V-shape cantilever beam design in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.5 version. Figure 3 represents the schematic diagram of the V-shape cantilever beam where Length = 90 mm, Width = (20 + 20) mm and Thickness = 1.5 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of V-shape cantilever beam

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 1; 10.1556/1848.2023.00652

Figure 4 shows the result of the eigenfrequency is 156.19 Hz and the maximum displacement is 1.2*10−9 mm. Next, the electrical part will be carried out for generating the expected output of 10 µW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

V-shape design between eigenfrequency vs Displacement

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 1; 10.1556/1848.2023.00652

Figure 5 shows the graph between displacements and resonance frequency. The resonance frequency which is 156.19 Hz typically shows the highest amplitude of motion (displacement) of a system and it is 8.2 × 10−9 mm in this graph.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Displacement vs Frequency graph

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 1; 10.1556/1848.2023.00652

Figure 6 the graph between displacement and arc length typically shows the relationship between the amount of displacement or deformation of a material and the corresponding increase in arc length. Arc length refers to the length of a curve in a two-dimensional plane or a three-dimensional space, and it is measured by the distance along the curve from one endpoint to the other.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Displacement vs Arc. Length graph

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 1; 10.1556/1848.2023.00652

The graph of displacement versus arc length can provide insights into the mechanical properties of a material, including its stiffness, strength, and elasticity. Generally, materials that are stiffer will require more force to achieve a given amount of displacement, and they will exhibit a more linear relationship between displacement and arc length.

7 Equation

The resonance frequency of a cantilever beam is based on the physical principles of elasticity and mechanics of materials. The following equation can be used to determine the resonance frequency:
f=12L*((E*I)/(m*A))2
where: f is the resonant frequency of the energy harvester in hertz (Hz), L is the total length in millimeter (mm) of the cantilever beam, E is the elastic modulus of the material of the cantilever beam in pascal (pa), I is the moment of inertia of the V-shape cantilever beam cross-section in millimeter (mm), m is the effective mass of the cantilever beam in gram (gm), A is the piezoelectric coupling co-efficient in meters per newton (m N−1).

Based on this equation, it can be shown that the resonant frequency of the energy harvester is directly proportional to the square root of the ratio of the elastic modulus to the efficient mass of the cantilever beam as well as the piezoelectric coupling coefficient. As comparison to a straight cantilever beam design, the V-shape cantilever beam design increases the effective mass of the cantilever beam, which in turn lowers the resonance frequency. Because of the design of the V-shape cantilever beam, the moment of inertia of the beam is increased, but its rigidity is decreased.

Additionally, during the conversion of energy from the mechanical to the electrical state, there are some losses that are introduced to the system. These energy losses can be calculated using the following sets of equation [35].
MechanicalEnergy,Em=0ΔtFd(t)dt
ElectricalEnergy,Ee=PΔt
EnergyConversion=ElectricalEnergyMechanicalEnergy*100

Where, F is the applied force, d is the movement distance, Δt is the generation power and P is the output power.

Furthermore, manufacturing tolerances can affect the dimensions and material properties of the cantilever, which can in turn affect the deflection of the cantilever and the output voltage of the piezoelectric material. The sensitivity of the output voltage to manufacturing tolerances can be expressed as the partial derivative of the output voltage with respect to the manufacturing tolerance:
S=dvdT

Where S is the sensitivity of the output voltage to the manufacturing tolerance T.

8 Conclusion

The piezoelectric based V-shape energy harvester is designed for converting mechanical vibration into electrical energy by using COMSOL Multiphysics Software. The resonant frequency of 156.19 Hz was obtained at the output of the cantilever beam. The PZT material will be utilized for transforming the obtained input resonant frequency to AC voltage (mV) at the output of the mechanical part. The ULP EH circuit will be simulated for increasing the generated AC voltage and convert into DC voltage by using LTSPICE software in the electrical part. The expected amount of power (10 µW) from the integration of the completed energy-harvester system (i.e. V-shape cantilever designed beam and development of ULP EH circuit) will be applied to the low-power biomedical pacemaker devices.

Author contributions

J.D: Conceptualization, methodology, formal analysis, writing—original draft, S.I.; supervision, resources, project administration. Both authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia under research grant Project Code: RDTC/221039, TM R&D.

