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  • 1 Department Experimental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
  • 2 Cluster of Excellence RESIST (EXC 2155), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Open access

Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne pathogen with a high chance of infecting neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Lm infection in neonates can cause neonatal meningitis and sepsis with a high risk of severe neurological and developmental sequelae and high mortality rates. However, whether an acute neonatal Lm infection causes long-term effects on the immune system persisting until adulthood has not been fully elucidated. Here, we established a neonatal Lm infection model and monitored the composition of major immune cell subsets at defined time points post infection (p.i.) in secondary lymphoid organs and the intestine. Twelve weeks p.i., the CD8+ T cell population was decreased in colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) with an opposing increase in the spleen. In the colon, we observed an accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ effector/memory T cells with an increase of T-bet+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells. In addition, 12 weeks p.i. an altered composition of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) and dendritic cell (DC) subsets was still observed in colon and mLNs, respectively. Together, these findings highlight organ-specific long-term consequences of an acute neonatal Lm infection on both the adaptive and innate immune system.

Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne pathogen with a high chance of infecting neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Lm infection in neonates can cause neonatal meningitis and sepsis with a high risk of severe neurological and developmental sequelae and high mortality rates. However, whether an acute neonatal Lm infection causes long-term effects on the immune system persisting until adulthood has not been fully elucidated. Here, we established a neonatal Lm infection model and monitored the composition of major immune cell subsets at defined time points post infection (p.i.) in secondary lymphoid organs and the intestine. Twelve weeks p.i., the CD8+ T cell population was decreased in colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) with an opposing increase in the spleen. In the colon, we observed an accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ effector/memory T cells with an increase of T-bet+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells. In addition, 12 weeks p.i. an altered composition of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) and dendritic cell (DC) subsets was still observed in colon and mLNs, respectively. Together, these findings highlight organ-specific long-term consequences of an acute neonatal Lm infection on both the adaptive and innate immune system.

Introduction

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium, which ubiquitously exists in the environment and can be spread by consumption of contaminated food [1]. For immunocompetent adults, the intestinal microbiota could markedly reduce the colonization of ingested Lm and prevent Lm dissemination [2]. Ingested Lm is thus usually trapped and cleared from the intestinal tract [3, 4]. However, neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunocompromised individuals are at a high risk of Lm infection with systemic dissemination [5, 6]. Upon ingestion of Lm in individuals from these risk groups, Lm penetrates through the intestinal epithelial barrier. Subsequent to the internalization into epithelial cells, Lm rapidly replicates, and invades into mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), spleen and liver, finally disseminating into the brain and placenta via systemic circulation [7–10].

Lm infection in pregnant mothers normally leads to nonspecific and mild maternal illness, but causes a stillbirth or acute neonatal Lm infection in offspring [11–13]. Lm infection in neonates is the third leading cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis [14] and is a major source of neonatal sepsis [11]. Neonatal listeriosis is a severe disease caused by neonatal Lm infection with a high fatality rate [15]. Based on the manifestation of the symptoms, neonatal listeriosis is subdivided into early onset disease (EOD) and late onset disease (LOD) [16]. EOD manifests within the first 6 days of life with precedent mild maternal symptoms, while neonates usually present clinical features including respiratory distress or pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis [17]. The mortality rate of EOD is about 20%, and the follow-up study revealed that 40% of surviving neonates suffered with severe neurological and developmental sequelae [18]. LOD manifests between day 7–28, and is typically diagnosed in term neonates with asymptomatic mothers [17, 19]. LOD patients usually suffer from septicemia and meningitis with an approximate mortality rate of 10% [16, 20]. After recovery from LOD, severe complications were frequently observed, including physical growth and mental retardation [17]. Although the neurological and developmental sequelae of neonatal listeriosis were already recognized in the 10-year follow-up study in the 1980s, the potential immunological sequelae of neonatal listeriosis is still incompletely understood.

Upon acute Lm infection, neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells and γδ T cells are mobilized to control the bacterial growth at the initial stage [21–24]. Meanwhile, Lm infection induces an adaptive immune response through both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, leading to a full clearance of Lm and the generation of a memory T cell pool [25–28].

Neonatal mice show a markedly increased susceptibility to Lm infection when compared to adult mice due to an insufficent induction of cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity accompanied with poor IFN-γ production [29]. Likewise, Lm-infected neonatal mice mount an impaired T helper 1 (Th1) response, likely due to the lower expression of critical Th1 response mediators, e.g., mannose-binding lectins and toll-like receptors [29].

Although the neonatal immune response against Lm was studied in detail [29], it has not been systematically investigated if neonatal Lm infection can cause long-term effects on the immune system that persist until adulthood. In the present study, we established a neonatal Lm infection model with 1-day-old neonates and analyzed infection-induced alterations in the composition of major T cell, dendritic cell (DC) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets at defined time points post infection (p.i.) in secondary lymphoid organs and the intestine. Interestingly, we could demonstrate organ-specific long-term consequences of neonatal Lm infection on both the adaptive and innate immune system that persisted as late as 12 weeks post infection, suggesting that acute neonatal infections can cause sustained changes within the immune system.

Materials and methods

Mouse strains

Foxp3hCD2xThy1.1 mice (BALB/c background) were bred and housed under specific pathogen-free conditions in isolated ventilated cages at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (Braunschweig, Germany).

