View More View Less
  • 1 German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute Bernhard Nocht street 74 D-20359 Hamburg Germany
  • 2 Universitätsmedizin Göttingen UMG-Labor, Abteilung Medizinische Mikrobiologie Göttingen Germany
  • 3 Universitätsmedizin Göttingen UMG-Labor, Abteilung Klinische Chemie/Zentrallabor Göttingen Germany
  • 4 University Medicine Rostock Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene Rostock Germany
Open access

Haemophilus influenzae is a key pathogen of upper respiratory tract infections. Its reliable discrimination from nonpathogenic Haemophilus spp. is necessary because merely colonizing bacteria are frequent at primarily unsterile sites. Due to close phylogenetic relationship, it is not easy to discriminate H. influenzae from the colonizer Haemophilus haemolyticus. The frequency of H. haemolyticus isolations depends on factors like sampling site, patient condition, and geographic region.Biochemical discrimination has been shown to be nonreliable. Multiplex PCR including marker genes like sodC, fucK, and hpd or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the P6 gene, or multilocus-sequence-typing is more promising. For the diagnostic routine, such techniques are too expensive and laborious. If available, matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a routine-compatible option and should be used in the first line. However, the used database should contain well-defined reference spectra, and the spectral difference between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus is small. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization is an option for less well-equipped laboratories, but the available protocol will not lead to conclusive results in all instances. It can be used as a second line approach. Occasional ambiguous results have to be resolved by alternative molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Turk DC: The pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae. J Med Microbiol 18, 1–16 (1984)

    Turk DC , 'The pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae ' (1984 ) 18 J Med Microbiol : 1 -16.

  • Brook I: Current management of upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 266, 315–323 (2009)

    Brook I , 'Current management of upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections ' (2009 ) 266 Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol : 315 -323.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Leibovitz E, Jacobs MR, Dagan R: Haemophilus influenzae: a significant pathogen in acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J 23, 1142–1152 (2004)

    Dagan R , 'Haemophilus influenzae: a significant pathogen in acute otitis media ' (2004 ) 23 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 1142 -1152.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fenger MG, Ridderberg W, Olesen HV, Nørskov-Lauritsen N: Low occurrence of ‘non haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus’ misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in cystic fibrosis respiratory specimens, and frequent recurrence of persistent H. influenzae clones despite antimicrobial treatment. Int J Med Microbiol 302, 315–319 (2012)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen N , 'Low occurrence of ‘non haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus’ misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in cystic fibrosis respiratory specimens, and frequent recurrence of persistent H. influenzae clones despite antimicrobial treatment ' (2012 ) 302 Int J Med Microbiol : 315 -319.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murphy TF, Brauer AL, Sethi S, Kilian M, Cai X, Lesse AJ: Haemophilus haemolyticus: a human respiratory tract commensal to be distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae. J Infect Dis 195, 81–89 (2007)

    Lesse AJ , 'Haemophilus haemolyticus: a human respiratory tract commensal to be distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae ' (2007 ) 195 J Infect Dis : 81 -89.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nørskov-Lauritsen N: Detection of cryptic genospecies misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in routine clinical samples by assessment of marker genes fucK, hap, and sodC. J Clin Microbiol 47, 2590–2592 (2009)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen N , 'Detection of cryptic genospecies misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in routine clinical samples by assessment of marker genes fucK, hap, and sodC ' (2009 ) 47 J Clin Microbiol : 2590 -2592.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zautner AE, Krause M, Stropahl G, Holtfreter S, Frickmann H, Maletzki C, Kreikemeyer B, Pau HW, Podbielski A: Intracellular persisting Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen in recurrent tonsillitis. PLoS One 5, e9452 (2010)

    Podbielski A , 'Intracellular persisting Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen in recurrent tonsillitis ' (2010 ) 5 PLoS One : 9452 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brook I: Microbiology and management of peritonsillar, retropharyngeal, and parapharyngeal abscesses. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62, 1545–1550 (2004)

