View More View Less
  • 1 Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
  • 2 Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Durango, Mexico
  • 3 Health Center No. 2 “Dr. Carlos Santamaría”, Servicios de Salud de Durango, Durango, Mexico, Talpa S/N, 34170 Durango, Mexico
  • 4 Clínica de Medicina Familiar, Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Predio Canoas S/N, 34079 Durango, Mexico
  • 5 Charité Medical School, Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203 Berlin, Germany
Open access

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in brain may cause some symptoms that resemble those in women with premenstrual syndrome. To determine the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs of premenstrual syndrome, we examined 489 women aged 30–40 years old. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) and T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 38 (7.8%) of the women studied. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (34.2%) of the 38 IgG seropositive women. Logistic regression showed two variables associated with seropositivity to T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–27.85; P = 0.01) and weight gain (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.37–6.07; P = 0.005), and two variables associated with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of IgG against T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (OR = 7.40; 95% CI: 1.79–30.46; P = 0.006) and abdominal inflammation (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.13–10.10; P = 0.02). Positivity to EIA IgG and PCR was positively associated with obesity and negatively associated with joint pain by bivariate analysis.

Our study for the first time reveals a potential association of T. gondii infection with clinical manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1.

    Dubey JP , Lindsay DS, Speer CA: Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cysts. Clin Microbiol Rev 11, 267299 (1998)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Hill D , Dubey JP: Toxoplasma gondii: transmission, diagnosis and prevention. Clin Microbiol Infect 8, 634640 (2002)

  • 3.

    Montoya JG , Liesenfeld O: Toxoplasmosis. Lancet 363, 19651976 (2004)

  • 4.

    Schlüter D , Däubener W, Schares G, Groß U, Pleyer U, Lüder C: Animals are key to human toxoplasmosis. Int J Med Microbiol 304, 917929 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Moncada PA , Montoya JG: Toxoplasmosis in the fetus and newborn: an update on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 10, 815828 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Saadatnia G , Golkar M: A review on human toxoplasmosis. Scand J Infect Dis 44, 805814 (2012)

  • 7.

    Foroutan-Rad M , Majidiani H, Dalvand S, Daryani A, Kooti W, Saki J, Hedayati-Rad F, Ahmadpour E: Toxoplasmosis in blood donors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transfus Med Rev S0887-7963, 3002130023 (2016)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Harker KS , Ueno N, Lodoen MB: Toxoplasma gondii dissemination: a parasite’s journey through the infected host. Parasite Immunol 37, 141149 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Machala L , Kodym P, Malý M, Geleneky M, Beran O, Jilich D: Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 64, 5965 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Fond G , Capdevielle D, Macgregor A, Attal J, Larue A, Brittner M, Ducasse D, Boulenger JP: Toxoplasma gondii: a potential role in the genesis of psychiatric disorders. Encephale 39, 3843 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Alvarado-Esquivel C , Urbina-Álvarez JD, Estrada-Martínez S, Torres-Castorena A, Molotla-de-León G, Liesenfeld O, Dubey JP: Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma seroprevalence Mexican population. Parasitol Int 60, 151155 (2011)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Coccaro EF , Lee R, Groer MW, Can A, Coussons-Read M, Postolache TT: Toxoplasma gondii infection: relationship with aggression in psychiatric subjects. J Clin Psychiatry 77, 334341 (2016)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Duffy AR , Beckie TM, Brenner LA, Beckstead JW, Seyfang A, Postolache TT, Groer MW: Relationship between Toxoplasma gondii and mood disturbance in women veterans. Mil Med 180, 621625 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Markovitz AA , Simanek AM, Yolken RH, Galea S, Koenen KC, Chen S, Aiello AE: Toxoplasma gondii and anxiety disorders in a community-based sample. Brain Behav Immun 43, 192197 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Prandota J : Recurrent headache as the main symptom of acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects with no lymphadenopathy: the parasite may be responsible for the neurogenic inflammation postulated as a cause of different types of headaches. Am J Ther 14, 63105 (2007)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Silva CS , Neves Ede S, Benchimol EI, Moraes DR: Postnatal acquired toxoplasmosis patients in an infectious diseases reference center. Braz J Infect Dis 12, 438441 (2008)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Cuomo G , D’Abrosca V, Rizzo V, Nardiello S, La Montagna G, Gaeta GB, Valentini G: Severe polymyositis due to Toxoplasma gondii in an adult immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature. Infection 41, 859862 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kawakami Y , Hayashi J, Fujisaki T, Tani Y, Kashiwagi S, Yamaga S: A case of toxoplasmosis with dermatomyositis. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 69, 13121315 (1995)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Wong WK , Upton A, Thomas MG: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in immunocompetent adult patients with Toxoplasma gondii acute lymphadenitis. Scand J Infect Dis 45, 357361 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Studenicová C , Ondriska F, Holková R: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Slovakia. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 57, 813 (2008)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Ryu A , Kim TH: Premenstrual syndrome: a mini review. Maturitas 82, 436440 (2015)

  • 22.