Bacterial strains

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) strain 10403S was used throughout the study. Lm was inoculated and plated on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI, Roth) agar plates. After 18-h overnight culture at 37 °C, single colonies were picked and transferred to 5 mL BHI medium in 15 mL Falcon tube. Subsequently, the bacteria were cultured overnight at 200 rpm at 37 °C. The next day, bacteria were harvested for infections.

Infection

0-day- or 1-day-old newborn Foxp3hCD2xThy1.1 mice were intragastrically injected with different doses of Lm. Subsequently, the infected mice were monitored regularly and gain of body weight was documented. At different time points p.i., mice were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation, and organs were removed for analysis of bacterial burden and immune cell subset composition.

Bacterial burden analysis

At indicated time points p.i., mLNs, spleen, liver and stomach were isolated and placed into 15 mL Falcon tubes with 2 mL sterile PBS containing 0.2% (v/v) IGEPAL-CA 630 (Sigma-Aldrich). Organs were homogenized at 30,000 rpm for 30 s. To assess the bacterial burden in organs, serial dilutions of the homogenates were plated on BHI agar plates. After 20 h, the colony forming units (CFU) were counted as CFU per organ.

Cell isolation from organs

Single cell suspensions of splenocytes were prepared by meshing spleens through 30 μM cell strainers, followed by erythrocytes lysis. Single cell suspensions of lymph nodes (LNs) were prepared by enzyme-mediated digestion in RPMI 1640 medium (Gibco) containing 0.2 mg/mL DNase I (Roche), 0.2 mg/mL collagenase D (Roche) and 0.15 U/mL dispase (Roche) as described previously [30]. Colons were opened longitudinally and washed with PBS to remove feces. After two times incubation with PBS containing 5 mM EDTA buffer for 20 min at 37 °C, colons were cut into small pieces and digested in RPMI 1640 medium (Gibco) containing 0.1 mg/mL DNase I (Roche), 1 mg/mL collagenase D (Roche) and 0.1 U/mL dispase (Roche). After 1 h digestion at 37 °C, cells were centrifuged and subjected Percoll (GE Healthcare) gradient centrifugation (40%/80%, 780 g, 20 min, at room temperature with acceleration and brake off). Cells in the interphase layer were harvested, washed, and resuspended in PBS containing 0.2% bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma-Aldrich) buffer.

Antibodies and flow cytometry

Flow cytometric analysis was performed as described recently [31]. In brief, single-cell suspensions were labeled directly with the following fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies purchased from either BioLegend, BD Biosciences or eBioscience: anti-human CD2 (RPA-2.10 and TS118), anti-mouse CD3 (17A2), anti-mouse CD4 (RM4-5), anti-mouse CD8α (53-6.7), anti-mouse CD11c (N418), anti-mouse CD19 (6D5), anti-mouse CD44 (IM7), anti-mouse CD45 (30-F11), anti-mouse CD45R (RA3-6B2), anti-mouse CD62L (MEL-14), anti-mouse CD127 (A7R34), anti-mouse Gata3 (L50-823 and TWAJ), anti-mouse Gr1 (RB6-8C5), anti-mouse Ly6G (1A8), anti-mouse MHCII (M5/114.15.2), anti-mouse RORγt (Q31-378), anti-mouse T-bet (4B10) and anti-mouse Ter119 (TER-119). Live/Dead discrimination was carried out using LIVE/DEAD Fixable Blue Dead Cell Stain (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Surface staining was performed for 15 min on ice in PBS (Gibco) containing 0.2% BSA. Intracellular stainings for T-bet, Gata3 and RORγt were performed with the Foxp3/Transcription Factor Staining Buffer Set (eBioscience) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Flow cytometry samples were acquired at the LSR Fortessa flow cytometer with Diva software (BD Biosciences) and data were analyzed using FlowJo software (Tree Star). Absolute cell numbers were counted with the Accurri C6 Cytometer (Beckton Dickinson) (Supplementary Table 1).

Statistical analysis

Group sizes were estimated according to a presumed standard deviation (SD) and an expected type I error of <0.05. The sample size was adjusted, if required, based on initial results. For all figures, each data point represents a single mouse if not stated otherwise. Prism software (GraphPad) was utilized for statistical analysis and graphs. For comparison of unmatched groups, two-tailed Mann–Whitney test was applied. If comparing more than three groups one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post-test was used. All data are presented as mean or mean ± SD and P < 0.05 are considered as significant. ∗P < 0.05; ∗∗P < 0.01; ∗∗∗P < 0.001; ∗∗∗∗P < 0.0001.

Ethics

All animal experiments were conducted in compliance with the German animal protection law (TierSchG BGBl. I S. 1105; 25.05.1998). Animals were housed and handled in accordance with good animal practice as defined by FELASA and the national animal welfare body GV-SOLAS. All animal experiments were approved by the Lower Saxony Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments as well as the Lower Saxony State Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety under the permit number 33.19-42502-04-17/2489. All experiments were performed in accordance with the institutional, state, and federal guidelines.