    Brook I , 'Microbiology and management of peritonsillar, retropharyngeal, and parapharyngeal abscesses ' (2004 ) 62 J Oral Maxillofac Surg : 1545 -1550.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zautner AE: Adenotonsillar disease. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 6, 121–129 (2012)

    Zautner AE , 'Adenotonsillar disease ' (2012 ) 6 Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov : 121 -129.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jeong JH, Lee DW, Ryu RA, Lee YS, Lee SH, Kang JO, Tae K: Bacteriologic comparison of tonsil core in recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. Laryngoscope 117, 2146–2151 (2007)

    Tae K , 'Bacteriologic comparison of tonsil core in recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy ' (2007 ) 117 Laryngoscope : 2146 -2151.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tikhomirova A, Kidd SP: Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae: living together in a biofilm. Pathog Dis 69, 114–126 (2013)

    Kidd SP , 'Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae: living together in a biofilm ' (2013 ) 69 Pathog Dis : 114 -126.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garcia-Rodriguez JA, Fresnadillo Martinez MJ: Dynamics of nasopharyngeal colonization of potential respiratory pathogens. J Antimicrob Chemother 50(S2), 59–73 (2002)

    Fresnadillo Martinez MJ , 'Dynamics of nasopharyngeal colonization of potential respiratory pathogens ' (2002 ) 50 J Antimicrob Chemother : 59 -73.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kilian M, Poulsen K, Lomholt H: Evolution of the paralogous hap and iga genes in Haemophilus influenza: evidence for a conserved hap pseudogene associated with microcolony formation in the recently diverged Haemophilus aegyptius and H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius. Mol Microbiol 46, 1367–1380 (2002)

    Lomholt H , 'Evolution of the paralogous hap and iga genes in Haemophilus influenza: evidence for a conserved hap pseudogene associated with microcolony formation in the recently diverged Haemophilus aegyptius and H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius ' (2002 ) 46 Mol Microbiol : 1367 -1380.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frickmann H, Podbielski A, Essig A, Schwarz NG, Zautner AE: Difficulties in species identification within the genus Haemophilus — a pilot study addressing a significant problem for routine diagnostics. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 4, 99–105 (2014)

    Zautner AE , 'Difficulties in species identification within the genus Haemophilus — a pilot study addressing a significant problem for routine diagnostics ' (2014 ) 4 Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) : 99 -105.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Darras-Joly C, Lortholary O, Mainardi JL: Haemophilus endocarditis: report of 42 cases in adults and review. Haemophilus Endocarditis Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 24, 1087–1094 (1997)

    Mainardi JL , 'Haemophilus endocarditis: report of 42 cases in adults and review. Haemophilus Endocarditis Study Group ' (1997 ) 24 Clin Infect Dis : 1087 -1094.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hotomi M, Kono M, Togawa A, Arai J, Takai S, Ikeda Y, Ogami M, Murphy TF, Yamanaka N: Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in tonsillar cultures of adults with acute pharyngotonsillitis. Auris Nasus Larynx 37, 594–600 (2010)

    Yamanaka N , 'Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in tonsillar cultures of adults with acute pharyngotonsillitis ' (2010 ) 37 Auris Nasus Larynx : 594 -600.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Munkundan D, Ecevit Z, Patel M, Marrs CF, Gilsdorf JR: Pharyngeal colonization dynamics of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in healthy adult carriers. J Clin Microbiol 45, 3207–3217 (2007)

    Gilsdorf JR , 'Pharyngeal colonization dynamics of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in healthy adult carriers ' (2007 ) 45 J Clin Microbiol : 3207 -3217.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anderson R, Wang X, Briere EC, Katz LS, Cohn AC, Clark TA, Messonnier NE, Mayer LW: Haemophilus haemolyticus causing clinical disease. J Clin Microbiol 50, 2462–2465 (2012)

    Mayer LW , 'Haemophilus haemolyticus causing clinical disease ' (2012 ) 50 J Clin Microbiol : 2462 -2465.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Xie J, Juliao PC, Gilsdorf JR, Marrs CF: Identification of new genetic regions more prevalent in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae otitis media strains than in throat strains. J Clin Microbiol 44, 4316–4325 (2006)

