View More View Less
  • 1 Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
  • | 2 Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
  • | 3 General Hospital 450, Blvd. José María Patoni No. 403, 34206, Durango, Dgo, Mexico
Open access

It is not clear whether infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnant women. Through a case-control study design, 146 women suffering from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (cases) and 146 age-matched normotensive pregnant women (controls) were examined for the presence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies with enzyme-linked immunoassays. IgM seropositive samples were further assayed by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA).

Anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 138 (94.5%) controls and in 136 (93.2%) cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30–2.05; P = 0.62). High (>18 IU/ml) levels of anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 37.7% of the 138 seropositive controls and in 34.6% of the 136 seropositive cases (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.53–1.43; P = 0.59). Anti-CMV IgM antibodies were found in 1 (0.7%) of the controls but in none of the cases using ELFA (P = 1.0). Seropositivity to CMV was not associated with a previous preeclampsia and was similar among cases regardless their mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and mean arterial blood pressure.

No serological evidence of an association between CMV infection and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was found. Further research to elucidate the role of CMV in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy should be conducted.

  • 1.

    Hanley PJ , Bollard CM: Controlling cytomegalovirus: helping the immune system take the lead. Viruses 6, 22422258 (2014)

  • 2.

    de Jong MD , Galasso GJ, Gazzard B, Griffiths PD, Jabs DA, Kern ER, Spector SA: Summary of the II International Symposium on Cytomegalovirus. Antiviral Res 39, 141162 (1998)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Lindholm PF , Annen K, Ramsey G: Approaches to minimize infection risk in blood banking and transfusion practice. Infect Disord Drug Targets 11, 4556 (2011)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Goodrum F , Caviness K, Zagallo P: Human cytomegalovirus persistence. Cell Microbiol 14, 644655 (2012)

  • 5.

    Cannon MJ , Schmid DS, Hyde TB: Review of cytomegalovirus seroprevalence and demographic characteristics associated with infection. Rev Med Virol 20, 202213 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Foti G , Hyeraci M, Kunkar A, Ieropoli G, Sofo D, De Lorenzo S, Carpentieri MS: Cytomegalovirus infection in the adult. Minerva Med 93, 109117 (2002)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hyde TB , Schmid DS, Cannon MJ: Cytomegalovirus seroconversion rates and risk factors: implications for congenital CMV. Rev Med Virol 20, 311326 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Kenneson A , Cannon MJ: Review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Rev Med Virol 17, 253276 (2007)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Manicklal S , Emery VC, Lazzarotto T, Boppana SB, Gupta RK: The “silent” global burden of congenital cytomegalovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev 26, 86102 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Buonsenso D , Serranti D, Gargiullo L, Ceccarelli M, Ranno O, Valentini P: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: current strategies and future perspectives. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 16, 919935 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Johnson J , Anderson B, Pass RF: Prevention of maternal and congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Clin Obstet Gynecol 55, 521530 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Laifer SA , Ehrlich GD, Huff DS, Balsan MJ, Scantlebury VP: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in offspring of liver transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 20, 5255 (1995)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Rana S , Venkatesha S, DePaepe M, Chien EK, Paglia M, Karumanchi SA: Cytomegalovirus-induced mirror syndrome associated with elevated levels of circulating antiangiogenic factors. Obstet Gynecol 109, 549552 (2007)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Higgins L , Vause S, Tower C: Cytomegalovirus infection in association with early onset pre-eclampsia. BMJ Case Rep 2010, bcr0320102803 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Fajardo-Dolci G , Meljem-Moctezuma J, Vicente-González E, Venegas-Páez FV, Villalba-Espinoza I, Pérez-Cardoso AL, Barrón-Saldaña DA, Montesinos-Gómez G, Aguirre Güemez AV, Novoa-Boldo A, Mendoza-Larios LA, López-González R, Mazón-González B, Aguirre-Gas HG: Analysis of maternal deaths in Mexico occurred during 2009. Rev. Med. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc 51, 486495 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Jido TA , Yakasai IA: Preeclampsia: a review of the evidence. Ann. Afr. Med 12, 7585 (2013)

  • 17.

    Lo JO , Mission JF, Caughey AB: Hypertensive disease of pregnancy and maternal mortality. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 25, 124132 (2013)

  • 18.

