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Ganesan Sundaramoorthy Centre for Building Materials, Department of Civil Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil-626126, Tamilnadu, India

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Palaniappan Meyyappan Centre for Building Materials, Department of Civil Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil-626126, Tamilnadu, India

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Abstract

Worldwide, precast and hybrid construction methods are becoming increasingly popular in the construction industry. But many problems occur during the fabrication, such as segregation, bleeding, scaling, plastic shrinkage, dust formation, honeycombing, sintering, high sorptivity, and high permeability and transportation. This problem may be caused by an ineffective curing process that affects the quality of concrete and construction. In addition, it provides inadequate and incomplete cement hydration that has a 20% negative effect on the desired properties of the concrete. Various researchers have demonstrated the components of self-curing lightweight concrete that can enhance strength and physicochemical properties, and address the above-mentioned issues. In this review, the role of the self-curing mechanism in lightweight concrete based on the various self-curing chemical admixtures such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), superabsorbent polymer (SAP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium lignosulfonate and calcium lignosulfonate as self-curing agents are discussed in detail. Also, this paper briefly reports on the scope, significance, mechanisms, and tests for self-curing lightweight concrete. Overall, this review analyzes the possibilities of future research perspectives on self-curing lightweight concrete with sustainable materials and fibres with comparative technical information.

Abstract

Worldwide, precast and hybrid construction methods are becoming increasingly popular in the construction industry. But many problems occur during the fabrication, such as segregation, bleeding, scaling, plastic shrinkage, dust formation, honeycombing, sintering, high sorptivity, and high permeability and transportation. This problem may be caused by an ineffective curing process that affects the quality of concrete and construction. In addition, it provides inadequate and incomplete cement hydration that has a 20% negative effect on the desired properties of the concrete. Various researchers have demonstrated the components of self-curing lightweight concrete that can enhance strength and physicochemical properties, and address the above-mentioned issues. In this review, the role of the self-curing mechanism in lightweight concrete based on the various self-curing chemical admixtures such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), superabsorbent polymer (SAP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium lignosulfonate and calcium lignosulfonate as self-curing agents are discussed in detail. Also, this paper briefly reports on the scope, significance, mechanisms, and tests for self-curing lightweight concrete. Overall, this review analyzes the possibilities of future research perspectives on self-curing lightweight concrete with sustainable materials and fibres with comparative technical information.

1 Introduction

With the advancement of industrialization, concrete has become a crucial component of construction. Concrete is the skill of reshaping something by having a pleasing look into a useful shape. Concrete can be divided into three categories: heavyweight aggregate concrete, normal-weight concrete, and lightweight concrete. The development of lightweight aggregate concrete represents important current and future breakthroughs in concrete [1, 2]. Making artificial aggregates is one method of lowering environmental pollution and halting the loss of natural resources. This helps with the disposal of industrial waste and reduces the need for natural aggregates in the construction industry. Although there are many various types of artificial aggregates available, lightweight aggregates including expandable shale and slate, foamed slag, sintered fly ash aggregate, artificial cinders, and lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) are the most frequently used. Significant recent and prospective technological advances in concrete can be seen in the development of lightweight aggregate concrete. This lowers the requirement for natural aggregates in the construction industry and helps in the elimination of industrial waste. Although there are many different kinds of artificial aggregates available, the most widely used ones include lightweight aggregates like foamed slag, LECA, sintered fly ash aggregate, expandable shale and slate, artificial cinders, and artificial cinders. Despite variances in raw materials, water absorption, and strength, the aggregates listed above have one characteristic in agreement: low density and high porosity. Table 1 depicts the classification of lightweight aggregate. In comparison to conventional weight concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete is more fire resistant, thermally insulating, and has a higher specific strength. The density of lightweight aggregate concrete ranges from 1,120 kg m−3 to 1,920 kg m−3. To reduce the dead weight of structural components, multi-story building constructions can be built with lightweight aggregates. It contributes to reducing the use of natural aggregate, which has a shortage in supply due to natural deposits. Lightweight aggregate has numerous environmental benefits that are vital to the foreseeable future. Natural resources should be used sparingly in order to protect riverbeds and reduce CO2 emissions. Concrete with lightweight aggregate has a weaker link between the cement matrix and the lightweight concrete, resulting in a lower compressive strength, higher deformability, and lower curing strength. Fibres can be introduced along with a self-curing additive to solve the mentioned issues of lightweight aggregate concrete [3, 4]. In terms of fast growing urban infrastructural development, particularly when increasing numbers of structures are consuming more space, the availability of water resource is more and more limited. This could be due to inefficient water consumption or a lack of knowledge about how to use it efficiently. Water is a natural resource that is used in the construction industry whenever possible. Water is mostly used in building for casting and curing. Any major structure necessitates a large amount of water; this cannot be overlooked while utilising concrete as the most often utilized material nowadays. Water is in short supply everywhere due to increased global demand. An overview of the mechanical and durability properties of research works carried out by many researchers in self-curing materials is provided in Table 2.