Results

Establishment of a neonatal Lm infection model

To establish a neonatal Lm infection model, 0-day- or 1-day-old newborn mice were intragastrically infected with either 10, 20 or 100 CFU of Lm, and their survival and body weight were monitored regularly. 0-day-old newborns were highly susceptible to Lm infection, and already at the lowest infection dose succumbed within the first 4 days (Supplementary Figure 1A). 1-day-old mice were more resistant to Lm infection. They showed an approximately 80% survival rate at the infection dose of 20 CFU and 85% survival rate at 10 CFU, accompanied with a steady increase of body weight (Supplementary Figure 1A, B). However, infected newborns showed less body weight increase per day when compared to PBS-treated control mice within the first 4 days p.i., with the most dramatic reduction in relative gain of body weight occurring at day 3 (Supplementary Figure 1C). For all subsequent studies, 1-day-old mice were infected with 20 CFU of Lm since these conditions resulted in a clear manifestation of the pathological phenotype without severely compromising the survival rate. Firstly, we determined the bacterial colonization and dissemination in various organs during the course of the infection in the newly established neonatal Lm infection model. For quantification of the bacterial burden, liver, spleen, mLNs and stomach were collected from neonatally infected mice at 7 and 21 days p.i. 7 days p.i., Lm could be detected in spleen, liver, mLNs and stomach, demonstrating a systemic dissemination of Lm. Yet, already 21 days p.i. Lm was undetectable in spleen and liver (Fig. 1), indicating efficient clearance of Lm before weaning in this neonatal infection model.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Lm colonization and dissemination following intragastric administration. 1-day-old newborn Foxp3hCD2xThy1.1 (BALB/c) mice were intragastrically injected with 20 CFU of Lm. Seven days and 21 days p.i., mice were sacrificed for analysis of bacterial colonization and dissemination. Spleen, mLNs, stomach and liver were collected, homogenized and plated on BHI agar plates. CFU were counted and given as CFU per organ (n = 4–6/group from at least three litters). mLN, mesenteric lymph node; CFU, colony forming unit

Citation: European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology EuJMI 10, 2; 10.1556/1886.2020.00007

Long-term impact of neonatal Lm infection on major T cell populations

The immune response against neonatal Lm infection has been studied in detail [29]. Yet, the long-term impact of this neonatal perturbation on the immune status in adulthood has not been systematically analyzed, so far. Here, we utilized the newly established neonatal Lm infection model and firstly analyzed the composition of major T cell subsets 3, 6 and 12 weeks p.i. in colon, spleen, mLNs and skin-draining peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) by flow cytometric analysis (Supplementary Figure 2A). No significant changes were observed between neonatally infected mice and PBS-treated controls regarding the frequency of total CD3+ T cells among whole lymphocytes as well as the frequency of CD4+ T cells among CD3+ T cells in all organs at all indicated time points (Fig. 2A, B). Likewise, the frequency of CD8+ T cells among CD3+ T cells was comparable in all organs between infected groups and PBS-treated controls at 3 and 6 weeks p.i., suggesting that the T cell compartment is rather stable at these time points. Interestingly, when neonatally infected mice reached the age of 12 weeks, a significantly reduced frequency of CD8+ T cells was observed in colon and mLNs when compared to PBS-treated controls, while at the same time the frequency of CD8+ T cells was increased significantly in the spleen and showing a trend in pLNs (Fig. 2C). This finding suggests an age- and organ-specific impact of neonatal Lm infection on the CD8+ T cell population.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Long-lasting impact of neonatal Lm infection on the T cell compartment. 1-day-old newborn Foxp3hCD2xThy1.1 (BALB/c) mice were intragastrically injected with 20 CFU of Lm. Colon, spleen, mLN and pLN were collected and analyzed at indicated time points p.i. The frequencies of total CD3+ T cells among whole lymphocytes (A), CD4+ T cells among total CD3+ T cells (B) and CD8+ T cells among total CD3+ T cells (C) were plotted. Each dot represents a single mouse. Data were pooled from two to four independent experiments. *P < 0.05. mLN, mesenteric lymph node; pLN, peripheral lymph node. CFU, colony forming unit

Citation: European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology EuJMI 10, 2; 10.1556/1886.2020.00007

Having demonstrated that neonatal Lm infection has a long-term impact on the CD8+ T cell population, we next investigated whether the pool of effector/memory CD8+ T cells, characterized as CD44highCD62L cells (Supplementary Figure 2B), was long-lastingly altered upon neonatal Lm infection. While no gross changes were observed in the frequencies of CD8+ effector/memory T cells in spleen, mLNs and pLNs of neonatally infected mice when compared to PBS-treated controls at any time point p.i., we observed an increased frequency of CD44highCD62L CD8+ T cells in the colon of neonatally infected mice reaching statistical significance at the time points 6 and 12 weeks p.i. (Fig. 3A), suggesting long-lasting alterations within the pool of CD8+ effector/memory T cells in the intestine. The situation was slightly different for CD4+ effector/memory T cells, which were also characterized as CD44highCD62L cells (Supplementary Figure 2B). Here, we observed an age-dependent increase in the frequency of CD4+ effector/memory T cells in the colon and spleen of PBS-treated controls, which was further enhanced in the colon of neonatally infected mice at 12 weeks p.i. (Fig. 3B). This increase could not solely be explained by an accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), characterized by the expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 (Supplementary Figure 2C), as we did not observe any significant alterations in the frequency of Foxp3+ Tregs between neonatally infected mice and PBS-treated controls in any organ at any time point p.i. (Supplementary Figure 3A). Yet, 12-week-old neonatally infected mice displayed a significantly higher proportion of inflammatory Th1 cells, characterized as CD3+CD4+CD8T-bet+ cells (Supplementary Figure 2D), in the colon when compared to PBS-treated controls (Fig. 3C), while only subtle alterations were observed among CD4+ effector/memory T cells harboring a Th2 phenotype (characterized as CD3+CD4+CD8-Gata3+) in mLNs (Supplementary Figures 2D and 3B). Together, these data suggest that neonatal Lm infection has a long-term impact on the T cell compartment with the strongest alterations appearing in the colon.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Long-lasting impact of neonatal Lm infection on effector/memory T cells. 1-day-old newborn Foxp3hCD2xThy1.1 (BALB/c) mice were intragastrically injected with 20 CFU of Lm. Colon, spleen, mLN and pLN were collected and analyzed at indicated time points p.i. The frequencies of CD44highCD62L cells among CD8+ T cells (CD3+CD4CD8+) (A), CD44highCD62L cells among CD4+ T cells (CD3+CD4+CD8) (B) and T-bet+ (Th1) cells among CD4+ Tconv cells (CD3+CD4+CD8hCD2) (C) were plotted. Each dot represents a single mouse. Data were pooled from two to four independent experiments. *P < 0.05. mLN, mesenteric lymph node; pLN, peripheral lymph node. CFU, colony forming unit

