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Mark D. Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, School of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, 50 Shakespeare Street Nottingham NG1 4FQ, United Kingdom

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Abstract

Two recent papers in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions by Brand et al. (2022), and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both make interesting additions to the place of behavioral addictions in the more general addictive behaviors field. This commentary discusses some of the further nuances in the debates surrounding whether problematic engagement in social networking, pornography, and buying/shopping should be considered as possible ‘disorders due to addictive behaviors’ in the ICD-11. Particular emphasis in this commentary is placed on social network use disorder and its delineation. While there is growing evidence that addictions to sex, pornography, social network sites, exercise, work, and buying/shopping may be genuine disorders among a minority of individuals, none of these behaviors is likely to be included in formal psychiatric manuals in the near future until there is more high-quality data on all research fronts (e.g., epidemiological, neurobiological, psychological, and clinical).

Abstract

Two recent papers in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions by Brand et al. (2022), and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both make interesting additions to the place of behavioral addictions in the more general addictive behaviors field. This commentary discusses some of the further nuances in the debates surrounding whether problematic engagement in social networking, pornography, and buying/shopping should be considered as possible ‘disorders due to addictive behaviors’ in the ICD-11. Particular emphasis in this commentary is placed on social network use disorder and its delineation. While there is growing evidence that addictions to sex, pornography, social network sites, exercise, work, and buying/shopping may be genuine disorders among a minority of individuals, none of these behaviors is likely to be included in formal psychiatric manuals in the near future until there is more high-quality data on all research fronts (e.g., epidemiological, neurobiological, psychological, and clinical).

Introduction

The 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2019) includes two behaviors (gambling disorder and gaming disorder) that have been classified as “disorders due to addictive behaviors”. The classification of behaviors that do not involve the ingestion of a psychoactive substance as genuine addictions has wide implications for the addictive behaviors fields as it opens up the possibility of any behavior that causes significant clinical impairment having the potential to be classified as an addictive behavior (Griffiths, 2005). However, this has led to debates about everyday behaviors being over-pathologized (Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage, & Heeren, 2015).

Two recent papers in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions by Brand, Rumpf, Demetrovics, et al. (2022), and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both make interesting additions to the place of behavioral addictions in the more general addictive behaviors field. Despite continuing controversy about the pathologizing of everyday behaviors, Brand, Rumpf, Demetrovics, et al. (2022) outlined three behaviors (pornography use disorder, buying-shopping disorder, and social network use disorder) as being possible behaviors that could be considered for the ICD-11 category of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”. As someone who has spent 35 years researching behavioral addictions, it will come as no surprise that I agree with much of what Brand et al. proposed and posited in their paper. I have been researching addictions to gambling and gaming for over 30 years and have applied my findings and thinking in these two behaviors to many other ‘everyday’ behaviors including the three potential disorders outlined by Brand, Rumpf, Demetrovics, et al. (2022). The remainder of this commentary is based on my longevity in the field coupled with the wide range of behavioral addictions I have studied empirically.

Current problems in the behavioral addiction field

I believe it will be some time before pornography use disorder, buying-shopping disorder, and social network use disorder get included in diagnostic manuals mainly because there is a lack of high-quality research in all three areas. In relation to self-report data, there are very few largescale nationally representative epidemiological studies in any of the three proposed disorders, and much of the self-report data comprise small self-selected convenience samples (Fernandez & Griffiths, 2021; Kuss & Griffiths, 2017; Maraz, Griffiths, & Demetrovics, 2016). There is also a lack of neuroimaging studies compared to the numbers of published studies in gambling disorder and gaming disorder (Kuss, Pontes, & Griffiths, 2018). Another area where there is a dearth of studies in the three proposed disorders is the lack of peer-reviewed research comprising clinical samples and the efficacy of treatment programs. Even if there was enough empirical and clinical evidence for the formal recognition of pornography use disorder, buying-shopping disorder, and social network use disorder, there are also issues concerning what these disorders should be called and/or whether they should be viewed as sub-disorders of other more clinically recognized conditions. These issues are discussed in the following sections.

Social network use disorder

Social network use disorder may be too narrow a descriptor as a potential behavioral addiction and the more recent literature tends to use the terms ‘social media disorder’ (Van den Eijnden, Lemmens, & Valkenburg, 2016) or ‘social media addiction’ (e.g., Andreassen et al., 2016). However, social media use and social network use are clearly not the same (Kuss & Griffiths, 2017) and there are many subtle but distinct differences between social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. There are also other forms of social media platforms such as YouTube which are arguably very different from (say) Twitter and Instagram. There are also many online dating platforms which have been argued to be a form of social networking (Kuss & Griffiths, 2017) and associated studies claiming some of these sites (e.g., Tinder) can be potentially problematic or addictive for a minority of users (Bonilla-Zorita, Griffiths, & Kuss, 2021; Orosz, Tóth-Király, Bőthe, & Melher, 2016, 2018).

Another problem is that some social networking sites (like the Internet more generally) have multi-functions and offer multiple activities for users. For instance, on Facebook, users can (i) interact with their Facebook friends with text-based messages, (ii) share photos, selfies, and videos, (iii) play digital games, and (iv) gamble (Griffiths, 2012). There numerous studies on Facebook addiction using a variety of Facebook addiction scales, but what are the scales assessing if the Facebook platform provides opportunities to engage in multiple potentially addictive activities? Is someone who constantly plays Farmville on Facebook to the neglect of everything else in their life to the point of clinical impairment a social networking addict, a social media addict and/or a gaming addict? If social networking sites offer multi-activities to engage in, the medium is arguably no different from the Internet and smartphones. As has previously been argued, users are no more addicted to the Internet and smartphones than alcoholics are addicted to bottles (Kuss & Griffiths, 2017). It is the applications on (say) Facebook rather than Facebook itself which are potentially addictive. If social media disorder or social network use disorder ever become formal diagnostic entities, it is these kinds of definitional issues that will need to be clarified.