Table 1.

Classification of lightweight aggregate

Natural lightweight aggregateArtificial lightweight aggregate
  1. Pumice

  2. Diatomite

  3. Scoria

  4. Volcanic cinders

  5. Saw dust

  6. Rice husk ash

  1. Artificial cinders

  2. Coke breeze

  3. Foamed slag

  4. Bloated clay

  5. Expandable shales and slate

  6. Sintered fly ash

  7. Exfoliated vermiculite

  8. Expanded perlite

  9. Thermo cole beads

Table 2.

An overview of many mechanical and durability research on self-curing materials

Author's name & yearCuring agentGrade of concrete & concrete typeCuring agent replacementCuring conditionMechanical propertiesDurability properties
Jasmine et al. 2021 [5]Liquid Paraffin Wax (LPW) &PEG – 4000 & PVA.M30, & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-4000-1.5% PVA-0.5% LPW- 1%Cured in water
  1. The self-curing properties of LPW were found to be greater than PEG – 4000 & PVA
  2. The optimum dosage level LPW is 1% of self-curing concrete.
Joseph, Xavier 2016 [6]PVA &PEG – 4000M30 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-4000, PVA- 1%, 2%, 3%.Cured in water
  1. It found to be the optimum dosage of self-curing concrete is 1% PEG-4000 and PVA compared to conventional concrete.
Kamal et al. 2018 [7]PEG –400, 600&

LECA
Cement content −425, 900 kg m3& Normal Strength Concrete, High strength concrete.PEG-400,600 - 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%. & LECA-1%, 2%, 3%, 4%.Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage is 3% & 2% PEG-400, 2% & 3% of PEG-600 and LECA is 3% & 2% for normal strength self-compacting self-curing concrete and high strength self-compacting self-curing concrete.
Sri Rama Chand et al. 2020 [8]LPW &

PEG – 4000
M60, & High Strength Concrete.PEG-4000, LPW- 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%.Cured at room temperature (270c) & Elevated Temperature (600c).
  1. It was found to be better at retaining water in PEG-4000 and LPW compared to the conventional curing method.
  2. The optimum dosages are 1% PEG-4000 and 0.1 % LPW.
  1. PEG-4000 and LPW in RCPT values are moderate levels of chloride permeability compared to the conventional curing method.
Saravanan et al. 2021 [9]Saturated Scoria and Fly ash aggregate.M20& Normal Strength Concrete.Scoria- 5%–20%&FAA- 15%Cured in water
  1. Durability properties of Presaturated Scoria and Fly Ash aggregate are 15% most durable concrete structures for compared to conventional concrete.
Kushwaha, Parihar 2018 [10]PVA, &PEGM40& Normal Strength Concrete.PEG- 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% & PVA-0.12%, 0.24%, 0.36%, 0.48%Cured in water
  1. The self-curing admixture are optimum dosage level is 0.5% PEG and 0.24% PVA make up the perfect ratio for compared to conventional concrete.
Bashandy et al. 2017 [11]PEG – 400 &

