Authors:
Laura Alejandra Mendoza-Larios Instituto de Ciencias Forenses de la Ciudad de México, Avenida Niños Héroes 130, Colonia Doctores, Delegación Cuauhtémoc, 06720 Ciudad de México, Mexico

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Fernando García-Dolores Instituto de Ciencias Forenses de la Ciudad de México, Avenida Niños Héroes 130, Colonia Doctores, Delegación Cuauhtémoc, 06720 Ciudad de México, Mexico

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Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N. 34000 Durango, Mexico

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Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera Damm”, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Mexico

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Jesús Hernández-Tinoco Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N. 34000 Durango, Mexico

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Adriana Rocha-Salais Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N. 34000 Durango, Mexico

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Marcela Araceli Segoviano-Mendoza Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N. 34000 Durango, Mexico

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Antonio Sifuentes-Álvarez Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N. 34000 Durango, Mexico

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Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N. 34000 Durango, Mexico

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0367-6052
Open access

Abstract

We sought to determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection of the central nervous system and suicide in a sample of decedents in Mexico City. One hundred and forty-seven decedents (87 who committed suicide and 60 who did not commit suicide) were studied. Brain tissues (amygdala and prefrontal cortex) of decedents were examined for the detection of T. gondii using immunohistochemistry. Detection of T. gondii was positive in 7 (8.0%) of the 87 cases (6 found in prefrontal cortex and one in amygdala), and in one (1.7%) of the 60 controls (found in prefrontal cortex) (OR: 5.16; 95% CI: 0.61–43.10; P = 0.14). Results suggest that T. gondii infection in brain is not associated with suicide. Further studies to confirm this finding are needed.

Abstract

We sought to determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection of the central nervous system and suicide in a sample of decedents in Mexico City. One hundred and forty-seven decedents (87 who committed suicide and 60 who did not commit suicide) were studied. Brain tissues (amygdala and prefrontal cortex) of decedents were examined for the detection of T. gondii using immunohistochemistry. Detection of T. gondii was positive in 7 (8.0%) of the 87 cases (6 found in prefrontal cortex and one in amygdala), and in one (1.7%) of the 60 controls (found in prefrontal cortex) (OR: 5.16; 95% CI: 0.61–43.10; P = 0.14). Results suggest that T. gondii infection in brain is not associated with suicide. Further studies to confirm this finding are needed.

Introduction

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan [1]. This successful parasite cycles between definitive felid hosts and a broad range of intermediate hosts including humans [2]. Toxoplasmosis, the disease caused by T. gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of man and other warm-blooded animals [3]. It is estimated that 30% of the global human population is chronically infected by T. gondii [4]. In addition, T. gondii is a major problem for health economics in many countries [5]. Transmission of T. gondii usually occurs by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or by eating undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts [6]. Primary infection with T. gondii during pregnancy may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis [7]. Transmission of T. gondii may also occurs by organ transplantation [8], or blood transfusion [9]. Toxoplasmosis has a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes [10]. Infection with T. gondii is generally asymptomatic but some patients experience lymphadenitis [11], ocular disease or, in immunocompromised patients, a life-threatening encephalitis [6]. T. gondii is able to persist in the central nervous system in a variety of hosts including humans [12]. After infection, T. gondii persists as intraneuronal cysts that are controlled, but not eliminated by the immune system [13]. This parasite can modify the structure and function of neurons leading to specific behavioral changes in the host [14]. Neuroinflammation associated with T. gondii infection may contribute to depression and suicidal behavior [15]. In murine models, researchers have shown that type 1 innate lymphoid cells regulate the onset of T. gondii-induced neuroinflammation [16], and the immunoproteasome subunits LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 are crucial along the induction of cerebral toxoplasmosis [17]. Infection with T. gondii has been associated with schizophrenia [18, 19], mixed anxiety and depressive disorder [20], generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder [21], and aggression and impulsivity [22]. Furthermore, seropositivity to T. gondii has been associated with suicidal behavior. Several studies have demonstrated a higher frequency of T. gondii exposure in suicide attempters than in controls [23–25]. However, other studies have reported no association between T. gondii exposure and suicide attempts [26–27]. These studies have searched for the link between T. gondii exposure and suicidal behavior in live persons, but the link between T. gondii infection and completed suicide has been scarcely studied. Therefore, in the present study we sought to determine the association between T. gondii infection of the central nervous system and suicide.

