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Joy Dewanjee Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Md Shabiul Islam Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Wong Hin Yong Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Najeeb Ullah Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Kazy Noor-E-Alam Siddiquee Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Mohammad Tariqul Islam Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia

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Abstract

This paper presents an investigation on a battery-less voltage of Piezoelectric (PZT) V-shape cantilever beam Energy Harvester (EH) using human body vibration. The frequency ranges are walking (0–5 Hz), running (6–10 Hz) and motions (11–15 Hz) for human movement. Pacemaker devices typically require a lower resonant frequency with higher voltage which is powered by batteries. The battery has a limited duration during its working process and the battery is difficult to replace in the human body. To address the aforementioned issue, a V-shape cantilever beam EH has been developed as a solution to overcome these limitations. The cantilever beam was designed in COMSOL Multiphysics software 5.5 version using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method for experimental investigations followed by three categories of frequency ranges of the human body. The simulation results showed that the generated battery-less higher voltage was 269 mV (AC) at the resonant frequency of 14.37 Hz in the motion range of 11–15 Hz. Later, an Ultra Low Power (ULP) electronic circuits will be designed and simulated in the LTSPICE software to convert and boost-up from 269 mV (AC) to DC voltage attained. The estimated output power of the energy harvester system can be powered up (4.7 µW) for modern pacemaker applications.

Abstract

This paper presents an investigation on a battery-less voltage of Piezoelectric (PZT) V-shape cantilever beam Energy Harvester (EH) using human body vibration. The frequency ranges are walking (0–5 Hz), running (6–10 Hz) and motions (11–15 Hz) for human movement. Pacemaker devices typically require a lower resonant frequency with higher voltage which is powered by batteries. The battery has a limited duration during its working process and the battery is difficult to replace in the human body. To address the aforementioned issue, a V-shape cantilever beam EH has been developed as a solution to overcome these limitations. The cantilever beam was designed in COMSOL Multiphysics software 5.5 version using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method for experimental investigations followed by three categories of frequency ranges of the human body. The simulation results showed that the generated battery-less higher voltage was 269 mV (AC) at the resonant frequency of 14.37 Hz in the motion range of 11–15 Hz. Later, an Ultra Low Power (ULP) electronic circuits will be designed and simulated in the LTSPICE software to convert and boost-up from 269 mV (AC) to DC voltage attained. The estimated output power of the energy harvester system can be powered up (4.7 µW) for modern pacemaker applications.

1 Introduction

Over the past few decades, energy demands and an essential need for sustainable solutions, the concept of energy harvesting has emerged as an example of innovation. As traditional energy sources face challenges of depletion and environmental impact, the exploration of alternative means to capture and convert energy has gained prominence. Energy harvesting, encompassing diverse techniques and technologies, offers the promise of extracting energy from ambient sources in the environment. Various ambient sources such as solar, thermal, wind energy and vibrations were explored to produce low-power voltage using renewable [1–9]. However, Starner et al. [10] pointed out the limited capacity of these sources to supply sufficient power. Recently, there has been growing interest in harnessing human movement to generate energy. The numerous energy harvesting techniques utilized in implanted biomedical devices such as pacemaker [11, 12]. Conventional pacemakers rely on finite battery life, leading to the need for periodic replacements and associated surgical procedures. Energy harvesting, particularly through piezoelectric cantilever beams, introduces a sustainable alternative by harnessing ambient energy within the body's environment. This not only reduces the frequency of invasive procedures but also contributes to patient safety and well-being. The multidirectional harvesting approach enhances the adaptability of pacemakers to various physiological movements, ensuring consistent and reliable energy generation. Additionally, aligning with advancements in biomedical technologies underscores the commitment to improving patient outcomes [13–16]. The primary features of harvesting energy from human body motion, as shown in Fig. 1, include kinetic and thermoelectricity generators. Piezoelectric material, electrostatic generators, and magnetic induction generators are examples of kinetic harvesting [1]. Piezoelectricity is a well-known phenomenon worldwide and is frequently used to power electronic devices with low energy requirements. Addressing the increasing concerns related to battery dependency by focusing on improving energy harvesting techniques. The main transduction techniques, particularly piezoelectric and electromagnetic are presented. A new categorization of design techniques highlights overlooked aspects such as non-resonant systems and multidirectional harvesting. Additionally, the potential of combining multiple techniques in a unique system is investigated through various examples [17, 18]. An active energy harvesting prototype has been developed, capable of converting ambient heat energy into electrical energy. Another method for generating piezoelectricity involves using a cantilever beam subjected to vibrations. The cantilever beam serves as a necessary component in an EH, especially within the context of piezoelectric energy harvesting. By incorporating a piezoelectric material into the cantilever beam structure, mechanical vibrations or movements can be converted into electric energy through the piezoelectric effect. This concept offers a practical method to capture and convert ambient mechanical energy, such as human movement or machinery vibrations, into usable electrical power [19–25]. Investigated the effects of geometrical dimensions, such as cantilever length, top width, bottom width, and thickness, on the static and dynamic parameters, higher bending modes vibrations and multifrequency characteristics of V-shape cantilevers, using Atomic-Force-Microscopy (AFM) measurements [26, 27]. A piezoelectric T-shape cantilever beam has been designed and simulated using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method. The mechanical characteristics, such as stress, elastic strain energy, displacement, and velocity were related to obtaining the frequency using this method. The resonant frequency of 229.25 Hz has been found during the simulation process [28]. Comparative analysis against traditional rectangular shapes revealed significant enhancements in the microcantilever beam's output, achieving improvements of 46% and 283% at zero free end width respectively. The systems offer a promising avenue for generating power from ambient energy sources, rendering them well-suited for biomedical applications, including pacemakers. In contrast to conventional EH, these systems harness environmental vibrations as the primary energy input, effectively transducing them into electricity through the piezoelectric effect. The cantilever beam, with its exceptional mechanical flexibility, assumes a critical role in this process, exhibiting peak electrical power output precisely at its resonant frequency. This distinctive characteristic underscores the system's potential for reliable and sustainable energy generation, which is of paramount importance for powering life-saving medical devices like pacemakers [29]. Table 1 shows the comparison table of previous research work.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sustainable energy harvesting process

