View More View Less
  • 1 German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute Hamburg Germany
  • | 2 University of Rostock Hospital Institute of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene Rostock Germany
  • | 3 German Armed Forces Hospital of Ulm Department of Internal Medicine Ulm Germany
  • | 4 German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute Bernhard-Nocht-Strasse 74 D-20359 Hamburg Germany
Open access

The objective of this paper was to investigate whether retrospective pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates at two-year intervals is suitable and sufficient to demonstrate changes in the clonal composition of MRSA isolates and to identify previously undetected local outbreaks. PFGE patterns of 400 MRSA isolates were collected between 2004 and 2008 at the University of Rostock Hospital in Germany, and were used to assess the prevalence of MRSA clones at different time points. Only minor changes were detected. The combined analysis of all isolates that were collected per year reduced the time needed to perform this laborious procedure. The retrospective identification of outbreaks may require shorter intervals. Improved infection prevention and control measures prevented further outbreaks in previously affected hospital departments. In conclusion, PGFE at two-year intervals is sufficient to detect changes in the clonal composition of local MRSA isolates. If time for identification is important during outbreak investigations, more rapid methods with a similarly high discriminatory power such as spa typing should be used.

  • Gastmeier P, Witte W, Kola A, Mattner F, Vonberg RP, Ziesing S, Suerbaum S, Reischl U, Weist K, Wendt C: Management of MRSA Screening. Epi Bull 42, 385–389 (2005) [Article in German]

    Wendt C. , 'Management of MRSA Screening ' (2005 ) 42 Epi Bull : 385 -389.

  • Struelens MJ, Deplano A, Godard C, Maes N, Serruys E: Epidemiologic typing and delineation of genetic relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 30, 2599–2605 (1992)

    Serruys E. , 'Epidemiologic typing and delineation of genetic relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ' (1992 ) 30 J Clin Microbiol : 2599 -2605.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Winters MA, Goering RV, Boon SE, Morin R, Sorensen M, Snyder L: Epidemiological analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus comparing plasmid typing with chromosomal analysis by field inversion gel electrophoresis. Med Microbiol Lett 2, 33–41 (1993)

    Snyder L. , 'Epidemiological analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus comparing plasmid typing with chromosomal analysis by field inversion gel electrophoresis ' (1993 ) 2 Med Microbiol Lett : 33 -41.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tenover FC, Arbeit RD, Goering RV, Mickelsen PA, Murray BE, Persing DH, Swaminathan B: Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol 33, 2233–2239 (1995)

    Swaminathan B. , 'Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing ' (1995 ) 33 J Clin Microbiol : 2233 -2239.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Trindade PA, McCulloch JA, Oliveira GA, Mamizuka EM: Molecular techniques for MRSA typing: current issues and perspectives. Braz J Infect Dis 7, 32–43 (2003)

    Mamizuka E.M. , 'Molecular techniques for MRSA typing: current issues and perspectives ' (2003 ) 7 Braz J Infect Dis : 32 -43.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weller TM: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus typing methods: which should be the international standard? J Hosp Infect 44, 160–172 (2000)

    Weller T.M. , 'Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus typing methods: which should be the international standard? ' (2000 ) 44 J Hosp Infect : 160 -172.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wildemauwe C, De Brouwer D, Godard C, Buyssens P, Dewit J, Joseph R, Vanhoof R: The use of spa and phage typing for characterization of a MRSA population in a Belgian hospital: comparison between 2002 and 2007. Pathol Biol (Paris) 58, 70–72 (2010)

    Vanhoof R. , 'The use of spa and phage typing for characterization of a MRSA population in a Belgian hospital: comparison between 2002 and 2007 ' (2010 ) 58 Pathol Biol (Paris) : 70 -72.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schwarz DC, Cantor CR: Separation of yeast chromosomesized DNAs by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis. Cell 37, 67–75 (1984)

    Cantor C.R. , 'Separation of yeast chromosomesized DNAs by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis ' (1984 ) 37 Cell : 67 -75.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Strandén A, Frei R, Widmer AF: Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: can PCR replace pulsed-field gel electrophoresis? J Clin Microbiol 41, 3181–3186 (2003)