    Marrs CF , 'Identification of new genetic regions more prevalent in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae otitis media strains than in throat strains ' (2006 ) 44 J Clin Microbiol : 4316 -4325.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Munson E, Pfaller M, Koontz F, Doern G: Comparison of porphyrin-based, growth factor-based, and biochemicalbased testing methods for identification of Haemophilus influenzae. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21, 196–203 (2002)

    Doern G , 'Comparison of porphyrin-based, growth factor-based, and biochemicalbased testing methods for identification of Haemophilus influenzae ' (2002 ) 21 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis : 196 -203.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Munson EL, Doern GV: Comparison of three commercial test systems for biotyping Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. J Clin Microbiol 45, 4051–4053 (2007)

    Doern GV , 'Comparison of three commercial test systems for biotyping Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae ' (2007 ) 45 J Clin Microbiol : 4051 -4053.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McCrea KW, Xie J, LaCross N, Patel M, Mukundan D, Murphy TF, Marrs CF, Gilsdorf JR: Relationships of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strains to hemolytic and nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus strains. J Clin Microbiol 46, 406–416 (2008)

    Gilsdorf JR , 'Relationships of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strains to hemolytic and nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus strains ' (2008 ) 46 J Clin Microbiol : 406 -416.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pittman M: A classification of the hemolytic bacteria of the genus Haemophilus: Haemophilus haemolyticus Bergey et al. and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus nov spec. J Bacteriol 65, 750–751 (1953)

    Pittman M , 'A classification of the hemolytic bacteria of the genus Haemophilus: Haemophilus haemolyticus Bergey et al. and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus nov spec ' (1953 ) 65 J Bacteriol : 750 -751.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Totten PA, Norn DV, Stamm WE: Characterization of the hemolytic activity of Haemophilus ducreyi. Infect Immun 63, 4409–4416 (1995)

    Stamm WE , 'Characterization of the hemolytic activity of Haemophilus ducreyi ' (1995 ) 63 Infect Immun : 4409 -4416.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kilian M: A taxonomic study of the genus Haemophilus, with the proposal of a new species. J Gen Microbiol 93, 9–62 (1976)

    Kilian M , 'A taxonomic study of the genus Haemophilus, with the proposal of a new species ' (1976 ) 93 J Gen Microbiol : 9 -62.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barbe G, Babolat M, Boeufgras JM, Monget D, Freney J: Evaluation of API NH, a new 2-hour system for identification of Neisseria and Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis in a routine clinical laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 32, 187–189 (1994)

    Freney J , 'Evaluation of API NH, a new 2-hour system for identification of Neisseria and Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis in a routine clinical laboratory ' (1994 ) 32 J Clin Microbiol : 187 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rennie RP, Brosnikoff C, Shokoples S, Reller LB, Mirrett S, Janda W, Ristow K, Krilcich A: Multicenter evaluation of the new Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card. J Clin Microbiol 46, 2681–2685 (2008)

    Krilcich A , 'Multicenter evaluation of the new Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card ' (2008 ) 46 J Clin Microbiol : 2681 -2685.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Valenza G, Ruoff C, Vogel U, Frosch M, Abele-Horn M: Microbiological evaluation of the new VITEK 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card. J Clin Microbiol 45, 3493–3497 (2007)

    Abele-Horn M , 'Microbiological evaluation of the new VITEK 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card ' (2007 ) 45 J Clin Microbiol : 3493 -3497.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Langford PR, Sheehan BJ, Shaikh T, Kroll JS: Active copper-and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase in the cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus causing urogenital and neonatal infections discriminates them from Haemophilus influenzae sensu stricto. J Clin Microbiol 40, 268–270 (2002)