Materials and methods

Study design

An age- and gender-matched case-control study was performed.

Study population

One hundred and forty-seven decedents of whom 87 had committed suicide (cases) and 60 had not died by suicide (controls) were included in the study. Cases were enrolled at the “Instituto de Ciencias Forenses” in Mexico City, Mexico from November 2015 to December 2016, whereas controls were enrolled at the same forensic Institute from January to December 2016. Decedent cases were included in the study if they had a forensic diagnosis of completed suicide. Age and gender were not restrictive criteria for enrollment. Decedent controls were included in the study if they had a forensic diagnosis of death by causes other than suicide. Of the 87 decedent cases studied, 67 were male and 20 were females. They were 10–90 years old (mean age: 34.8 ± 17.4 years). Of the 60 decedent controls studied, 49 were males and 11 were females. They were 8–75 years old (mean age: 31.7 ± 14.8 years). No statistically significant difference in gender (P = 0.49) or age (P = 0.25) between cases and controls was found. Autopsies were performed >12 h after death.

Detection of T. gondii in brain by immunohistochemistry

Brain tissues (amygdala and prefrontal cortex) of decedents were examined for detection of T. gondii using immunohistochemistry. Brain tissues were formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded sections were examined using the Tinto Detector Immuno DNA System equipment (Bio SB, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) and Digital Pressure Cooker, Model PC-2000 (Bio SB). The Mouse/Rabbit Immunodetector HRP/DAB (Bio SB) was used for immunohistochemistry. Paraffin-embedded 2 µm tissue sections were used for immunostaining. We used the primary antibody “T. gondii, rabbit polyclonal” (Bio SB) and the positive control “T. gondii positive control slides” (Bio SB). All assays were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. No information about the specificity of the polyclonal antibodies was included in the package insert. Slides were read by an anatomopathologist (author LFSA). A brown coloration of cysts or tachyzoites structural forms were considered positive results.

Statistical analysis

The software Epi Info version 7 and Microsoft Excel were used for the statistical analysis. Age of cases and controls were compared with the Student's t-test. The Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the frequencies of T. gondii in brain tissues between the groups. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Statistical significance was set at a P value <0.05.

Ethical aspects

This project was approved by the Ethical Committee of the “Instituto de Ciencias Forenses” in Mexico City (Reference Number: CEI-014-2016).

Results

Detection of T. gondii by immunohistochemistry was positive in 7 (8.0%) of the 87 decedent cases (6 found in prefrontal cortex and one in amygdala). Figure 1 shows T. gondii in brain (found in prefrontal cortex, case No. 25). Detection of T. gondii by immunohistochemistry was positive in 1 (1.7%) of the 60 decedent controls (found in prefrontal cortex, Fig. 2). No difference in the prevalence of T. gondii infection in brain by immunohistochemistry in cases and controls was found (OR: 5.16; 95% CI: 0.61–43.10; P = 0.14). Table 1 shows a stratification by age and gender and prevalence of T. gondii infection in brain by immunohistochemistry in cases and controls. No difference in prevalence rates of T. gondii infection in brain with respect to gender and age between cases and controls was found.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

T. gondii cysts in brain tissue (prefrontal cortex, case No. 25)

Citation: European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 13, 3; 10.1556/1886.2023.00033

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Free T. gondii tachyzoites in brain tissue (prefrontal cortex, control No. 8)

Citation: European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 13, 3; 10.1556/1886.2023.00033

Table 1.