    Widmer A.F. , 'Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: can PCR replace pulsed-field gel electrophoresis? ' (2003 ) 41 J Clin Microbiol : 3181 -3186.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ross TL, Merz WG, Farkosh M, Carroll KC: Comparison of an automated repetitive sequence-based PCR microbial typing system to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for analysis of outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 43, 5642–5647 (2005)

    Carroll K.C. , 'Comparison of an automated repetitive sequence-based PCR microbial typing system to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for analysis of outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ' (2005 ) 43 J Clin Microbiol : 5642 -5647.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shutt CK, Pounder JI, Page SR, Schaecher BJ, Woods GL: Clinical evaluation of the DiversiLab microbial typing system using repetitive-sequence-based PCR for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Clin Microbiol 43, 1187–1192 (2005)

    Woods G.L. , 'Clinical evaluation of the DiversiLab microbial typing system using repetitive-sequence-based PCR for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains ' (2005 ) 43 J Clin Microbiol : 1187 -1192.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Malachowa N, Sabat A, Gniadkowski M, Krzyszton-Russjan J, Empel J, Miedzobrodzki J, Kosowska-Shick K, Appelbaum PC, Hryniewicz W: Comparison of multiple-locus variablenumber tandem-repeat analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing for clonal characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. J Clin Microbiol 43, 3095–3100 (2005)

    Hryniewicz W. , 'Comparison of multiple-locus variablenumber tandem-repeat analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing for clonal characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates ' (2005 ) 43 J Clin Microbiol : 3095 -3100.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tenover FC, Vaughn RR, McDougal LK, Fosheim GE, McGowan JE Jr: Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Clin Microbiol 45, 2215–2219 (2007)

    McGowan J.E. , 'Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains ' (2007 ) 45 J Clin Microbiol : 2215 -2219.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pourcel C, Hormigos K, Onteniente L, Sakwinska O, Deurenberg RH, Vergnaud G: Improved multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay for Staphylococcus aureus genotyping, providing a highly informative technique together with strong phylogenetic value. J Clin Microbiol 47, 3121–3128 (2009)

    Vergnaud G. , 'Improved multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay for Staphylococcus aureus genotyping, providing a highly informative technique together with strong phylogenetic value ' (2009 ) 47 J Clin Microbiol : 3121 -3128.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Enright MC, Day NPJ, Davies CE, Peacock SJ, Spratt BG: Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 38, 1008–1015 (2000)

    Spratt B.G. , 'Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus ' (2000 ) 38 J Clin Microbiol : 1008 -1015.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hallin M, Friedrich AW, Struelens MJ: spa typing for epidemiological surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Mol Biol 551, 189–202 (2009)

    Struelens M.J. , 'spa typing for epidemiological surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus ' (2009 ) 551 Methods Mol Biol : 189 -202.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Narukawa M, Yasuoka A, Note R, Funada H: Sequence-based spa typing as a rapid screening method for the areal and nosocomial outbreaks of MRSA. Tohoku J Exp Med 218, 207–213 (2009)

    Funada H. , 'Sequence-based spa typing as a rapid screening method for the areal and nosocomial outbreaks of MRSA ' (2009 ) 218 Tohoku J Exp Med : 207 -213.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Petersson AC, Olsson-Liljequist B, Miörner H, Hæggman S: Evaluating the usefulness of spa typing, in comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, for epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low-prevalence region in Sweden 2000–2004. Clin Microbiol Infect 16, 456–462 (2010)

    Hæggman S. , 'Evaluating the usefulness of spa typing, in comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, for epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low-prevalence region in Sweden 2000–2004 ' (2010 ) 16 Clin Microbiol Infect : 456 -462.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Basset P, Senn L, Pred’hom G, Bille J, Fracnioli P, Zanetti G, Blanc DS: Usefulness of double locus sequence typing (DLST) for regional and international epidemiological surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 16, 1289–1296 (2010)

    Blanc D.S. , 'Usefulness of double locus sequence typing (DLST) for regional and international epidemiological surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ' (2010 ) 16 Clin Microbiol Infect : 1289 -1296.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McDonald M, Dougall A, Holt D, Huygens F, Oppedisano F, Giffard PM, Inman-Bamber J, Stephens AJ, Towers R, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ: Use of a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping system to demonstrate the unique epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in remote aboriginal communities. J Clin Microbiol 44, 3720–3727 (2006)