Citation: European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology EuJMI 10, 2; 10.1556/1886.2020.00007

Long-lasting impact of neonatal Lm infection on the ILC compartment

Recent studies suggest that ILCs are essentially required to control early replication of Lm in the intestine and restrict dissemination of bacteria to peripheral tissues after oral infection in adult mice. In particular, ILC1 and ILC3 subsets respond to infection with proliferation and production of IFN-γ and IL-22, respectively [32, 33]. Here, we asked whether neonatal Lm infections can long-lastingly affect the ILC compartment within the colon and mLNs. When we first analyzed the frequency of total ILCs, characterized as CD45+CD3CD19CD11cGr1Ter119CD127+ cells (Supplementary Figure 4), among whole lymphocytes, no significant changes were observed between neonatally infected mice and PBS-treated controls in the colon at 3 and 6 weeks p.i. and in the mLNs at all time points (Fig. 4A). Interestingly, when neonatally infected mice reached the age of 12 weeks, the frequency of total ILCs within the colon increased significantly when compared to PBS-treated controls. This increase of total ILCs in neonatally infected mice at the late time point p.i. was accompanied by a significant reduction in the frequency of colonic ILC3s, characterized as CD45+CD3CD19CD11cGr1Ter119CD127+RORγt+ cells (Supplementary Figure 4), while no gross differences were observed within mLNs between neonatally infected mice and PBS-treated controls (Fig. 4B). Yet, we observed a slight, but significant increase in the frequency of ILC1s, characterized as CD45+CD3CD19CD11cGr1Ter119CD127+Tbet+ cells (Supplementary Figure 4), at 3 weeks p.i. in both colon and mLNs when neonatally infected mice were compared to PBS-treated controls, which likely still represents the acute response against the neonatal Lm infection as the difference disappeared during aging (Fig. 4C). Viewed as a whole, our finding suggests a long-term impact of neonatal Lm infection on the ILC compartment, resulting in an altered ILC subsets composition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Long-lasting impact of neonatal Lm infection on the ILC compartment. 1-day-old newborn Foxp3hCD2xThy1.1 (BALB/c) mice were intragastrically injected with 20 CFU of Lm. Colon and mLN were collected and analyzed at indicated time points p.i. The frequencies of total ILCs (CD45+CD3CD19CD11cGr1Ter119CD127+) among whole lymphocytes (A), RORγt+ cells (ILC3s) among total ILCs (B), and T-bet+ cells (ILC1s) among total ILCs (C) were plotted. Each dot represents a single mouse. Data were pooled from two to four independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05; ∗∗P < 0.01; ∗∗∗P < 0.001. mLN, mesenteric lymph node. CFU, colony forming unit

Citation: European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology EuJMI 10, 2; 10.1556/1886.2020.00007

Long-lasting impact of neonatal Lm infection on the DC compartment

DCs are known to play dual roles during Lm infection. On the one hand, they act as antigen-presenting cells, integrate signals derived from tissues and initiate T cell priming in secondary lymphoid organs in order to control the infections [34]. On the other hand, they may facilitate the establishment and dissemination of Lm due to their antigen-capturing and migratory properties [35]. Here, we aimed to dissect the potential long-term impact of an acute neonatal Lm infection on the composition of DC subsets, namely migratory DCs (MigDC, CD3CD45RLy6GMHCIIhighCD11c+) and resident DCs (ResDC, CD3CD45RLy6GMHCII+CD11chigh) (Supplementary Figure 5), in the gut-draining mLNs. Interestingly, while no differences in the frequencies of MigDCs and ResDCs were observed between neonatally infected mice and PBS-treated controls at 3 and 6 weeks p.i., an altered DC subset composition was observed at 12 weeks p.i. with an increase in the frequency of MigDCs and a decrease in the frequency of ResDCs when neonatally infected mice were compared to PBS-treated controls (Fig. 5). Together, our finding suggests that neonatal Lm infection has a long-term impact on the DC compartment, which is emerging only at late time points p.i.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Long-lasting impact of neonatal Lm infection on the DC compartment. 1-day-old newborn Foxp3hCD2xThy1.1 (BALB/c) mice were intragastrically injected with 20 CFU of Lm. mLNs were collected and analyzed at indicated time points p.i. The frequencies of MHCIIhighCD11c+ cells (MigDCs) (A) and MHCII+CD11chigh cells (ResDCs) (B) among MHCII+Lin cells were plotted. Each dot represents a single mouse. Data were pooled from two to four independent experiments. *P < 0.05. Lin: CD3+CD45R+Ly6G+. CFU, colony forming unit