    Anderson UD , Olsson MG, Kristensen KH, Åkerström B, Hansson SR: Review: biochemical markers to predict preeclampsia. Placenta 33, S4247 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Abalos E , Cuesta C, Grosso AL, Chou D, Say L: Global and regional estimates of preeclampsia and eclampsia: a systematic review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 170, 17 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Soydinc HE , Kan I, Dal T, Evsen MS, Sak ME, Ozler A, Turgut A, Yildiz I: Evaluation of the relationship between preeclampsia and seropositivity of infectious disease in maternal plasma. Clin Ter 164, e199202 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Zhang JF , Zhang WY: Relationship of cytomegalovirus, Chlamydia pneumoniae and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections with preeclampsia. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 92, 14131415 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Strand KM , Odland ML, Iversen AC, Nordbø SA, Vik T, Austgulen R: Cytomegalovirus antibody status at 17–18 weeks of gestation and pre-eclampsia: a case-control study of pregnant women in Norway. BJOG 119, 13161323 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    von Dadelszen P , Magee LA, Krajden M, Alasaly K, Popov ska V, Devarakonda RM, Money DM, Patrick DM, Brunham RC: Levels of antibodies against cytomegalovirus and Chlamydophila pneumoniae are increased in early onset pre-eclampsia. BJOG 110, 725730 (2003)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Xie F , Hu Y, Magee LA, Money DM, Patrick DM, Krajden M, Thomas E, von Dadelszen P; Toxemia Study Group: An association between cytomegalovirus infection and preeclampsia: a case-control study and data synthesis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 89, 11621167 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Xie F , von Dadelszen P, Nadeau J: CMV infection, TLR-2 and-4 expression, and cytokine profiles in early-onset preeclampsia with HELLP syndrome. Am J Reprod Immunol 71, 379386 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Alvarado-Esquivel C , Vázquez-Alaníz F, Sandoval-Carrillo AA, Salas-Pacheco JM, Hernández-Tinoco J, Sánchez-Anguiano LF, Liesenfeld O: Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a case-control study in a Northern Mexican population. Parasit Vectors 7, 167 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Alvarado-Esquivel C , Hernández-Tinoco J, Sánchez-Anguiano LF, Ramos-Nevárez A, Cerrillo-Soto SM, Estrada-Martínez S, Martínez-Ramírez L, Pérez-Álamos AR, Guido-Arreola CA: Seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. BMC Infect Dis 14, 484 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Tang N , Li JW, Liu YM, Zhong H, Wang LM, Deng FM, Qu YY, Hui J, Cheng J, Tang B, Huang G, Guo SX, Li XZ, Wei LL, He F: Human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with essential hypertension in Kazakh and Han Chinese populations. Med Sci Monit 20, 25082519 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Hui J , Qu YY, Tang N, Liu YM, Zhong H, Wang LM, Feng Q, Li Z, He F: Association of cytomegalovirus infection with hypertension risk: a meta-analysis. Wien Klin Wochenschr 128, 586591 (2016)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Weber B , Berger A, Rabenau H. Human cytomegalovirus infection: diagnostic potential of recombinant antigens for cytomegalovirus antibody detection. J Virol Methods 96, 157170 (2001)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dunay, Ildiko Rita

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Heimesaat, Markus M.

Vice Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fuchs, Anja

Editorial Board

Chair of the Editorial Board:
Jeffrey S. Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)

  • Jörn Albring (University of Münster, Germany)
  • Stefan Bereswill (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Dunja Bruder (University of Megdeburg, Germany)
  • Jan Buer (University of Duisburg, Germany)
  • Jeff Buguliskis (Thomas Jefferson University, USA)
  • Edit Buzas (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Charles Collyer (University of Sydney, Australia)
  • Renato Damatta (UENF, Brazil)
  • Ivelina Damjanova (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Maria Deli (Biological Research Center, HAS, Hungary)
  • Olgica Djurković-Djaković (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Jean-Dennis Docquier (University of Siena, Italy)
  • Anna Erdei (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna Fabry (University of Washington, USA)
  • Beniam Ghebremedhin (Witten/Herdecke University, Germany)
  • Nancy Guillen (Institute Pasteur, France)
  • Georgina L. Hold (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom)
  • Ralf Ignatius (Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany)
  • Zsuzsanna Izsvak (MDC-Berlin, Germany)
  • Achim Kaasch (University of Cologne, Germany)
  • Tamás Laskay (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Oliver Liesenfeld (Roche, USA)
  • Shreemanta Parida (Vaccine Grand Challenge Program, India)
  • Matyas Sandor (University of Wisconsin, USA)
  • Ulrich Steinhoff (University of Marburg, Germany)
  • Michal Toborek (University of Miami, USA)
  • Mary Jo Wick (University of Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • Susanne A. Wolf (MDC-Berlin, Germany)


Dr. Dunay, Ildiko Rita
Magdeburg, Germany

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • PubMed Central
  • Scopus
  • ESCI
  • CABI


CrossRef Documents 23
WoS Cites 708
Wos H-index 27
Days from submission to acceptance 219
Days from acceptance to publication 176
Acceptance Rate 70%



European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 928 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Purchase per Title  

European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Language English
Size A4
Year of
per Year
per Year
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-509X (Print)
ISSN 2062-8633 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2021 0 3 1
Sep 2021 0 2 0
Oct 2021 0 1 0
Nov 2021 0 5 3
Dec 2021 0 3 1
Jan 2022 0 3 2
Feb 2022 0 0 0