    Currie B.J. , 'Use of a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping system to demonstrate the unique epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in remote aboriginal communities ' (2006 ) 44 J Clin Microbiol : 3720 -3727.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stephens AJ, Huygens F, Inman-Bamber J, Price EP, Nimmo GR, Schooneveldt J, Munckhof W, Giffard PM: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotyping using a small set of polymorphisms. J Med Microbiol 55, 43–51 (2006)

    Giffard P.M. , 'Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotyping using a small set of polymorphisms ' (2006 ) 55 J Med Microbiol : 43 -51.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aguiar-Alves F, Medeiros F, Fernandes O, Gudziki Pereira RM, Perdreau-Remington F, Riley LW: New Staphylococcus aureus genotyping method based on exotoxin (set) genes. J Clin Microbiol 44, 2728–2732 (2006)

    Riley L.W. , 'New Staphylococcus aureus genotyping method based on exotoxin (set) genes ' (2006 ) 44 J Clin Microbiol : 2728 -2732.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Huygens F, Inman-Bamber J, Nimme GR, Munckhof W, Schooneveldt J, Harrison B, McMahon JA, Giffard PM: Staphylococcus aureus genotyping using novel real-time PCR formats. J Clin Microbiol 44, 3712–3719 (2006)

    Giffard P.M. , 'Staphylococcus aureus genotyping using novel real-time PCR formats ' (2006 ) 44 J Clin Microbiol : 3712 -3719.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nübel U, Roumagnac P, Feldkamp M, Song JH, Ko KS, Huang YC, Coombs G, Ip M, Westh H, Skov R, Struelens MJ, Goering RV, Strommenger B, Weller A, Witte W, Achtman M: Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 14130–14135 (2008)

    Achtman M. , 'Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ' (2008 ) 105 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A : 14130 -14135.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chaberny IF, Bindseil A, Sohr D, Gastmeier P: A point-prevalence study for MRSA in a German university hospital to identify patients at risk and to evaluate an established admission screening procedure. Infection 36, 526–532 (2008)

    Gastmeier P. , 'A point-prevalence study for MRSA in a German university hospital to identify patients at risk and to evaluate an established admission screening procedure ' (2008 ) 36 Infection : 526 -532.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pfingsten-Würzburg S, Pieper DH, Bautsch W, Probst-Kepper M: Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing home residents in northern Germany. J Hosp Infect 78, 108–112 (2011)

    Probst-Kepper M. , 'Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing home residents in northern Germany ' (2011 ) 78 J Hosp Infect : 108 -112.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ghebremedhin B, König B, Witte W, Hardy KJ, Hawkey PM, König B: Subtyping of ST22-MRSA-IV (Barnim epidemic MRSA strain) at a university clinic in Germany from 2002 to 2005. J Med Microbiol 56, 365–375 (2007)

    König B. , 'Subtyping of ST22-MRSA-IV (Barnim epidemic MRSA strain) at a university clinic in Germany from 2002 to 2005 ' (2007 ) 56 J Med Microbiol : 365 -375.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Monecke S, Jatzwauk L, Weber S, Slickers P, Ehricht R: DNA microarray-based genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Eastern Saxony. Clin Microbiol Infect 14, 534–545 (2008)

    Ehricht R. , 'DNA microarray-based genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Eastern Saxony ' (2008 ) 14 Clin Microbiol Infect : 534 -545.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Deurenberg RH, Nulens E, Valvatne H, Sebastian S, Diessen C, Craeghs J, De Brauwer E, Heising B, Kraat YJ, Riebe J, Stals FS, Trienekens TA, Scheres J, Friedrich AW, van Tiel FH, Beisser PS, Stobberingh EE: Cross-border dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin region. Emerg Infect Dis 15, 727–734 (2009)

    Stobberingh E.E. , 'Cross-border dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin region ' (2009 ) 15 Emerg Infect Dis : 727 -734.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Köck R, Brakensiek L, Mellmann A, Kipp F, Henderikx M, Harmsen D, Daniels-Haardt I, von Eiff C, Becker K, Hendrix MG, Friedrich AW: Cross-border comparison of the admission prevalence and clonal structure of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Hosp Infect 71, 320–326 (2009)