    Kroll JS , 'Active copper-and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase in the cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus causing urogenital and neonatal infections discriminates them from Haemophilus influenzae sensu stricto ' (2002 ) 40 J Clin Microbiol : 268 -270.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Binks MJ, Temple B, Kirkham LA, Wiertsema SP, Dunne EM, Richmond PC, Marsh RL, Leach AJ, Smith-Vaughan HC: Molecular surveillance of true nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an evaluation of PCR screening assays. PLoS ONE 7, e34083 (2012)

    Smith-Vaughan HC , 'Molecular surveillance of true nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an evaluation of PCR screening assays ' (2012 ) 7 PLoS ONE : 34083 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sandstedt SA, Zhang L, Patel M, McCrea KW, Qin Z, Marrs CF, Gilsdorf JR: Comparison of laboratory-based and phylogenetic methods to distinguish between Haemophilus influenzae and H. haemolyticus. J Microbiol Methods 75, 369–371 (2008)

    Gilsdorf JR , 'Comparison of laboratory-based and phylogenetic methods to distinguish between Haemophilus influenzae and H. haemolyticus ' (2008 ) 75 J Microbiol Methods : 369 -371.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Theodore MJ, Anderson RD, Wang X, Katz LS, Vuong JT, Bell ME, Juni BA, Lowther SA, Lynfield R, MacNeil JR, Mayer LW: Evaluation of new biomarker genes for differentiating Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus. J Clin Microbiol 50, 1422–1424 (2012)

    Mayer LW , 'Evaluation of new biomarker genes for differentiating Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus ' (2012 ) 50 J Clin Microbiol : 1422 -1424.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Witherden EA, Tristram SG: Prevalence and mechanisms of ß-lactam resistance in Haemophilus haemolyticus. J Antimicrob Chemother 68, 2255–2258 (2013)

    Tristram SG , 'Prevalence and mechanisms of ß-lactam resistance in Haemophilus haemolyticus ' (2013 ) 68 J Antimicrob Chemother : 2255 -2258.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Norskov-Lauritsen N, Overballe MD, Kilian M: Delineation of the species Haemophilus influenzae by phenotype, multilocus sequence phylogeny, and detection of marker genes. J Bacteriol 191, 822–831 (2009)

    Kilian M , 'Delineation of the species Haemophilus influenzae by phenotype, multilocus sequence phylogeny, and detection of marker genes ' (2009 ) 191 J Bacteriol : 822 -831.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Ley J, Cattoir H, Reynaerts A: The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Eur J Biochem 12, 133–142 (1970)

    Reynaerts A , 'The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates ' (1970 ) 12 Eur J Biochem : 133 -142.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Huss VAR, Festl H, Schleifer KH: Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 184–192 (1983)

    Schleifer KH , 'Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates ' (1983 ) 4 Syst Appl Microbiol : 184 -192.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cashion P, Holder-Franklin MA, McCully J, Franklin M: A rapid method for the base ratio determination of bacterial DNA. Anal Biochem 81, 461–466 (1977)

    Franklin M , 'A rapid method for the base ratio determination of bacterial DNA ' (1977 ) 81 Anal Biochem : 461 -466.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhang B, Kunde D, Tristam S: Haemophilus haemolyticus is infrequently misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in diagnostic specimens in Australia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 80(4), 272–273 (2014)

    Tristam S , 'Haemophilus haemolyticus is infrequently misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in diagnostic specimens in Australia ' (2014 ) 80 Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis : 272 -273.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Meats E, Feil EJ, Stringer S, Cody AJ, Goldstein R, Kroll JS, Popovic R, Spratt BG: Characterization of encapsulated and noncapsulated Haemophilus influenzae and determination of phylogenetic relationships by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 41, 1623–1636 (2003)

    Spratt BG , 'Characterization of encapsulated and noncapsulated Haemophilus influenzae and determination of phylogenetic relationships by multilocus sequence typing ' (2003 ) 41 J Clin Microbiol : 1623 -1636.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frickmann H, Christner M, Donat M, Berger A, Essig A, Podbielski A, Hagen RM, Poppert S: Rapid discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and two matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) platforms. PLoS ONE 8, e63222 (2013)