Poly Acrylamide (PAM)
M30& Normal Strength Concrete.PEG- 400- 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6% & PAM-0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03%.Cured in water
  1. It found to be combination of 1.0% PEG-400 + 0.01% PAM is better performance of compared to conventional concrete.
Gopi et al. 2018 [12]PEG-300,400,600M60& High Strength Concrete.PEG-300,400, 600-0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%.Cured in dry –air condition
  1. It found to be greater than conventional curing concrete
  2. The optimum dosages are 1% PEG-300, 1.5 % PEG-400 and 1.5 % PEG-600.
Mousa et al. 2015 [13, 14]Saturated LECA &PEG.Cement content – 300, 400 and 500 kg m−3. Water cement ratio- 0.3, 0.4, 0.5. & Normal Strength Concrete.LECA- 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%. PEG- 1%, 2%, 3%Cured in Dry-air (250C)
  1. The recommend for Self-curing substances like saturated LECA or PEG are 15% and 2% improve the mechanical properties of concrete compared to conventional concrete.
  1. The better performance of durability properties saturated LECA and PEG are 10% and 2% compared to conventional concrete.
Chandrakasu et al. 2022 [15]PEG-600M40 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-600-0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%Cured in water
  1. It found to be optimum dosage of 1% PEG-600 compared to conventional concrete.
  2. The mechanical properties strength is 7.2% greater than conventional concrete.
Santosh, Nagarjuna 2022 [16]PVAM20 & Normal Strength Concrete.PVA- 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.24%, 0.48%Cured in water
  1. It should be found that optimum dosage is 0.24% of PVA compared to conventional concrete.
Ali Khan et al. 2022 [17]Calcium lignosulfonateM30 & Normal Strength Concrete.calcium lignosulfonate – 0%–0.5%Cured in Ambient condition
  1. The recommended to 0.3% calcium lignosulfonate concentration for self-curing concrete compared to conventional concrete.
  1. The durability properties are achieved utilizing calcium lignosulfonate at the optimum concentration of 0.3% compared to conventional concrete.
Amin et al. 2021 [18]PEG – 6000M30, M60 & Normal and High Strength Concrete.PEG-6000-1%, 2%, 3%, 4%Cured in ambient condition in room temperature.
  1. The optimum dosage level is 3% PEG-6000 compared to conventional concrete.
  2. The strength increases in 21.6% and 26.9% of normal and high strength concrete greater than conventional concrete.
  1. The durability properties of optimum dosage 3% of PEG-6000 is better performance of compared to conventional concrete.
Sowdambikai et al. 2021 [19]PEGM30 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG - 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 1.5% PEG compared to conventional concrete.
  2. The mechanical properties of correlation with a regression coefficient of 0.97.
Sebastin, Franchis David 2021 [20]SAPM25 & Normal Strength Concrete.SAP- 0.5%Cured in water
  1. The mechanical properties 10% improved for SAP greater than conventional concrete.
Shravan Kumar et al. 2021 [21]PEG – 600M25 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-600- 0.3%, 0.6%, 1%, 2%.Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level 1% PEG-600 and 5.85% improved for mechanical properties compared to conventional concrete.
Dharani, Gowtham Rajan 2022 [22]PEG – 400M30, & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-400– 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%.Cured in Dry-Air (250c)
  1. The optimum dosage level is 1% PEG-400 compared to conventional concrete.
Vijayan et al. 2020 [2]PEG -1500M30 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-1500- 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 1% PEG-1500 compared to conventional concrete.
Venkatesan et al. 2020 [23]PEG-400M25 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-400- 0%, 0.50%, 0.70%, 0.75%, 0.80% 1%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 0.75% PEG-400 compared to conventional concrete.
Udayabanu et al. 2020 [24]PEG-400M20 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-400- 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 1% PEG-400 compared to conventional concrete
Gunasekar, Santhi 2020 [25]PEG-400M25 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-400- 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%.Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 1.5% PEG-400 compared to conventional concrete
Chaitanya et al. 2019 [26]LECAM30& Normal Strength Concrete.LECA- 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 15% LECA compared to conventional concrete
Ravinder et al. 2019 [27]SAPM40, & Normal Strength Concrete.SAP-0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%.Cured in air (250c) & Elevated temperature (500c).
  1. The recommended dosage of SAP is 0.3% compared to conventional concrete.
Mandiwal, Jamle 2018 [28]PEG - 400M20, M25 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG- 400 -0.8%, 1.6%, 2.4%, 3.2%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 1.6% PEG-400 M20concrete and 2.4 % PEG-400 M25 concrete compared to conventional concrete.
Poovizhiselvi, Karthik 2017 [29]PEG - 400M20, M30 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-400- 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 1% PEG-400 M20 concrete and 0.5 % PEG-400 M30 concrete compared to conventional concrete
Suresh et al. 2019 [30]PEG – 6000M30, M40 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-6000- 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 2% PEG-6000 compared to conventional concrete
Dayalan. 2016 [31]SAPM25 & Normal Strength Concrete.SAP- 0%, 0.12%,0.24%, 0.48%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 0.48% SAP compared to conventional concrete
  1. The durability properties of optimum dosage 0.48% of SAP is better performance of compared to conventional concrete.
Bashandy et al. 2016 [32]PEG -400M25 & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-400- 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 0.5% PEG-400 compared to conventional concrete
Sri Rama Chand et al. 2016 [33]PEG -4000, 200M25, & Normal Strength Concrete.PEG-4000, 200 – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%.Cured in Dry-Air (250c)
  1. The optimum dosage level is 0.5% PEG-200 and 1 % PEG-4000 compared to conventional concrete.
  2. Self-curing self-compacting mortar has improved in performance with suitable for repair and rehabilitation works compared to conventional concrete.
  1. The durability properties of optimum dosage 1% PEG-200 and 0.1% PEG-4000 are better performance of compared to conventional concrete.
Deshmukh, Chandak 2015 [34]SAPM20, M30 & Normal Strength Concrete.SAP-0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%Cured in water
  1. The optimum dosage level is 0.3% SAP compared to conventional concrete