Citation: European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology EuJMI 10, 2; 10.1556/1886.2020.00007

Discussion

Lm, a Gram-positive and food-borne bacterium, has a predilection to infect elderly and immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women and neonates. It can cause listeriosis especially in these vulnerable populations [1, 11] and clinical data demonstrated that Lm infection in neonates can drive sepsis or meningitis with high fatality rates [11]. Neonatal Lm infection models have been used previously to study the neonatal immune response against an acute bacterial challenge. Byun et al. have demonstrated that neonatal mice display an impaired Th1 response and an insufficient induction of CTL activity, which might contribute to the increased susceptibility of neonates to Lm infection [29]. Yet, in this model 5-day-old mice were infected with Lm which might omit the phenotype and consequences of EOD. In another model, 1-day-old mice were infected intranasally with Lm, but here the effects of the neonatal infection on the central nervous system were in the focus of this study [8]. Thus, the long-term consequences of neonatal Lm infection on the immune status in adulthood have not been systematically analyzed so far to the best of our knowledge.

In the present study, we established an acute neonatal Lm murine infection model with 1-day-old newborns by direct injection of Lm into the stomach to mimic the natural food-derived infection route, which results in a systemic dissemination of Lm to the mLNs, spleen and liver. Subsequently, we dissected the long-lasting consequences of neonatal Lm infection on major cell types of the immune system that were reported to be involved during Lm infection, namely T cells, ILCs and DCs [25–29, 32, 33, 35]. In line with the previously reported organ-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses upon Lm infection [36, 37], we observed long-term and organ-specific alterations in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartment upon neonatal Lm infection. However, these alterations were not restricted to the adaptive immune system as long-term changes were also observed within the ILC and DC compartment, indicating that likewise the innate immune system was long-lastingly affected after neonatal Lm infection. It is important to note that most of the long-term changes, particularly those within the ILC and DC compartment, occurred at the site of the infection, the colon and mLNs. These observations are in accordance with findings from a recently published study, in which an acute infection of adult mice with the gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis resulted in an altered intestinal immune status that persisted several months after pathogen clearance [38]. The authors demonstrated that sustained inflammation driven by signals derived from the microbiota caused a permanent remodeling of the mesentery and an increased lymphatic leakage in the mesenteric adipose tissue, finally deviating MigDCs to the adipose tissue and preventing them from entering the mLNs. As a consequence, these sequelae of a cured infection resulted in a long-lastingly impaired intestinal immune status, including tolerance and protective immunity [38]. It is tempting to speculate that similar mechanisms contribute to the formation of the “immunological scars” that were observed in the present study. However, one interesting difference between these two studies is apparent as in the neonatal Lm infection model several of the long-term changes, namely the reduced frequency of colonic CD8+ T cells, the increased frequency of splenic CD8+ T cells, the higher proportion of inflammatory Th1 cells and total ILCs in the colon that was accompanied by a decreased frequency of ILC3s, and the altered DC subset composition in the mLNs, solely appeared at the late time point p.i., in 12-week-old neonatally infected mice, and were not simply long-lastingly sustained after pathogen clearance. The molecular mechanisms underlying this late appearance of these alterations are unknown, but it is obvious that the neonatal period is not only highly vulnerable to the infection itself, but also to the acquisition of the long-term alterations. It is well known that during the very short so-called “neonatal window of opportunity” our immune system rapidly matures, the microbiome is stably established and the susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases in adulthood is fine-tuned [30, 39–41]. The Lm infection occurring within this neonatal period might directly interfere with these maturation and fine-tuning processes, thus finally leading to long-term consequences that appear later in life.

Our data highlight that acute neonatal Lm infections can induce long-term alterations in the immune system. However, whether these sustained immunological alterations will result in pathological outcomes or not needs to be elucidated in future studies. Yet, it is already known that some food-borne bacteria can lead to severe immunological sequelae. Campylobacter, the most common cause of gastroenteritis, can cause campylobacteriosis in humans, with a high incidence in children [42, 43]. The majority of patients recovers spontaneously within 7–10 days without any medical intervention, whereas a subgroup of patients can develop severe neurological, orthopedical and gastrointestinal sequelae with a latency of weeks to months p.i. [44]. Approximately 0.1% of Campylobacter-infected individuals develop Guillain-Barré syndrome, a serious autoimmune-mediated neurological disorder that occurs as a consequence of a cross-reaction of antibodies induced during the infection with the sugar moieties on nerve gangliosides in affected individuals [45, 46]. Meanwhile, Campylobacter infections were also associated with reactive arthritis, Reiter's Syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis [42, 44]. In addition to Campylobacter, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and Shigella can also drive the sequelae of reactive arthritis after recovery from acute infections [47, 48]. In the present study, we have observed elevated Th1 cells in colon 12 weeks p.i., however the antigen-specificity of these cells is unknown. Thus, it is tempting to speculate that these Th1 cells might contribute to the initiation of Crohn's disease, which is known to be mainly driven by Th1 cells, when mice get older. Viewed as a whole, the frequent long-term immunological alterations at the site of infection in the neonatal Lm infection model might pose a latent threat of immunological sequelae during aging, when the tightly balanced gastrointestinal immune system gets slightly dysregulated.