    Poppert S , 'Rapid discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and two matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) platforms ' (2013 ) 8 PLoS ONE : 63222 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhu B, Xiao D, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Gao Y, Xu L, Lv J, Wang Y, Zhang J, Shao Z: MALDI-TOF MS distinctly differentiates nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus. PLoS ONE 8, e56139 (2013)

    Shao Z , 'MALDI-TOF MS distinctly differentiates nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus ' (2013 ) 8 PLoS ONE : 56139 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bruin JP, Kostrzewa M, Ende A, Badoux P, Jansen R, Boers SA, Diederen BMW: Identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 33, 279–284 (2013)

    Diederen BMW , 'Identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry ' (2013 ) 33 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis : 279 -284.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Norskov-Lauritsen N: Classification, identification, and clinical significance of Haemophilus and Aggregatibacter species with host specificity for humans. Clin Microbiol Rev 27, 214–240 (2014)

    Norskov-Lauritsen N , 'Classification, identification, and clinical significance of Haemophilus and Aggregatibacter species with host specificity for humans ' (2014 ) 27 Clin Microbiol Rev : 214 -240.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Julia PC, Marrs CF, Xie JP, Gilsdorf JR: Histidine auxotrophy in commensal and disease-causing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. J Bacteriol 189, 4994–5001 (2007)

    Gilsdorf JR , 'Histidine auxotrophy in commensal and disease-causing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae ' (2007 ) 189 J Bacteriol : 4994 -5001.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sethi S, Evans N, Grant BJB, Murphy TF: New strains of bacteria and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New Engl J Med 347, 465–471 (2002)

    Murphy TF , 'New strains of bacteria and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ' (2002 ) 347 New Engl J Med : 465 -471.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hare KM, Binks MJ, Grimwood K, Chang AB, Leach AJ, Smith-Vaughan H: Culture and PCR detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Australian indigenous children with bronchiectasis. J Clin Microbiol 50, 2444–2445 (2012)

    Smith-Vaughan H , 'Culture and PCR detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Australian indigenous children with bronchiectasis ' (2012 ) 50 J Clin Microbiol : 2444 -2445.

    • Search Google Scholar

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

 

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

Language: English

Founded in 2011
Publication: One volume of four issues annually

Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 10. (Online Only)

Article Processing Charge: EUR 600.00 (for discounts see the Open Access menu)

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • PubMed Central
  • ESCI

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dunay, Ildiko Rita

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Heimesaat, Markus M.

Vice Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fuchs, Anja

Editorial Board

Chair of the Editorial Board:
Jeffrey S. Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)

  • Jörn Albring (University of Münster, Germany)
  • Stefan Bereswill (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Dunja Bruder (University of Megdeburg, Germany)
  • Jan Buer (University of Duisburg, Germany)
  • Jeff Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)
  • Edit Buzas (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Charles Collyer (University of Sydney, Australia)
  • Renato Damatta (UENF, Brazil)
  • Ivelina Damjanova (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Maria Deli (Biological Research Center, HAS, Hungary)
  • Olgica Djurković-Djaković (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Jean-Dennis Docquier (University of Siena, Italy)
  • Anna Erdei (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna Fabry (University of Washington, USA)
  • Beniam Ghebremedhin (Witten/Herdecke University, Germany)
  • Nancy Guillen (Institute Pasteur, France)
  • Georgina L. Hold (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom)
  • Ralf Ignatius (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Zsuzsanna Izsvak (MDC-Berlin, Germany)
  • Achim Kaasch (University of Cologne, Germany)
  • Tamás Laskay (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Oliver Liesenfeld (Roche, USA)
  • Shreemanta Parida (Vaccine Grand Challenge Program, India)
  • Matyas Sandor (University of Wisconsin, USA)
  • Ulrich Steinhoff (University of Marburg, Germany)
  • Michal Toborek (University of Miami, USA)
  • Mary Jo Wick (University of Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • Susanne A. Wolf (MDC-Berlin, Germany)

 

Dr. Dunay, Ildiko Rita
Magdeburg, Germany
E-mail: ildikodunay@gmail.com
You can find more information at http://eujmi.com