Water is the primary cause of cement hardening in concrete. Water is also used in building to cure materials. Curing is an important phase in the construction process since it affects the structure's strength and their longevity. Curing requires substantially more water than mixing in the construction of the structure. The amount of water required to cure 1 m3 of concrete is 3 m3. In 2019, Chennai was hit by a major water shortage, which led to the collapse of the construction industry. Following the event, many of the construction firms were unable to access quality water from the ground and were forced to purchase tanker water, which was exceedingly expensive and increased the cost of construction.

Alternative approaches, like as self-curing, are considered as critical at the present time in order to reduce the use for water in the curing process of concrete [35]. In self-consolidating concrete, high-performance concrete, mass concrete, and lightweight concrete, self-curing chemicals are often utilized. Polyvalent alcohol, chosen from a range of molecules that includes polyethylene glycol, is one of the chemical agents that can be used to manufacture self-curing concrete. A self-curing chemical ingredient was added to concrete in doses ranging from 0.1 to 5% of the cement weight. Internal curative agents are presently used all over the world. In desert (hot and dry) climate regions, self-curing concrete will increase concrete strength. According to the study, internal curing improves cement hydration at the start of the procedure. Self-curing concrete hardens within 2–3 days of mixing, yielding an immediate result [36].

The novelty of the paper is to bring out the focus and exhaustive coverage on the self-curing mechanism, various types of self-curing agents and their replacement levels, curing condition, performances of mechanical and durability characteristics, etc. This paper will provide a platform covering intensive basic and in-depth understanding knowledge to the new researcher in the research domain of self-curing lightweight concrete. The conclusions have provided the broad outcomes of the past investigations and there are no doubts that this paper will elicit to explore the probable research gaps to be addressed in the future/incoming research works.