Association between prevalence of T. gondii infection in the brain by immunohistochemistry and suicide: a stratification by gender and age groups

CharacteristicCasesControls95%

Confidence interval
P value
No.

tested
Positivity to T. gondiiNo.

tested
Positivity to T. gondii
No.%No.%OR
Gender
 Male6757.54912.03.870.43–34.240.39
 Female20210.01100.00.52
Age (years)
 ≤304212.43612.80.850.05–14.151.00
 31–5030516.71600.00.14
 >501516.7800.01.00
 All8778.06011.75.160.61–43.100.14

Discussion

The link between exposure to T. gondii and suicidal behavior has been examined in a number of epidemiological studies [23–28]. Those studies have been based on serological analysis of anti-T. gondii antibodies in live persons. However, to the best of our knowledge, studies of the link between T. gondii infection of the brain and suicide using an age- and gender-matched case-control study design of decedents have not been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the association between T. gondii infection of the brain and completed suicide in decedents received for postmortem examinations in a forensic institute in Mexico City. Controls were similar to cases with respect to age, gender, and forensic center. Our approach was examining the infection with T. gondii in two sites (prefrontal cortex and amygdala) of the brain of decedents using immunohistochemistry. We found that persons who died by suicide had a somewhat higher, but not statistically significant, prevalence of T. gondii infection of the brain detected by immunohistochemistry than persons who died by causes other than suicide. Our findings thus suggest that infection with T. gondii in the central nervous system is not associated with completed suicide. We are not aware of another study about the association of suicide and T. gondii infection in brain detected by immunohistochemistry and therefore, we cannot compare our results with others of similar studies. There are few studies that have linked completed suicide to T. gondii seroprevalence rates. In a study about the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in people who died due to sudden dead in Poland, a significantly higher T. gondii seroprevalence in suicide cases aged 38–58 years than in controls was found [29]. Suicide rates were positively associated with T. gondii seroprevalence rates in postmenopausal women of 20 European countries [30]. Comparison of results of such studies with the ones found in our study should be interpreted with care since different biological samples among the studies were analyzed. We examined prefrontal cortex and amygdala because these brain sites have been found consistently infected with T. gondii in experimentally infected mice [31, 32]. In addition, these brain sites are involved in clinical outcomes of T. gondii infection. For instance, infection of cortex and amygdala resulted in memory impairment in mice [33], and infection in amygdala was linked to reduced predator aversion in rats [34]. Furthermore, the amygdala and prefrontal cortex form a circuit implicated in emotion regulation, the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder, and might be related to the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior since structural and functional abnormalities in these brain sites were demonstrated in patients with major depressive disorder and suicide attempts [35]. Little is known about the distribution of T. gondii in brain in humans using immunohistochemistry. We selected a sample of prefrontal cortex because the frontal lobe of brain has been successfully used to detect T. gondii in humans by immunohistochemistry [36]. T. gondii can also be found in choroid plexus by immunohistochemistry [36]. In a study of postmortem examinations of 17 AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis, choroid plexus infection was found in 53% of all cases by immunohistochemistry [37]. The precise location of T. gondii in brain in humans is limited, and a study of 102 autopsy cases on the presence of parasite DNA in four regions of the brain showed no specific distribution [38]. The choroid plexus might be an important location for detection of T. gondii. Experiments in mice have shown a close interaction between T. gondii infection at the choroid plexus and the impairment of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function indicating that infection-related neuroinflammation is initiated in the choroid plexus [39]. In a recent study of decedents, we found no association between completed suicide and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in serum [40]. In the present study, we assessed this association beyond seropositivity by analyzing the presence of T. gondii directly in the central nervous system using immunohistochemistry in brain samples. To the best of our knowledge, this strategy has not been used in case-control studies of suicide decedents. In a cross-sectional study of decedents who committed suicide, we found an association between a history of depression and T. gondii infection in brain using immunohistochemistry [41]. Therefore, it is possible that the association between T. gondii infection in brain and completed suicide, albeit no currently observed in general in the present study, might be found in subsets of decedents with a history of clinical conditions including depression. The frequency of T. gondii infection in brain of decedents by immunohistochemistry found in the present study is lower than the 31% T. gondii seroprevalence reported in the population in Mexico City by indirect immunofluorescence [42].