Funding sources

This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany's Excellence Strategy – EXC 2155 “RESIST” – Project ID 39087428 and via the priority project “Intestinal Microbiota – a Microbial Ecosystem at the Edge between Immune Homeostasis and Inflammation” (SPP1656), and was supported by the Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Zukunftsthema “Aging and Metabolic Reprogramming” (ZT-0026).

Authors' contribution

MZ and JH designed study and wrote the manuscript. MZ, JY and CW performed experiments and analyzed data. All authors had full access to all data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgment

We thank Maria Ebel for excellent technical support and Andreas Jeron for providing Lm.

Appendix A Supplementary data

Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://doi.org/10.1556/1886.2020.00007.

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    Madjunkov M, Chaudhry S, Ito S. Listeriosis during pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;296(2):14352.

  • 13.

    Goulet V, Hebert M, Hedberg C, Laurent E, Vaillant V, De Valk H, Incidence of Listeriosis and Related Mortality Among Groups at Risk of Acquiring Listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;54(5):65260.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    de Louvois J, Blackbourn J, Hurley R, Harvey D. Infantile meningitis in England and Wales: A two year study. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66(5):6037.

  • 15.

    Pucci L, Massacesi M, Liuzzi G. Clinical management of women with listeriosis risk during pregnancy: A review of national guidelines. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018;16(1):1321.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Posfay-Barbe KM, Wald ER. Listeriosis Seminars Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;14(4):22833.

  • 17.

    McLauchlin J. Human listeriosis in Britain, 1967-85, a summary of 722 cases. 1. Listeriosis during pregnancy and in the newborn. Epidemiol Infect. 1990;104(2):1819.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Sapuan S, Kortsalioudaki C, Anthony M, Chang J, Embleton ND, Geethanath RM, Neonatal listeriosis in the UK 2004–2014. J Infect. 2017;74(3):23642.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lamont RF, Sobel J, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kusanovic JP, Vaisbuch E, Kim SK, Listeriosis in human pregnancy: A systematic review. J Perinat Med. 2011;39(3):22736.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mateus T, Silva J, Maia RL, Teixeira P. Listeriosis during pregnancy: A public health concern. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2013:851712.

  • 21.

    Rogers HW, Unanue ER. Neutrophils are involved in acute, nonspecific resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice. Infect Immun. 1993;61(12):50906.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Bancroft GJ, Schreiber RD, Unanue ER. Natural Immunity: A T-Cell-Independent Pathway of Macrophage Activation, Defined in the scid Mouse. Immunol Rev. 1991;124(1):524.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Dunn PL, North RJ. Early gamma interferon production by natural killer cells is important in defense against murine listeriosis. Infect Immun. 1991;59(9):2892900.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Wherry JC, Schreiber RD, Unanue ER. Regulation of gamma interferon production by natural killer cells in scid mice: Roles of tumor necrosis factor and bacterial stimuli. Infect Immun. 1991;59(5):170915.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Geginat G, Lalic M, Kretschmar M, Goebel W, Hof H, Palm D, Th1 Cells Specific for a Secreted Protein of Listeria monocytogenes Are Protective In Vivo. J Immunol. 1998;160(12):604655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Marzo AL, Vezys V, Williams K, Tough DF, Lefrançois L. Tissue-level regulation of Th1 and Th2 primary and memory D4 T cells in response to Listeria infection. J Immunol. 2002;168(9):450410.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Harty JT, Bevan MJ. Responses of CD8+ T cells to intracellular bacteria. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999;11(1):8993.

  • 28.

    Pope C, Kim S-K, Marzo A, Williams K, Jiang J, Shen H, Organ-specific regulation of the CD8 T cell response to Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2001;166(5):34029.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Byun HJ, Jung WW, Lee JB, Chung HY, Sul D, Kim SJ, An evaluation of the neonatal immune system using a listeria infection model. Neonatology 2007;92(2):8390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Pezoldt J, Pasztoi M, Zou M, Wiechers C, Beckstette M, Thierry GR, Neonatally imprinted stromal cell subsets induce tolerogenic dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):3903.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Cossarizza A, Chang HD, Radbruch A, Acs A, Adam D, Adam-Klages S, Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies (second edition). Eur J Immunol. 2019;49(10):1457973.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Reynders A, Yessaad N, Vu Manh T-P, Dalod M, Fenis A, Aubry C, Identity, regulation and in vivo function of gut NKp46+RORγt+ and NKp46+RORγt- lymphoid cells. EMBO J. 2011;30(14):293447.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Dulson SJ, Watkins EE, Crossman DK, Harrington LE. STAT4 directs a protective innate lymphoid cell response to gastrointestinal infection. J Immunol. 2019:ji1900719.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Eisenbarth SC. Dendritic cell subsets in T cell programming: Location dictates function. Nat Rev Immunol. 2019;19(2):89103.

  • 35.