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 2024; 10.1556/1848.2023.00759

Table 1.

The comparison of the proposed work with others research works

AuthorShapeOperating resonance frequency (Hz)Obtained voltage (V)Applications
Anand et al., 2019 [32]Spiral45.80.023Pacemaker
Anand et al., 2021 [29]L79.5Pacemaker
Shruti et al., 2023 [15]Fan Folded20Pacemaker
Bilel et al., 2022 [16]Spring29Pacemaker
Present work, 2023V14.370.269Pacemaker

As an example, Anand et al. [32] investigated a spiral-shape cantilever beam specifically designed for piezoelectric energy harvesting applications. In contrast to conventional PZT-5H material, they opted for ZnO as the piezoelectric material. The structure was built and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics, providing a comprehensive simulation model for the pacemaker's operation. The experimental results were demonstrated with the frequency of 45.8 Hz, an output voltage of 0.023 mV and the power of 3.5 µW. The primary focus of the work was to enhance the pacemaker's longevity by implementing a recharging mechanism for the pacemaker's battery. To achieve this, the system harnessed human vibrations as a means of recharging. Through meticulous analysis, the resonant frequency was determined, aligned with the frequency of a human heartbeat, making it a reliable energy source for powering the pacemaker. However, modern pacemakers require range of less than 10 µW [33], where Anand et al. [32] achieved 3.5 µW only, which is very low and not suitable for normal operations of pacemakers.

In the above discussion, numerous research works on energy solutions have been conducted by the research community, but there are some limitations associated with their work, such as higher resonant frequency, low voltage, and low power. In this present work, a V-shape cantilever beam with PZT material is proposed and designed in COMSOL Multiphysics version 5.5 software using FEA method to acquire higher AC voltage (mV) using desired resonant frequency (Hz) at the end of the mechanical part depicted in Fig. 1. This generated AC voltage will be converted into DC voltage and power-up using a ULP electronic circuit to get the desired micro-watt (µW) for a modern pacemaker device.

2 V-shape cantilever design for battery less voltage EH system using FEA method

Figure 1 shows the complete process of the energy harvesting system for generating micro-power (µW) using human body vibration which will apply for pacemaker devices. The energy harvesting process is divided into two parts, consisting of the mechanical part and the electrical part. In the mechanical part, Input vibration energy (i.e., human body movement) has been applied to the V-shape cantilever beam which was designed in COMSOL Multiphysics software using FEA method.