The other papers are also available but limited in providing only with basic superficial understandings on this topic. The new researcher will find it hard way to identify the past and present engaged works and the technical information contained therein.

2 Self-curing mechanism

The term “self-curing” describes the method by which cement hydrates on its own due to the presence of additional internal water that is not included in the mixing water. According to Raoult's Law, if the vapour pressure of a solvent of a solution is less than the vapour pressure of the pure solvent in a pure state, adding such a chemical to the concrete will reduce the vapour pressure of water above the concrete. The surface would lose less water as a result. It is also expected that the decrease in the partial vapour pressure would be further decreased if the molecules of the solute and solvent are hydrogen bonded. Increasing demand for such high-quality water, however, leads to the need for self-curing or internal curing [37, 38]. As a result of chemical shrinkage, cement produces empty holes and loses relative humidity during hydration. This causes the cement paste to self-desiccate and dry, resulting in capillary pores and micro-cracks, which constitute the matrix's weak link. By maintaining steady relative humidity, self-curing prevents self-desiccation [39]. According to ACI-308, self-curing cement results from the inclusion of additional internal water, which is removed from mixing water and causes the cement to hydrate [40]. Self-curing concrete integrates polymers that cured internally into the concrete will tend to decrease water evaporation and increase water retention capacity [41].

3 Self-curing materials

While self-curing is done to conserve water, curing is often done from the exposed surface to the interior of the concrete. Self-curing concrete compositions have been researched by various researchers by utilizing a range of curing agents, including superabsorbent polymers, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyethylene glycol. In the following subsections, several curing chemicals used in self-curing concrete are described [42].

3.1 Superabsorbent polymers (SAP)

From the 1980s onwards, superabsorbent polymers have been widely used in a wide range of industries, in addition to serving as a water reservoir and having the ability to expand and hold water. Concrete has been reinforced with superabsorbent polymers to increase freeze-thaw resilience, reduce autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. Superabsorbent polymers may expand to create an insoluble gel at osmotic pressure and have three-dimensional cross-link networks, which allows them to absorb a large amount of liquid in comparison to their volume. Superabsorbent polymers can cause an aqueous solution to either shrink or swell by a chemical reaction that takes place when they come into contact. Figure 1 shows how osmotic pressure develops between polymer chains and cross-links during the absorption of superabsorbent polymers. Osmotic pressure develops when floating ions are collected in the space between the gel and the solution. Cement paste pores get absorbed back into the structure as the humidity of the concrete decreases, and voids are progressively evacuated from the concrete as water is gently released from superabsorbent polymers [43–45].

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Representation of superabsorbent polymers linking mechanism

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 2; 10.1556/1848.2023.00695

3.2 Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

Polyethylene glycol removes substances that cannot be dissolved in water. Polyethylene glycol can dissolve low molecular weight molecules. PEG-n denotes the average number of repeated oxy-ethylene groups, where oxy-ethylene is a condensation polymer composed of ethylene oxide and water. Polyethylene glycol's insoluble components include ether, paraffin, oils, and fats, all of which are easily soluble in ethanol, glycol, water, chloroform, and acetone. Polyethylene glycol, which is non-toxic, odourless, neutral, lubricating, non-volatile, and non-irritating, is used in a range of healthcare products which helps in sustaining sanitary conditions. A thin shell around each water molecule, in addition to PEG, contributes to the entrapment of water particles in concrete. A shell will form around the water particles, preventing it from evaporating and making it available for hydration. Because water is present during the early stages of strength increase, there will be fewer early-stage cracks. Water is also conserved because external curing is reduced. Figure 2 demonstrates the interaction of water molecules' PEG hydrogen bonds with concrete [46].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PEG hydrogen bonds interaction with the water molecule (Republished under under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license)