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    S. A. Wahab, S. Islam, M. S. Bhuyan, S. Jahariah, and H. M. A. Sawal, “Investigation on power conditioning electronic interface circuit for piezoelectric vibration based energy harvesting system,” Res. J. Appl. Sci., Vol. 12, 2017. https://doi.org/10.36478/rjasci.2017.78.89.

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    A. Iqbal and F. Mohd-Yasin, “Comparison of seven cantilever designs for piezoelectric energy harvester based on Mo/AlN/3C-SiC,” in 2015 IEEE Regional Symposium on Micro and Nanoelectronics (RSM), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, 2015, pp. 14. https://doi.org/10.1109/RSM.2015.7354987.

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    S. A. Siddiqui, A. Ahmad, A. A. Siddiqui, and P. Chaturvedi, “Stability analysis of a cantilever structure using ANSYS and MATLAB,” in 2021 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management (ICIEM), London, United Kingdom, 2021, pp. 712. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIEM51511.2021.9445357.

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    D. Chaudhuri and S. Kundu, “MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester to power wireless sensor nodes for machine monitoring application,” in 2017 Devices for Integrated Circuit (DevIC), Kalyani, India, 2017, pp. 584588, https://doi.org/10.1109/DEVIC.2017.8074018.

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    A. Kumar, S. Sharma, K. Chand, and P. Guha, “Structural analysis of PFCB W14 material using COMSOL Multiphysics,” in 2019 6th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), Noida, India, 2019, pp. 649653. https://doi.org/10.1109/SPIN.2019.8711642.

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    N. Rai, M. J. Nagaraj, A. M. Morey, and V. Shantha, “Construction and simulation of various structures of unimorph piezoelectric cantilever for energy harvest,” in 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES), Coimbatore, India, 2019, pp. 651655. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCES45898.2019.9002157.

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    A. Anand and S. Kundu, “Design of mems based piezoelectric energy harvester for pacemaker,” in 2019 Devices for Integrated Circuit (DevIC), Kalyani, India, 2019, pp. 465469. https://doi.org/10.1109/DEVIC.2019.8783311.

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  • [24]

    S. Nabavi and L. Zhang, “T-shaped piezoelectric structure for high-performance MEMS vibration energy harvesting,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 11001112, Dec. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2019.2942291.

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    A. Anand, G. Singh, A. Pandey, S. Pal, and S. Kundu, “L-shaped piezoelectric energy harvester for low frequency application,” 2021 Devices for Integrated Circuit (DevIC), Kalyani, India, 2021, pp. 345349. https://doi.org/10.1109/DevIC50843.2021.9455882.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • [26]

    F. M. Borodich, R. S. Al-Musawi, E. B. Brousseau, and S. L. Evans, “Comparison between torsional spring constants of rectangular and V-shaped AFM cantilevers,” in IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 20, pp. 168176, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNANO.2021.3059411.

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    C. C. Chaudhari, J. A. Gaikwad, V. R. Bhanuse, and J. V. Kulkarni, “Experimental investigation of crack detection in cantilever beam using vibration analysis,” in 2014 First International Conference on Networks & Soft Computing (ICNSC2014), Guntur, India, 2014, pp. 130134. https://doi.org/10.1109/CNSC.2014.6906685.

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    A. Rivadeneyra, J. A. López-Villanueva, R. O'Keeffe, N. Jackson, M. O'Neill, and A. Mathewson, “Frequency response of variants of a cantilever beam,” in 2012 International Conference on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods and Applications to Circuit Design (SMACD), Seville, Spain, 2012, pp. 177180. https://doi.org/10.1109/SMACD.2012.6339446.

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  • [29]

    S. A. Siddiqui, A. Ahmad, A. A. Siddiqui, and P. Chaturvedi, “Stability analysis of a cantilever structure using ANSYS and MATLAB,” in 2021 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management (ICIEM), London, United Kingdom, 2021, pp. 712. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIEM51511.2021.9445357.