During the designing process, the cantilever beam has been constructed with two rectangular cross-sections of the mechanical beam using the experimental achieved data from Table 1 and the V-shape cantilever design shape is shown in Fig. 2. To calculate and verify the resonant frequency of the V-shape cantilever beam using the Rayleigh-Ritz method [31] formula is shown in equation (1).
f(W(x))=T2πL270Eρg
Where, f is the resonant frequency, x is the distance from the fixed end, L is the Length, W is the Width, T is the thickness, E is the effective density, ρ is the Young's modulus, g is the Acceleration. Figure 3 presents a rectangular section of the cantilever beam and I = WT3/12 is the cross-sectional area moment of inertia. In Fig. 3, a depiction is provided of a rectangular segment of a cantilever beam, wherein the cross-sectional area moment of inertia (I) is expressed as I = WT^3/12. This formula signifies the moment of inertia for the given beam section, where W represents the width and T denotes the thickness of the rectangular cross-section. The moment of inertia is a crucial parameter in structural engineering, as it characterizes the distribution of the area with respect to the neutral axis and influences the beam's resistance to bending and torsional deformations. Based on equation (1), the designed V-shape cantilever beam where two cross-sections of the rectangular beam with an angle difference of 25/–25° generates a resonant frequency depending on the parameters including length, width, and thickness as shown in Fig. 4. It is evident from the obtained simulation results that our design of V-shape cantilever beam achieves a battery-less voltage (269 mV) at the resonant frequency of 14.374 Hz.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Energy harvesting process [30]

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 2024; 10.1556/1848.2023.00759

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Rectangular sections of cantilever beam

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 2024; 10.1556/1848.2023.00759

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of V-shape cantilever beam in COMSOL using FEA method (as an example)

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 2024; 10.1556/1848.2023.00759

As an example, the calculated mathematical expression for the resonant frequency of 14.31 Hz (approximately) is given below. To calculate the resonant frequency, the experimental data from Table 1 has been inserted in equation (1). beam's natural frequencies. These frequencies are acquired from the model.
f(W(x))=T2πL270Eρg
f=0.3295TL2Eρ
f=0.32950.010.095223001.498
f=14.31Hz(Approximately)

In the electrical part, a ULP electronic circuit will be designed and simulated in LTSPICE software. The sub-blocks of the electrical part consist of a rectifier, boost-up converter, voltage regulator, super capacitor and load, etc. The optimum findings voltage of 269 mV (AC) will be converted into DC voltage using the rectifier circuit and the DC voltage will be enhanced using boost-up converter. The voltage regulator will be used to maintain the voltage ratio of the generated DC voltage at the output of the load. The super capacitor will be used for storing the voltage and converted to the expected micro-watt (4.7 µW) which will be applied to the modern pacemaker devices.

3 Simulation results

The simulation process has been completed in the COMSOL Multiphysics Software 5.5 using FEA method. The range of the resonant frequencies has been divided into three categories from human body movement (i.e., walking (0–5 Hz), running (6–10 Hz) and motions (11–15 Hz)) during the simulation process. By using equation (1), the resonant frequencies of the V-shape cantilever beam for each category were determined, based on the experimental data from Table 1.

Figures 5a, 6a and 7a present the V-shape cantilever beam that have been designed for obtaining the resonant frequencies. The fixed dimensions (i.e., Length: 85–95 mm, Width: 5–15 mm and Thickness: 0.1–0.5 mm) of the cantilever beam were considered to find the higher resonant frequencies of 4.37, 9.87 and 14.37 Hz and their corresponding optimum higher voltage of 47.56, 163 and 269 mV given in Tables 24 respectively. The simulation results between the voltage versus frequency graphs for V-shape cantilever design, are presented in Figs 5b, 6b and 7b. It was observed from all the graphs that the voltage and frequencies increased proportionally due to the change (increases/decreases) of the length, width, thickness and angle difference of two cross-section rectangular shapes of the beam. The relationship between changes in the dimensions of a cantilever beam and their impact on voltage and frequency are closely connected to the behaviour of piezoelectric materials. The resonant frequency, mode of vibration, and energy conversion efficiency of the cantilever beam are influenced by the mechanical deformation of the piezoelectric material caused by changes in its dimensions. Changes in a beam's length, width, or thickness can cause a shift in its natural frequency and impact electric charge generation in response to mechanical vibration. Furthermore, changes in the beam's dimensions affect the piezoelectric coefficient of the material. This coefficient is responsible for the relationship between induced charge and applied vibration. The interaction between mechanical and electrical properties is vital in designing and optimizing systems that use cantilever beams and piezoelectric materials. It is essential to ensure that the operation of the energy harvester device does not interfere with the primary function of the modern pacemaker with medical conditions of the patients, who are suffering from severe heartbeat disorders (Table 5).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Simulation of the V-shape cantilever beam at the resonant frequency of 4.4859 Hz for optimum voltage of 47.56 mV (b) Simulation graph between Voltage (mV) vs Frequency (Hz) in COMSOL