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 2; 10.1556/1848.2023.00695

3.3 Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Polyvinyl alcohol is a white, granular substance that dissolves exclusively in hot water. Polyvinyl alcohol, which forms in solution form, offers a wide variety of applications. Transparent films with a high tensile strength and tear resistance are created by the evaporation of water. The polyvinyl alcohol's binder properties enable excellent adherence to porous, water-absorbent surfaces. Polyvinyl alcohol is commercially produced from polyvinyl acetate using a continuous approach. It can be used as an addition to concrete for reducing shrinkage [47]. The PVA hydrogen bonds of the hot water-soluble solution of concrete are illustrated in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Representation of PVA hydrogen bonds interaction

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 15, 2; 10.1556/1848.2023.00695

3.4 Expanded shale, expanded clay, and pumice aggregate

During curing, cement paste is hydrated within lightly weighted aggregates to create a network of capillary pores. The water is taken up by the drier cement paste by capillary suction and delivered to the un-hydrated cement by surface tension because of the difference in vapour pressure between the pores of the cement paste and those of the lightweight aggregate. The pores are constrained by un-hydrated cement particles that have been hydrated to produce hydration products, allowing the pores to keep absorbing water from the light aggregate. Lightweight aggregates can be utilized in coarse or fine aggregate forms as a curing agent in self-curing concrete; the most popular types are expanded shale, expanded clay, and pumice [48].

3.5 Wood powders

Wood strands and powders act as self-curing agents in cement-based fabrics because they absorb and hold water during expansion. Wood-derived fibres that are utilized to self-cure concrete include eucalyptus mush, kenaf fibres, and cellulose fibres. By means of capillary action and the effect of osmotic weight on the concentration gradient (dissemination), water develops in wood fibres. The wood-derived fibres feature two pores: a larger, free-water-containing lumen and a smaller one. Both of these pores are crucial for moving moisture from the wood mash to the nearby cement. Additionally, because the pores In the cement-based fabric are soluble, they have the ability to expand or contract, delaying the movement of water and altering the size of the pores [49–52].

4 Self-curing concrete

In the past research studies from various researchers [5354], specimens of self-curing concrete, special concrete, and conventional concrete that had been treated with and without a self-curing ingredient were examined for their strength and durability characteristics. Past research studies from various researchers [41, 55] contrasted self-curing concrete with specialty concrete, regular concrete used for water curing, and non-curing concrete. The past research studies from various researchers such as [41, 56, 57] looked into how varied amounts of self-curing agents affected the mechanical qualities of self-curing concrete. Additionally investigated are workability, thickness, toughness, and water ingress resistance. When calcium lignosulfonate concentrations are increased until they reach 0.5%, the workability of the self-curing agent applied to fresh concrete grows nonlinearly. Drop values grew as the polyethylene glycol component increased, and dropped values fell as the polyacrylamide material increased. Additionally, according to past studies [58–60], the ideal concentrations of polyethene glycol, polyacrylamide, and calcium lignosulfonate are 0.3%, 1.5%, and 0.01%, respectively. Calcium lignosulfonate, polyethene glycol, and polyacrylamide are used as self-curing agents. The resulting 28-day compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength are 34.63 MPa, 36.43, and 28.35, 1.63, 1.89, and 0.95, and 4.60, 6.38, and 2.34 Mpa, respectively [10, 11, 17]. The controlled sample is impacted by the salt solution, losing 18.32% of its compressive strength, but the specimen made of calcium lignosulfonate, polyethene glycol, and polyacrylamide actually increases strength after exposure to the salt solution, increasing by 20.01%. The lower strength value may be caused by the fact that the concrete without calcium lignosulfonate, polyethene glycol, and polyacrylamide has a weaker resistance to water penetration with a penetration depth of 5.0 mm in comparison to the concrete with calcium lignosulfonate, polyethene glycol, and polyacrylamide, which has a penetration depth of only 2.2 mm. The use of self-curing concrete with pre-saturated lightweight expanded clay aggregate, PEG, PVA, SAP, and other additives is a tried-and-true method of reducing self-desiccation and autogenously shrinkage, according to the past research studies from various researchers, In special concrete and self-curing concrete, lightweight expanded clay aggregate also serves as a self-curing agent. Therefore, in both special concrete and regular concrete, strength is achieved by using 15% of the recommended proportion of lightweight expanded clay aggregate. The ideal obtained value for the ratio of cement content as an additive is 3% and 2% for normal-strength self-curing self-compacting concrete and high-strength self-curing self-compacting concrete, respectively. In comparison to regular concrete, additives such polyethylene glycol, liquid paraffin wax, pre-saturated lightweight expanded clay aggregate, PVA, SAP, and others are better at retaining water. However, self-compacting concrete that has been water cured and has the right amounts of polyethylene glycol, liquid paraffin wax, pre-saturated lightweight expanded clay aggregate, PVA, SAP, and other additives performs better. The highest compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity in concrete are produced by 1.5, 0.1, 15, 0.5, 0.3, and 3% polyethylene glycol, liquid paraffin wax, pre-saturated lightweight expanded clay aggregate, fibres, PVA, SAP, and other additives after 3, 7, and 28 days of self-curing of concrete [3, 7–9, 26, 61].