    Alba P , Rodríguez C: Premenstrual syndrome and dysphoric premenstrual syndrome. Vertex 25, 370376 (2014)

  • 23.

    Maharaj S , Trevino K: A Comprehensive review of treatment options for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Psychiatr Pract 21, 334350 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    El-Lithy A , El-Mazny A, Sabbour A, El-Deeb A: Effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women. J Obstet Gynaecol 35, 389392 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Takeda T , Imoto Y, Nagasawa H, Muroya M, Shiina M: Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Japanese collegiate athletes. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 28, 215218 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Bridou M , Aguerre C: Premenstrual symptomatology, somatization and physical anhedonia. Encephale 39, 432438 (2013)

  • 27.

    Yamada K : Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi 117, 292298 (2015)

  • 28.

    Alvarado-Esquivel C , Sanchez-Anguiano LF, Hernandez-Tinoco J, Perez-Alamos AR, Rico-Almochantaf Ydel R, Estrada-Martinez S, Vaquera-Enriquez R, Diaz-Herrera A, Ramos-Nevarez A, Sandoval-Carrillo AA, Salas-Pacheco JM, Cerrillo-Soto SM, Antuna-Salcido EI, Liesenfeld O, Guido-Arreola CA: Toxoplasma gondii infection and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Med Res 8, 730736 (2016)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Alvarado-Esquivel C , Sánchez-Anguiano LF, Hernández-Tinoco J, Calzada-Torres EA, Estrada-Martínez S, PérezÁlamos AR, Vaquera-Enriquez R, Díaz-Herrera A, Segura-Moreno R, de Lourdes Guerrero-Carbajal M, Rentería-López MG, García IB, Rábago-Sánchez E, Liesenfeld O: Influence of Toxoplasma gondii infection on symptoms and signs of menopause. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 6, 4955 (2016)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Roth A , Roth B, Höffken G, Steuber S, Khalifa KI, Janitschke K: Application of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 11, 11771181 (1992)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Khalifa Kel-S , Roth A, Roth B, Arasteh KN, Janitschke K: Value of PCR for evaluating occurrence of parasitemia in immunocompromised patients with cerebral and extracerebral toxoplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol 32, 28132819 (1994)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Alvarado-Esquivel C , Estrada-Martínez S, Pizarro-Villalobos H, Arce-Quiñones M, Liesenfeld O, Dubey JP: Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a northern Mexican city. J Parasitol 97, 4043 (2011)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Zhao G , Wang L, Qu C: Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome in reproductive women and its influential factors. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 33, 222224 (1998)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Kane SV , Sable K, Hanauer SB: The menstrual cycle and its effect on inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: a prevalence study. Am J Gastroenterol 93, 18671872 (1998)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Zhang Y , Bo P, Li X: Increased incidence of bowel and psychological symptoms in Chinese female D-IBS patients with premenstrual syndrome. Gastroenterol Nurs 37, 351359 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Hermes-Uliana C , Pereira-Severi LS, Luerdes RB, Franco CL, da Silva AV, Araújo EJ, Sant’Ana Dde M: Chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii causes myenteric neuroplasticity of the jejunum in rats. Auton Neurosci 160, 38 (2011)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Ganji M , Tan A, Maitar MI, Weldon-Linne CM, Weisenberg E, Rhone DP: Gastric toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 127, 732734 (2003)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Yang M , Perez E: Disseminated toxoplasmosis as a cause of diarrhea. South Med J 88, 860861 (1995)

  • 39.

    Spycher A , Geigy C, Howard J, Posthaus H, Gendron K, Gottstein B, Debache K, Herrmann DC, Schares G, Frey CF: Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii causing fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent 10-year-old cat. J Vet Diagn Invest 23, 104108 (2011)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Dubey JP , Prowell M: Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation, and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical toxoplasmosis in a naturally infected cat. J Parasitol 99, 158160 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Casagrande RA , Pena HF, Cabral AD, Rolim VM, de Oliveira LG, Boabaid FM, Wouters AT, Wouters F, Cruz CE, Driemeier D: Fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in Valley quail (Callipepla californica). Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 4, 264267 (2015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Kanková S , Sulc J, Flegr J: Increased pregnancy weight gain in women with latent toxoplasmosis and RhD-positivity protection against this effect. Parasitology 137, 17731779 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Reeves GM , Mazaheri S, Snitker S, Langenberg P, Giegling I, Hartmann AM, Konte B, Friedl M, Okusaga O, Groer MW, Mangge H, Weghuber D, Allison DB, Rujescu D, Postolache TT: A positive association between T. gondii seropositivity and obesity. Front Public Health 1, 73 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Huang B , Huang S, Chen Y, Zheng H, Shen J, Lun ZR, Wang Y, Kasper LH, Lu F: Mast cells modulate acute toxoplasmosis in murine models. PLoS One 8, e77327 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2020 0 6 3
Sep 2020 0 3 1
Oct 2020 0 6 3
Nov 2020 0 5 2
Dec 2020 0 1 2
Jan 2021 0 18 5
Feb 2021 0 0 0