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 2024; 10.1556/1848.2023.00759

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Simulation of the V-shape cantilever beam at resonant frequency of 9.37 Hz for optimum voltage of 163 mV (b) Simulation graph between Voltage (mV) vs Frequency (Hz) in COMSOL

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 2024; 10.1556/1848.2023.00759

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Simulation of the V-shape cantilever beam at the resonant frequency of 14.374 Hz for optimum voltage of 269 mV (b) Simulation graph between Voltage (mV) vs Frequency (Hz) in COMSOL

Citation: International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering 2024; 10.1556/1848.2023.00759

Table 2.

Properties of the V-shape cantilever beam during experimental work

ParametersValues
Beam configurationBimproph
PZT materialAluminium
Range of length for beam85–95 mm
Range of width for beam10–20 mm
Range of thickness for beam0.01 m–0.36 mm
Acceleration, g1 g (g = 9.81 ms–2)
Effective density, E2300 kg m−3
Young's module0.81 GPa
Table 3.

Comparison of the simulation voltages of different frequencies

Frequency (Hz)Voltage (mV)Remarks
00
1.275.38
2.5815.88
3.3929.11
4.485947.56Optimum voltage at resonant frequency of 4.4859Hz
Table 4.

Comparison of the simulation voltages of different frequencies

Frequency (Hz)Voltage (mV)Remarks
5.376262
6.8767
7.0676
8.5681
9.04126
9.87163Optimum voltage at resonant frequency of 9.87 Hz
Table 5.

Comparison of the simulation voltages of different frequencies

Frequency (Hz)Voltage (mV)Remarks
11.59195
12.06222
13.9242
14.374269Operating optimum voltage at resonant frequency of 14.374 Hz

4 Conclusion

This paper presents the investigation of the battery-less voltage on the impact of various frequencies of the V-shape cantilever beam energy harvester using the FEA method for pacemakers. After investigating all achieved voltages at different frequencies shown in the graphs, the higher resonant frequency of 14.37 Hz has been chosen as an output of the cantilever beam where the higher optimum voltage was 269 mV (AC) in the motion range of 11–15 Hz. Generally, this is because human body vibration generates a resonant frequency of 0–15 Hz. In the present work, the obtained higher voltage of 269 mV (AC) is better compared to the previous researchers work. Later, the achieved voltage 269 mV (AC) will be considered to generate the expected micro-watt (µW) for application. A ULP circuit will be designed and simulated LTSPICE software used for converting the AC voltage (269 mv) to DC voltage. Finally, it will be converted into micro-watt (µW) for modern pacemaker devices.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported and funded by a Telekom Malaysia Research & Development grant: RDTC 221039, MMUE/220015, TM, Malaysia.

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Editor-in-Chief: Ákos, Lakatos University of Debrecen (Hungary)

Founder, former Editor-in-Chief (2011-2020): Ferenc Kalmár University of Debrecen (Hungary)

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Associate Editor: Derek Clements Croome University of Reading (UK)

Associate Editor: Dezső Beke University of Debrecen (Hungary)

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  • Mohammad Nazir AHMAD Institute of Visual Informatics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Murat BAKIROV Center for Materials and Lifetime Management Ltd. Moscow Russia

    Nicolae BALC Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Umberto BERARDI Ryerson University Toronto Canada

    Ildikó BODNÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Sándor BODZÁS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Fatih Mehmet BOTSALI Selçuk University Konya Turkey

    Samuel BRUNNER Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

    István BUDAI University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Constantin BUNGAU University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Shanshan CAI Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan China

    Michele De CARLI University of Padua Padua Italy

    Robert CERNY Czech Technical University in Prague Czech Republic

    György CSOMÓS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Tamás CSOKNYAI Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Eugen Ioan GERGELY University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    József FINTA University of Pécs Pécs Hungary

    Anna FORMICA IASI National Research Council Rome

    Alexandru GACSADI University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Eric A. GRULKE University of Kentucky Lexington United States