    Friedrich A.W. , 'Cross-border comparison of the admission prevalence and clonal structure of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ' (2009 ) 71 J Hosp Infect : 320 -326.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nulens E, Stobberingh EE, Smeets E, van Dessel H, Welling MA, Sebastian S, van Tiel FH, Beisser PS, Deurenberg RH: Genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital in The Netherlands between 2002 and 2006. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28, 631–639 (2009)

    Deurenberg R.H. , 'Genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital in The Netherlands between 2002 and 2006 ' (2009 ) 28 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis : 631 -639.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Krziwanek K, Luger C, Sammer B, Stumvoll S, Stammler M, Sagel U, Witte W, Mittermayer H: MRSA in Austria — an overview. Clin Microbiol Infect 14, 250–259 (2008)

    Mittermayer H. , 'MRSA in Austria — an overview ' (2008 ) 14 Clin Microbiol Infect : 250 -259.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fenner L, Widmer AF, Dangel M, Frei R: Distribution of spa types among meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates during a 6 year period at a low-prevalence University Hospital. J Med Microbiol 57, 612–616 (2008)

    Frei R. , 'Distribution of spa types among meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates during a 6 year period at a low-prevalence University Hospital ' (2008 ) 57 J Med Microbiol : 612 -616.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Strommenger B, Kettlitz C, Weniger T, Harmsen D, Friedrich AW, Witte W: Assignment of Staphylococcus isolates to groups by spa typing, SmaI marcorestriction analysis, and multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 44, 2533–2540 (2006)

    Witte W. , 'Assignment of Staphylococcus isolates to groups by spa typing, SmaI marcorestriction analysis, and multilocus sequence typing ' (2006 ) 44 J Clin Microbiol : 2533 -2540.

    • Search Google Scholar
The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.
 

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dunay, Ildiko Rita

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Heimesaat, Markus M.

Vice Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fuchs, Anja

Editorial Board

Chair of the Editorial Board:
Jeffrey S. Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)

  • Jörn Albring (University of Münster, Germany)
  • Stefan Bereswill (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Dunja Bruder (University of Megdeburg, Germany)
  • Jan Buer (University of Duisburg, Germany)
  • Jeff Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)
  • Edit Buzas (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Charles Collyer (University of Sydney, Australia)
  • Renato Damatta (UENF, Brazil)
  • Ivelina Damjanova (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Maria Deli (Biological Research Center, HAS, Hungary)
  • Olgica Djurković-Djaković (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Jean-Dennis Docquier (University of Siena, Italy)
  • Anna Erdei (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna Fabry (University of Washington, USA)
  • Beniam Ghebremedhin (Witten/Herdecke University, Germany)
  • Nancy Guillen (Institute Pasteur, France)
  • Georgina L. Hold (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom)
  • Ralf Ignatius (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Zsuzsanna Izsvak (MDC-Berlin, Germany)
  • Achim Kaasch (University of Cologne, Germany)
  • Tamás Laskay (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Oliver Liesenfeld (Roche, USA)
  • Shreemanta Parida (Vaccine Grand Challenge Program, India)
  • Matyas Sandor (University of Wisconsin, USA)
  • Ulrich Steinhoff (University of Marburg, Germany)
  • Michal Toborek (University of Miami, USA)
  • Mary Jo Wick (University of Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • Susanne A. Wolf (MDC-Berlin, Germany)

 

Dr. Dunay, Ildiko Rita
Magdeburg, Germany
E-mail: ildikodunay@gmail.com

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • PubMed Central
  • Scopus
  • ESCI
  • CABI

 

2020  
CrossRef Documents 23
WoS Cites 708
Wos H-index 27
Days from submission to acceptance 219
Days from acceptance to publication 176
Acceptance Rate 70%

2019  
WoS
Cites
558
CrossRef
Documents
24
Acceptance
Rate
92%

 

European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 928 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Purchase per Title  

European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-509X (Print)
ISSN 2062-8633 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2021 0 2 1
Sep 2021 0 1 0
Oct 2021 0 4 1
Nov 2021 0 3 3
Dec 2021 0 4 2
Jan 2022 0 0 0
Feb 2022 0 0 0