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  • 1 Department of Pedagogical and Psychological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
  • 2 Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
  • 3 Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, FL, USA
  • 4 Department of Pedagogical and Psychological Sciences, University of Messina, Via Concezione, 6/8, 98121, Messina, Italy
Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The purpose of this study was to verify the factorial structure, internal validity, reliability, and criterion validity of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) in an Italian sample.

Methods

Italian voluntary (N = 519) users of gyms who had a history of regular exercise for over a year completed the EDS-R and measures of exercise frequency.

Results and conclusions

Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good fit to the hypothesized 7-factor model, and adequate internal consistency for the scale was evidenced. Criterion validity was evidenced by significant correlations among all the subscale of the EDS and exercise frequency. Finally, individuals at risk for exercise dependence reported more exercise behavior compared to the nondependent-symptomatic and nondependent-asymptomatic groups. These results suggest that the seven subscales of the Italian version of the EDS are measuring the construct of exercise dependence as defined by the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence and also confirm previous research using the EDS-R in other languages. More research is needed to examine the psychometric properties of the EDS-R in diverse populations with various research designs.

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