    Janez GRUM University of Ljubljana Ljubljana Slovenia

    Géza HUSI University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Ghaleb A. HUSSEINI American University of Sharjah Sharjah United Arab Emirates

    Nikolay IVANOV Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University St. Petersburg Russia

    Antal JÁRAI Eötvös Loránd University Budapest Hungary

    Gudni JÓHANNESSON The National Energy Authority of Iceland Reykjavik Iceland

    László KAJTÁR Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Ferenc KALMÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Tünde KALMÁR University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Milos KALOUSEK Brno University of Technology Brno Czech Republik

    Jan KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague Prague Czech Republic

    Vaclav KOCI Czech Technical University in Prague Prague Czech Republic

    Imra KOCSIS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Imre KOVÁCS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Angela Daniela LA ROSA Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    Éva LOVRA Univeqrsity of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Elena LUCCHI Eurac Research, Institute for Renewable Energy Bolzano Italy

    Tamás MANKOVITS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Igor MEDVED Slovak Technical University in Bratislava Bratislava Slovakia

    Ligia MOGA Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Marco MOLINARI Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm Sweden

    Henrieta MORAVCIKOVA Slovak Academy of Sciences Bratislava Slovakia

    Phalguni MUKHOPHADYAYA University of Victoria Victoria Canada

    Balázs NAGY Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapest Hungary

    Husam S. NAJM Rutgers University New Brunswick United States

    Jozsef NYERS Subotica Tech College of Applied Sciences Subotica Serbia

    Bjarne W. OLESEN Technical University of Denmark Lyngby Denmark

    Stefan ONIGA North University of Baia Mare Baia Mare Romania

    Joaquim Norberto PIRES Universidade de Coimbra Coimbra Portugal

    László POKORÁDI Óbuda University Budapest Hungary

    Antal PUHL (1950–2023) University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Roman RABENSEIFER Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Bratislava Slovak Republik

    Mohammad H. A. SALAH Hashemite University Zarqua Jordan

    Dietrich SCHMIDT Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology IWES Kassel Germany

    Lorand SZABÓ Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Csaba SZÁSZ Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca Romania

    Ioan SZÁVA Transylvania University of Brasov Brasov Romania

    Péter SZEMES University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Edit SZŰCS University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Radu TARCA University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Zsolt TIBA University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    László TÓTH University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    László TÖRÖK University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary

    Anton TRNIK Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Nitra Slovakia

    Ibrahim UZMAY Erciyes University Kayseri Turkey

    Tibor VESSELÉNYI University of Oradea Oradea Romania

    Nalinaksh S. VYAS Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur India

    Deborah WHITE The University of Adelaide Adelaide Australia

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
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2022  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.235
Scimago Quartile Score Architecture (Q2)
Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q3)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.6
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 46/170 (73rd PCTL)
General Engineering 174/302 (42nd PCTL)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 93/150 (38th PCTL)
Environmental Engineering 123/184 (33rd PCTL)
Management Science and Operations Research 142/198 (28th PCTL)
Information Systems 281/379 (25th PCTL)
 
Scopus
SNIP
0.686

2021  
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
7
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,199
Scimago Quartile Score Engineering (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Information Systems (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,2
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Architecture 48/149 (Q2)
General Engineering 186/300 (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 79/124 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 118/173 (Q3)
Management Science and Operations Research 141/184 (Q4)
Information Systems 274/353 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,457

2020  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,165
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q3
Environmental Engineering Q4
Information Systems Q4
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
102/116=0,9
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 205/297 (Q3)
Environmental Engineering 107/146 (Q3)
Information Systems 269/329 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 139/166 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 64/98 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,26
Scopus
Cites
57
Scopus
Documents
36
Days from submission to acceptance 84
Days from acceptance to publication 348
Acceptance
Rate

23%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
4
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,229
Scimago
Quartile Score
Engineering (miscellaneous) Q2
Environmental Engineering Q3
Information Systems Q3
Management Science and Operations Research Q4
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
46/81=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Engineering 227/299 (Q4)
Environmental Engineering 107/132 (Q4)
Information Systems 259/300 (Q4)
Management Science and Operations Research 136/161 (Q4)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) 60/86 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,866
Scopus
Cites
35
Scopus
Documents
47
Acceptance
Rate
21%

 

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2010
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Debreceni Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-0810 (Print)
ISSN 2063-4269 (Online)

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