    Edelson BT. Dendritic Cells in Listeria monocytogenes Infection. In: Unanue ER , editors. Advanced Immunology. 113: Academic Press; 2012. p. 3349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Kursar M, Bonhagen K, Kohler A, Kamradt T, Kaufmann SH, Mittrucker HW. Organ-specific CD4+ T cell response during Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2002;168(12):63827.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Pope C, Kim S-K, Marzo A, Williams K, Jiang J, Shen H, Organ-specific regulation of the CD8 T cell response to Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2001;166(5):34029.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Fonseca DM, Hand TW, Han SJ, Gerner MY, Glatman Zaretsky A, Byrd AL, Microbiota-dependent sequelae of acute infection compromise tissue-specific immunity. Cell 2015;163(2):35466.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Renz H, Adkins BD, Bartfeld S, Blumberg RS, Farber DL, Garssen J, The neonatal window of opportunity-early priming for life. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(4):12124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Torow N, Hornef MW. The neonatal window of opportunity: Setting the stage for life-long host-microbial interaction and immune homeostasis. J Immunol. 2017;198(2):55763.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Cording S, Wahl B, Kulkarni D, Chopra H, Pezoldt J, Buettner M, The intestinal micro-environment imprints stromal cells to promote efficient Treg induction in gut-draining lymph nodes. Mucosal Immunol. 2014;7(2):35968.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Janssen R, Krogfelt KA, Cawthraw SA, van Pelt W, Wagenaar JA, Owen RJ. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(3):50518.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Zautner AE, Johann C, Strubel A, Busse C, Tareen AM, Masanta WO, Seroprevalence of campylobacteriosis and relevant post-infectious sequelae. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;33(6):101927.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Keithlin J, Sargeant J, Thomas MK, Fazil A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of Campylobacter cases that develop chronic sequelae. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1203.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Hughes RA, Cornblath DR. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Lancet 2005;366(9497):165366.

  • 46.

    Willison HJ. The immunobiology of Guillain-Barre syndromes. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2005;10(2):94112.

  • 47.

    Esan OB, Pearce M, van Hecke O, Roberts N, Collins DRJ, Violato M, Factors Associated with Sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections: A Systematic Review. EBioMedicine. 2017;15:10011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Ajene AN, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE. Enteric pathogens and reactive arthritis: A systematic review of Campylobacter, salmonella and Shigella-associated reactive arthritis. J Health Popul Nutr. 2013;31(3):299307.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1.

    Gray ML, Killinger AH. Listeria monocytogenes and listeric infections. Bacteriol Rev. 1966;30(2):30982.

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    Lecuit M. Human listeriosis and animal models. Microb Infect. 2007;9(10):12161225.

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    Pagelow D, Chhatbar C, Beineke A, Liu X, Nerlich A, van Vorst K, The olfactory epithelium as a port of entry in neonatal neurolisteriosis. Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):4269.

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    Lecuit M. Understanding how Listeria monocytogenes targets and crosses host barriers. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11(6):4306.

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    Gessain G, Tsai Y-H, Travier L, Bonazzi M, Grayo S, Cossart P, PI3-kinase activation is critical for host barrier permissiveness to Listeria monocytogenes. J Experiment Med. 2015;212(2):16583.

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  • 11.

    Okike IO, Lamont RF, Heath PT. Do we really need to worry about Listeria in newborn infants? Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(4):4056.

  • 12.

    Madjunkov M, Chaudhry S, Ito S. Listeriosis during pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;296(2):14352.

  • 13.

    Goulet V, Hebert M, Hedberg C, Laurent E, Vaillant V, De Valk H, Incidence of Listeriosis and Related Mortality Among Groups at Risk of Acquiring Listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;54(5):65260.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    de Louvois J, Blackbourn J, Hurley R, Harvey D. Infantile meningitis in England and Wales: A two year study. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66(5):6037.

  • 15.

    Pucci L, Massacesi M, Liuzzi G. Clinical management of women with listeriosis risk during pregnancy: A review of national guidelines. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018;16(1):1321.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Posfay-Barbe KM, Wald ER. Listeriosis Seminars Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;14(4):22833.

  • 17.

    McLauchlin J. Human listeriosis in Britain, 1967-85, a summary of 722 cases. 1. Listeriosis during pregnancy and in the newborn. Epidemiol Infect. 1990;104(2):1819.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Sapuan S, Kortsalioudaki C, Anthony M, Chang J, Embleton ND, Geethanath RM, Neonatal listeriosis in the UK 2004–2014. J Infect. 2017;74(3):23642.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lamont RF, Sobel J, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kusanovic JP, Vaisbuch E, Kim SK, Listeriosis in human pregnancy: A systematic review. J Perinat Med. 2011;39(3):22736.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mateus T, Silva J, Maia RL, Teixeira P. Listeriosis during pregnancy: A public health concern. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2013:851712.

  • 21.

    Rogers HW, Unanue ER. Neutrophils are involved in acute, nonspecific resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice. Infect Immun. 1993;61(12):50906.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Bancroft GJ, Schreiber RD, Unanue ER. Natural Immunity: A T-Cell-Independent Pathway of Macrophage Activation, Defined in the scid Mouse. Immunol Rev. 1991;124(1):524.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Dunn PL, North RJ. Early gamma interferon production by natural killer cells is important in defense against murine listeriosis. Infect Immun. 1991;59(9):2892900.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Wherry JC, Schreiber RD, Unanue ER. Regulation of gamma interferon production by natural killer cells in scid mice: Roles of tumor necrosis factor and bacterial stimuli. Infect Immun. 1991;59(5):170915.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Geginat G, Lalic M, Kretschmar M, Goebel W, Hof H, Palm D, Th1 Cells Specific for a Secreted Protein of Listeria monocytogenes Are Protective In Vivo. J Immunol. 1998;160(12):604655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Marzo AL, Vezys V, Williams K, Tough DF, Lefrançois L. Tissue-level regulation of Th1 and Th2 primary and memory D4 T cells in response to Listeria infection. J Immunol. 2002;168(9):450410.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Harty JT, Bevan MJ. Responses of CD8+ T cells to intracellular bacteria. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999;11(1):8993.

  • 28.