5 Summary of mechanical properties

By holding onto moisture from the conversation, self-curing concrete assists in hydrating reinforced concrete. Self-curing concrete may also increase quality and hydration while using less water [53]. By reducing moisture and hydration, self-curing concrete can be used in water-scarce areas, tall structures, and other added applications. Self-curing agents such as PVA, PEG, SAP, and other additives have been researched for use in conventional, lightweight concrete. Concrete's compressive, split tensile, flexural, and partly ductile qualities change as cement proportions, water-cement ratios, self-curing agents, and curing preparations are altered [62]. According to the past research studies from various researchers that took PVA, PEG, SAP, and other additives into account, the ideal value for different kinds of self-curing agents is perhaps 2, 1.5, and 0.3%, respectively. According to the past research studies from various researchers, self-curing concrete with PVA, PEG, SAP, and other additives may improve the mechanical properties of concrete by 5.3, 7.2, 6.2%, and 7.5, 10.72, 8.3%, respectively, depending on the minimum and maximum strength [54, 15, 63, 64]. The microstructure of self-curing concrete, in addition to the context of scanning electron microscopy, reveals that the pore sizes are significantly smaller than those of conventional concrete [56]. This may be because PVA, PEG, SAP, and other additives have higher atomic weights than water and are located close to hydrogen bonds. Therefore, it may be said that self-curing concrete has a microstructure with fewer pores and fractures [65].

6 Summary of durability properties

Various self-curing chemicals, including PVA, PEG, SAP, expanded shale, expanded clay, fibre, and pumice aggregate, have been used in the past research studies from the various researchers on self-curing concrete. Some examples of durability characteristics are water absorption, water permeability, sorptivity, acids, sulphates, and quick chloride permeability tests as opposed to ordinary concrete, self-curing concrete loses less weight as a result of acid and sulphate assault, according to the past research studies from various researchers. Both conventional and self-curing concrete handled the charge roughly similarly during the Rapid Chloride Penetration test [63, 64, 66]. Concrete that is self-cured uses less water than traditional concrete. The externally generated self-curing component prevents concrete from evaporating. The capacity of traditional concrete to absorb water grows with curing time and surpasses that of self-curing concrete. Compared with conventional concrete, self-curing concrete has lower water permeability and water sorptivity values. Concrete specimens that had undergone a 24-h continuous self-cure were subjected to 250 °C during the test for fire resistance. Comparing exposed concrete to normal concrete, this exposure condition did not result in any damage or colour change [67–69]. Self-curing concrete has a stronger link between the cement paste and aggregate, increasing its durability.

7 Conclusion

These were the conclusions drawn after assessing outcomes of past research investigations.

