View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2 Institute for Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock, Germany
  • 3 Institute for Microbiology of the German Armed Forces, Munich, Germany
Restricted access


A reliable and complete inactivation is an indispensable premise for any concentration of rickettsiae or for the development of diagnostic strategies based on their antigens. This study deals with the testing of methods to inactivate rickettsiae.

Rickettsia honei was used as a model organism. The inactivating potency of formalin, Qiagen® antiviral lysozyme (AVL) buffer, heating to 56 °C, and β-propiolactone was analyzed in cell culture.

The inactivation limits for rickettsiae were 0.1% formalin about 10 min, Qiagen AVL buffer about 5 min, 56 °C about 5 min, 0.125% β-propiolactone about 1 h, and 0.0125% β-propiolactone overnight. The interpretation was limited by cytotoxic effects of the inactivation procedures and by the culturally achievable rickettsial density in the cell culture supernatants that were used for the inactivation experiments.

Reliable modes of inactivation were identified, allowing for the secure handling of rickettsial antigens for diagnostic purposes.

  • 1. P Parola CD Paddock D Raoult 2005 Tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts Clin Microbiol Rev 18 719 756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. D Raoult V Roux 1997 Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases Clin Microbiol Rev 10 694 719.

  • 3. EL Palmer LP Mallavia T Tzianabos JF Obijeski 1974 Electron microscopy of the cell wall of Rickettsia prowazeki J Bacteriol 118 1158 1166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. GA Dasch E Weiss 1977 Characterization of the Madrid E strain of Rickettsia prowazekii purified by renografin density gradient centrifugation Infect Immun 15 280 286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. B La Scola L Rydkina JB Ndihokubwayo S Vene D Raoult 2000 Serological differentiation of murine typhus and epidemic typhus using cross-adsorption and western blotting Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 7 612 616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. JJ Marzinez P Cossart 2004 Early signaling events involved in the entry of Rickettsia conorii into mammalian cells J Cell Sci 117 5097 5106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. M Ishikura H Fujita S Ando K Matsuura M Watanabe 2002 Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from ticks in Japan Microbiol Immunol 46 241 247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. K Nilsson O Lindquist AJ Liu TGT Jaenson GR Friman C Pahlson 1999 Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Sweden J Clin Microbiol 37 400 403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. W Pornwiroon WW Pourciau LD Foil KR Macaluso 2006 Rickettsia felis from cat fleas: isolation and culture in a tick-derived cell line Appl Environ Microbiol 72 5589 5595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. D Raoult B La Scola M Enea PE Fournier V Roux F Fenollar MAM Galvao X de Lamballerie 2001 A flea-associated rickettsia pathogenic for humans Emerg Infect Dis 7 73 81.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. DJ Kelly CT Chan H Paxton K Thompson R Howard GA Dasch 1995 Comparative evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay for the detection of human antibody to Rickettsia typhi Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2 356 360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. MJ Ball 1987 Effect of two disinfectant treatments on laboratory analyses J R Soc Med 80 482 484.

  • 13. A Brown A Consigli J Zabielski R Weil 1974 Effect of beta-propiolactone inactivation of polyoma virus on viral functions J Virol 14 840 845.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. R Wölfel R Terzioglu J Kiessling S Wilhelm S Essbauer M Pfeffer G Dobler 2006 Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Bavaria, Germany Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078 509 511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.



Language: English

Founded in 2011
Publication: One volume of four issues annually

Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 10. (Online Only)

Article Processing Charge: EUR 600.00 (for discounts see the Open Access menu)

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • PubMed Central
  • ESCI

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dunay, Ildiko Rita

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Heimesaat, Markus M.

Vice Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fuchs, Anja

Editorial Board

Chair of the Editorial Board:
Jeffrey S. Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)

  • Jörn Albring (University of Münster, Germany)
  • Stefan Bereswill (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Dunja Bruder (University of Megdeburg, Germany)
  • Jan Buer (University of Duisburg, Germany)
  • Jeff Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)
  • Edit Buzas (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Charles Collyer (University of Sydney, Australia)
  • Renato Damatta (UENF, Brazil)
  • Ivelina Damjanova (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Maria Deli (Biological Research Center, HAS, Hungary)
  • Olgica Djurković-Djaković (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Jean-Dennis Docquier (University of Siena, Italy)
  • Anna Erdei (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna Fabry (University of Washington, USA)
  • Beniam Ghebremedhin (Witten/Herdecke University, Germany)
  • Nancy Guillen (Institute Pasteur, France)
  • Georgina L. Hold (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom)
  • Ralf Ignatius (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Zsuzsanna Izsvak (MDC-Berlin, Germany)
  • Achim Kaasch (University of Cologne, Germany)
  • Tamás Laskay (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Oliver Liesenfeld (Roche, USA)
  • Shreemanta Parida (Vaccine Grand Challenge Program, India)
  • Matyas Sandor (University of Wisconsin, USA)
  • Ulrich Steinhoff (University of Marburg, Germany)
  • Michal Toborek (University of Miami, USA)
  • Mary Jo Wick (University of Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • Susanne A. Wolf (MDC-Berlin, Germany)


Dr. Dunay, Ildiko Rita
Magdeburg, Germany
You can find more information at