    Pope C, Kim S-K, Marzo A, Williams K, Jiang J, Shen H, Organ-specific regulation of the CD8 T cell response to Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2001;166(5):34029.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Byun HJ, Jung WW, Lee JB, Chung HY, Sul D, Kim SJ, An evaluation of the neonatal immune system using a listeria infection model. Neonatology 2007;92(2):8390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Pezoldt J, Pasztoi M, Zou M, Wiechers C, Beckstette M, Thierry GR, Neonatally imprinted stromal cell subsets induce tolerogenic dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):3903.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Cossarizza A, Chang HD, Radbruch A, Acs A, Adam D, Adam-Klages S, Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies (second edition). Eur J Immunol. 2019;49(10):1457973.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Reynders A, Yessaad N, Vu Manh T-P, Dalod M, Fenis A, Aubry C, Identity, regulation and in vivo function of gut NKp46+RORγt+ and NKp46+RORγt- lymphoid cells. EMBO J. 2011;30(14):293447.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Dulson SJ, Watkins EE, Crossman DK, Harrington LE. STAT4 directs a protective innate lymphoid cell response to gastrointestinal infection. J Immunol. 2019:ji1900719.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Eisenbarth SC. Dendritic cell subsets in T cell programming: Location dictates function. Nat Rev Immunol. 2019;19(2):89103.

  • 35.

    Edelson BT. Dendritic Cells in Listeria monocytogenes Infection. In: Unanue ER , editors. Advanced Immunology. 113: Academic Press; 2012. p. 3349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Kursar M, Bonhagen K, Kohler A, Kamradt T, Kaufmann SH, Mittrucker HW. Organ-specific CD4+ T cell response during Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2002;168(12):63827.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Pope C, Kim S-K, Marzo A, Williams K, Jiang J, Shen H, Organ-specific regulation of the CD8 T cell response to Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2001;166(5):34029.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Fonseca DM, Hand TW, Han SJ, Gerner MY, Glatman Zaretsky A, Byrd AL, Microbiota-dependent sequelae of acute infection compromise tissue-specific immunity. Cell 2015;163(2):35466.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Renz H, Adkins BD, Bartfeld S, Blumberg RS, Farber DL, Garssen J, The neonatal window of opportunity-early priming for life. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(4):12124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Torow N, Hornef MW. The neonatal window of opportunity: Setting the stage for life-long host-microbial interaction and immune homeostasis. J Immunol. 2017;198(2):55763.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Cording S, Wahl B, Kulkarni D, Chopra H, Pezoldt J, Buettner M, The intestinal micro-environment imprints stromal cells to promote efficient Treg induction in gut-draining lymph nodes. Mucosal Immunol. 2014;7(2):35968.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Janssen R, Krogfelt KA, Cawthraw SA, van Pelt W, Wagenaar JA, Owen RJ. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(3):50518.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Zautner AE, Johann C, Strubel A, Busse C, Tareen AM, Masanta WO, Seroprevalence of campylobacteriosis and relevant post-infectious sequelae. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;33(6):101927.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Keithlin J, Sargeant J, Thomas MK, Fazil A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of Campylobacter cases that develop chronic sequelae. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1203.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Hughes RA, Cornblath DR. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Lancet 2005;366(9497):165366.

  • 46.

    Willison HJ. The immunobiology of Guillain-Barre syndromes. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2005;10(2):94112.

  • 47.

    Esan OB, Pearce M, van Hecke O, Roberts N, Collins DRJ, Violato M, Factors Associated with Sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections: A Systematic Review. EBioMedicine. 2017;15:10011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Ajene AN, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE. Enteric pathogens and reactive arthritis: A systematic review of Campylobacter, salmonella and Shigella-associated reactive arthritis. J Health Popul Nutr. 2013;31(3):299307.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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Language: English

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Publication: One volume of four issues annually

Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 10. (Online Only)

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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dunay, Ildiko Rita

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Heimesaat, Markus M.

Vice Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fuchs, Anja

Editorial Board

Chair of the Editorial Board:
Jeffrey S. Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)

  • Jörn Albring (University of Münster, Germany)
  • Stefan Bereswill (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Dunja Bruder (University of Megdeburg, Germany)
  • Jan Buer (University of Duisburg, Germany)
  • Jeff Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)
  • Edit Buzas (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Charles Collyer (University of Sydney, Australia)
  • Renato Damatta (UENF, Brazil)
  • Ivelina Damjanova (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Maria Deli (Biological Research Center, HAS, Hungary)
  • Olgica Djurković-Djaković (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Jean-Dennis Docquier (University of Siena, Italy)
  • Anna Erdei (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna Fabry (University of Washington, USA)
  • Beniam Ghebremedhin (Witten/Herdecke University, Germany)
  • Nancy Guillen (Institute Pasteur, France)
  • Georgina L. Hold (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom)
  • Ralf Ignatius (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Zsuzsanna Izsvak (MDC-Berlin, Germany)
  • Achim Kaasch (University of Cologne, Germany)
  • Tamás Laskay (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Oliver Liesenfeld (Roche, USA)
  • Shreemanta Parida (Vaccine Grand Challenge Program, India)
  • Matyas Sandor (University of Wisconsin, USA)
  • Ulrich Steinhoff (University of Marburg, Germany)
  • Michal Toborek (University of Miami, USA)
  • Mary Jo Wick (University of Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • Susanne A. Wolf (MDC-Berlin, Germany)

 

Dr. Dunay, Ildiko Rita
Magdeburg, Germany
E-mail: ildikodunay@gmail.com
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