We cannot rule out a link between suicide and T. gondii infection because our study have some limitations: 1) the sample size was small; 2) we examined only two brain sites by immunohistochemistry; and 3) we did not use other laboratory tests for increasing the sensitivity of detection of T. gondii infection in brain including molecular assays. Therefore, the lack of association between completed suicide and infection with T. gondii in brain found in our study should be confirmed in other studies with large sample sizes, examination of several brain sites, and using a diversity of tests for detection of T. gondii in brain. In addition, studies using not only qualitative tests but also quantitative tests for detection of T. gondii in brain to determine the association between suicide and T. gondii infection should be conducted.

Conclusions

Results suggest that T. gondii infection in brain is not associated with suicide. Further studies to confirm this finding are needed.

Funding

This research study was funded by Juárez University of Durango State, Mexico.

Authors contributions

LAML and FGD obtained samples and data of the study population. LFSA read the immunohistochemistry slices. EIAS performed the immunohistochemistry tests. JHT and LFSA obtained funding. JHT, ARS, MAS, ASA and CAE performed the data analysis. CAE performed study concept and design, laboratory tests, analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, and wrote the manuscript.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.

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    Figueiredo CA, Steffen J, Morton L, Arumugam S, Liesenfeld O, Deli MA, et al. Immune response and pathogen invasion at the choroid plexus in the onset of cerebral toxoplasmosis. J Neuroinflammation. 2022 Jan 13;19(1):17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02370-1.

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    Mendoza-Larios LA, García-Dolores F, Sánchez-Anguiano LF, Hernández-Tinoco J, Alvarado-Esquivel C. Association between suicide and Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity. Pathogens. 2021 Aug 27;10(9):1094. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091094.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel C, Mendoza-Larios LA, García-Dolores F, Sánchez-Anguiano LF, Antuna-Salcido EI, Hernández-Tinoco J, et al. Association between Toxoplasma gondii infection in brain and a history of depression in suicide decedents: a cross-sectional study. Pathogens. 2021 Oct 13;10(10):1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101313.

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  • 42.

    Velasco-Castrejón O, Salvatierra-Izaba B, Valdespino JL, Sedano-Lara AM, Galindo-Virgen S, Magos C, et al. Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en México [Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Mexico]. Salud Publica Mex. 1992 Mar-Apr;34(2):2229.

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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dunay, Ildiko Rita

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Heimesaat, Markus M.

Editorial Board

  • Berit Bangoura (University of Wyoming, USA)
  • Stefan Bereswill (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Dunja Bruder (University of Magdeburg, Germany)
  • Jan Buer (University of Duisburg, Germany)
  • Edit Buzas (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Renato Damatta (UENF, Brazil)
  • Maria Deli (Biological Research Center, HAS, Hungary)
  • Olgica Djurković-Djaković (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Jean-Dennis Docquier (University of Siena, Italy)
  • Zsuzsanna Fabry (University of Washington, USA)
  • Ralf Ignatius (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Achim Kaasch (Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany)
  • Oliver Liesenfeld (Roche, USA)
  • Matyas Sandor (University of Wisconsin, USA)
  • Ulrich Steinhoff (University of Marburg, Germany)
  • Michal Toborek (University of Miami, USA)
  • Susanne A. Wolf (MDC-Berlin, Germany)

 

Dr. Dunay, Ildiko Rita
Magdeburg, Germany
E-mail: ildiko.dunay@med.ovgu.de

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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
717
Journal Impact Factor 2.2
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n/a

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
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5 Year
Impact Factor
2.8
Journal Citation Indicator 0.66
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Immunology and Allergy (Q3)
Immunology (Q3)
Scopus  
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Microbiology (medical) 28/124 (77th PCTL)
Immunology and Allergy 63/211 (70th PCTL)
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1.221

 

2021  
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WoS
790
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5 Year
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2020  
CrossRef Documents 23
WoS Cites 708
Wos H-index 27
Days from submission to acceptance 219
Days from acceptance to publication 176
Acceptance Rate 70%

2019  
WoS
Cites
558
CrossRef
Documents
24
Acceptance
Rate
92%

 

European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
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Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-509X (Print)
ISSN 2062-8633 (Online)

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