  1. a)Depending on the ratios of cement and water/cement in the mix, the self-curing chemical admixtures will behave differently. Early water scarcity issues in concrete are resolved by self-curing admixtures, and weight loss over time shows that self-curing chemical admixtures in concrete mixes retain more water than traditional concrete mixes.
  2. b)Under sealed conditions, the self-curing concrete had less self-desiccation and performed better. With the exception of PVA, it can be utilized as an internal self-curing chemical admixture in self-curing concrete. Concrete that self-cures can lower the price of curing one cubic metre of concrete.
  3. c)When compared to conventional concrete, self-curing chemical admixtures significantly increase the mechanical and durability properties of concrete, as measured by tests for compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, water absorption, water permeability, sorptivity, acid attack, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and rapid chloride permeability.
  4. d)When used in high-rise buildings or arid areas without access to water, self-curing concrete offers high-performance concrete a solution. However, the price of self-curing concrete renders it prohibitive for smaller applications.

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Editor-in-Chief: Ákos, LakatosUniversity of Debrecen, Hungary

Founder, former Editor-in-Chief (2011-2020): Ferenc Kalmár, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Founding Editor: György Csomós, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Associate Editor: Derek Clements Croome, University of Reading, UK

Associate Editor: Dezső Beke, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Editorial Board

  • Mohammad Nazir AHMAD, Institute of Visual Informatics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Murat BAKIROV, Center for Materials and Lifetime Management Ltd., Moscow, Russia

    Nicolae BALC, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Umberto BERARDI, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Canada

    Ildikó BODNÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Sándor BODZÁS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Fatih Mehmet BOTSALI, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey

    Samuel BRUNNER, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

    István BUDAI, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Constantin BUNGAU, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Shanshan CAI, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

    Michele De CARLI, University of Padua, Padua, Italy

    Robert CERNY, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Erdem CUCE, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey

    György CSOMÓS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Tamás CSOKNYAI, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Anna FORMICA, IASI National Research Council, Rome, Italy

    Alexandru GACSADI, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Eugen Ioan GERGELY, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Janez GRUM, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Géza HUSI, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Ghaleb A. HUSSEINI, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Nikolay IVANOV, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia

    Antal JÁRAI, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

    Gudni JÓHANNESSON, The National Energy Authority of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

    László KAJTÁR, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Ferenc KALMÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Tünde KALMÁR, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Milos KALOUSEK, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republik

    Jan KOCI, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Vaclav KOCI, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

    Imre KOCSIS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Imre KOVÁCS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Angela Daniela LA ROSA, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    Éva LOVRA, Univeqrsity of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Elena LUCCHI, Eurac Research, Institute for Renewable Energy, Bolzano, Italy

    Tamás MANKOVITS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Igor MEDVED, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Ligia MOGA, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Marco MOLINARI, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

    Henrieta MORAVCIKOVA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Phalguni MUKHOPHADYAYA, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada

    Balázs NAGY, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

    Husam S. NAJM, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA

    Jozsef NYERS, Subotica Tech College of Applied Sciences, Subotica, Serbia

    Bjarne W. OLESEN, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

    Stefan ONIGA, North University of Baia Mare, Baia Mare, Romania

    Joaquim Norberto PIRES, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

    László POKORÁDI, Óbuda University, Budapest, Hungary

    Roman RABENSEIFER, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovak Republik

    Mohammad H. A. SALAH, Hashemite University, Zarqua, Jordan

    Dietrich SCHMIDT, Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology IWES, Kassel, Germany

    Lorand SZABÓ, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Csaba SZÁSZ, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    Ioan SZÁVA, Transylvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania

    Péter SZEMES, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Edit SZŰCS, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Radu TARCA, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Zsolt TIBA, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    László TÓTH, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    László TÖRÖK, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

    Anton TRNIK, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovakia

    Ibrahim UZMAY, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey

    Andrea VALLATI, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy

    Tibor VESSELÉNYI, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

    Nalinaksh S. VYAS, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India

    Deborah WHITE, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2010
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Debreceni Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
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Address
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Publisher
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ISSN 2062-0810 (Print)
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