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  • [30]

    D. Kumar, P. Chaturvedi, and N. Jejurikar, “Piezoelectric energy harvester design and power conditioning,” in 2014 IEEE Students' Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, Bhopal, India, 2014, pp. 16. https://doi.org/10.1109/SCEECS.2014.6804491.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • [31]

    L.-J. Gong, X. Shen, and J.-Q. Li, “Experimental investigation of energy harvesting from triple-layer piezoelectric bender,” in 2009 18th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics, Xi'an, China, 2009, pp. 16. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISAF.2009.5307542.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • [32]

    V. R. Balaji, J. R. Dinesh Kumar, S. Sriram, and V. Hushain., “Smart lane for cars using piezoelectric devices,” in 2021 Fifth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC), Palladam, India, 2021, pp. 16631669. https://doi.org/10.1109/I-SMAC52330.2021.9640671.

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  • [33]

    M. N. Uddin, M. S. Islam, J. Sampe, S. A. Wahab, and S. H. Md Ali, “Vibration based T-shaped piezoelectric cantilever beam design using finite element method for energy harvesting devices,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics (ICSE), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2016, pp. 137140. https://doi.org/10.1109/SMELEC.2016.7573610.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • [34]

    N. Thanach-Issarasak, S. Jayasvasti, P. Yingyong, and D. Isarakorn, “Potential of piezoelectric floor tile for harvesting energy from human footsteps,” in 2021 International Conference on Power, Energy and Innovations (ICPEI), Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, 2021, pp. 119121. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICPEI52436.2021.9690688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [35]

    C. Covaci and A Gontean, “Piezoelectric energy harvesting solutions: a review,” Sensors, vol. 20, no. 12, p. 3512, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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  • Mohammad Nazir AHMAD Institute of Visual Informatics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Murat BAKIROV Center for Materials and Lifetime Management Ltd., Moscow, Russia

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    Fatih Mehmet BOTSALI Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey

    Samuel BRUNNER Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

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    Shanshan CAI Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

    Michele De CARLI University of Padua, Padua, Italy

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    Tamás CSOKNYAI Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Anna FORMICA IASI National Research Council, Rome, Italy

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    Janez GRUM University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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    Ghaleb A. HUSSEINI American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Nikolay IVANOV Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia

    Antal JÁRAI Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

    Gudni JÓHANNESSON The National Energy Authority of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

    László KAJTÁR Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Ferenc KALMÁR University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Tünde KALMÁR University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Milos KALOUSEK Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republik

    Jan KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Vaclav KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

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    Angela Daniela LA ROSA Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

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    Elena LUCCHI Eurac Research, Institute for Renewable Energy, Bolzano, Italy

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    Marco MOLINARI Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

    Henrieta MORAVCIKOVA Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Phalguni MUKHOPHADYAYA University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada

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    Husam S. NAJM Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA

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    Mohammad H. A. SALAH Hashemite University, Zarqua, Jordan

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    Anton TRNIK Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovakia

    Ibrahim UZMAY Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey

    Tibor VESSELÉNYI University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Nalinaksh S. VYAS Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India

    Deborah WHITE The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

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2022  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.235
Scimago Quartile Score Architecture (Q2)
Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q3)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.6
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 46/170 (73rd PCTL)
General Engineering 174/302 (42nd PCTL)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 93/150 (38th PCTL)
Environmental Engineering 123/184 (33rd PCTL)
Management Science and Operations Research 142/198 (28th PCTL)
Information Systems 281/379 (25th PCTL)
 
Scopus
SNIP
0.686

2021  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
7
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,199
Scimago Quartile Score Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,2
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 48/149 (Q2)
General Engineering 186/300 (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 79/124 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 118/173 (Q3)
Management Science and Operations Research 141/184 (Q4)
Information Systems 274/353 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,457

2020  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,165
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q3
Environmental Engineering Q4
Information Systems Q4
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
102/116=0,9
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 205/297 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 107/146 (Q3)
Information Systems 269/329 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 139/166 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 64/98 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,26
Scopus
Cites
57
Scopus
Documents
36
Days from submission to acceptance 84
Days from acceptance to publication 348
Acceptance
Rate

23%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
4
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,229
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q2
Environmental Engineering Q3
Information Systems Q3
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
46/81=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 227/299 (Q4)
Environmental Engineering 107/132 (Q4)
Information Systems 259/300 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 136/161 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 60/86 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,866
Scopus
Cites
35
Scopus
Documents
47
Acceptance
Rate
21%

 

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Limited number of full waiver available. Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2010
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Debreceni Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-0810 (Print)
ISSN 2063-4269 (Online)

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