Another key problem in the extant literature concerning addiction to social media is that most studies tend to examine specific social networking sites rather than social media use as a whole. Most published studies to date have concentrated on Facebook addiction mostly because of its longevity compared to other social networking sites (Kuss & Griffiths, 2017), but more recently there have been empirical studies on addictions to Instagram (Kırcaburun & Griffiths, 2018, 2019), Twitter (Kircaburun, 2016), TikTok (Zhang, Wu, & Liu, 2019; Zhou & Lee, 2021), QQ (Liu, Ahmed, Ahmed, Griffiths, & Chen, 2021), Bilibili (Yang, Griffiths, Yan, & Xu, 2021), Snapchat (Meshi, Turel, & Henley, 2020; Punyanunt-Carter, De La Cruz, & Wrench, 2017), and YouTube (Balakrishnan & Griffiths, 2017; de Bérail et al., 2019; Klobas, McGill, Moghavvemi, & Paramanathan, 2018). There is also a growing literature on particular micro-behaviors engaged in on social media platforms being potentially addictive such as individuals who post up to 200 selfies a day on social media and spending many hours a day and using filtering software to post ‘perfect’ selfies to get as many ‘likes’ as possible from their followers (Balakrishnan & Griffiths, 2018; Monacis, Griffiths, Limone, Sinatra, & Servidio, 2020; Pakpour, Lin, Lin, Imani, & Griffiths, 2020). There are also social media sites like Bilibili in China in which social interaction occurs in the form of scrolling comments (called ‘Danmu’ in Chinese) while watching short videos (Yang et al., 2021; Zhang & Cassany, 2020) and could be argued to be like a hybrid of YouTube and Facebook. In short, there are problems in conceptualizing whether social media disorder or social network use disorder should cover the totality of social media use, the use of one particular social media platform, or a specific behavior within a social media platform.

Pornography use disorder and buying-shopping disorder

When it comes to pornography use-disorder, some argue that it is just a sub-type of compulsive sexual behavior disorder and that it does not need to be a separate disorder (Andreassen, Pallesen, Torsheim, Demetrovics, & Griffiths, 2018; de Alarcón, de la Iglesia, Casado, & Montejo, 2019; Schneider, 1994). There are so many different types of sexual behavior that including pornography use disorder as a separate disorder ‘opens the floodgates’ for other types of problematic sexual behaviors to be formulated as disorders. Also, what is the potentially addictive element in pornography use? Is it the pornography or is it the masturbation that accompanies the pornography use? Is a compulsive masturbator clinically any different from compulsive pornography user? Are they the same thing?

Buying-shopping disorder may be less controversial in terms of nomenclature but arguably activities such as gambling could be classed as a buying disorder (and is certainly a spending money disorder) based on some definitions although I personally see gambling disorder and buying-shopping disorders as clinically and conceptually different. There is also an issue of whether the distinction between online and offline forms of the behavior in the ICD-11 are clinically and/or conceptually useful. Most potentially addictive activities (with the exception of exercise) can be carried out online (gambling, gaming, sex, work) or are exclusively engaged in online (social media use). Heavy users (including problematic users) of these activities are likely to engage in such activities both online and offline. The increasing reliance on online forms of these activity is simply because these activities can be accessed from wherever the individual is whether they are at home, at work, or in transit 24/7 if they have Wi-Fi access. The issue is simply one of convenience. If activities can be engaged in from mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, laptops), heavy users of specific potentially addictive activities will use such means to engage in their behavior of choice. The questions posed in this section concerning both pornography use disorder and buying-shopping disorder question the utility of viewing online forms of these disorders as being conceptually and clinically distinct.

Other potential disorders due to additive behaviors

Another issue that is worth raising is why Brand, Rumpf, Demetrovics, et al. (2022) only made the argument for three behaviors to be included in “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”. There are other potentially addictive behaviors that have been studied for far longer than addictions to social networking and pornography such as work addiction and exercise addiction, both of which have been studied for over 50 years (Baekeland, 1970; Little, 1969; Oates, 1968, 1971). Like addictions to pornography, social networking, and buying-shopping, there is a lack of largescale nationally representative survey studies, few neuroimaging studies, and very few studies comprising clinical samples and therefore there is little chance of any of these being formally recognized as addictive disorders in the near future. However, arguments could be made that the research carried out to date on exercise addiction and work addiction fulfil the three meta-criteria outlined by Brand, Rumpf, Demetrovics, et al. (2022), particularly because there is lots of empirical evidence from multiple scientific studies for impaired control caused by work and exercise, increasing priority of (and preoccupation with) work and exercise, and continuation or escalation of work and exercise despite the experiencing negative consequences (e.g., Griffiths, Demetrovics, & Atroszko, 2018; Kun, Takacs, Richman, Griffiths, & Demetrovics, 2020; Sicilia, Paterna, Alcaraz-Ibáñez, & Griffiths, 2021; Szabo, Griffiths, & Demetrovics, 2018).

However, I have also been accused by others in the field of ‘watering down the concept of addiction’ and my research into ‘moot addictions’ such as addictions to tanning (so-called ‘tanorexia’) (Andreassen, Pallesen, Griffiths, Torsheim, & Sinha, 2018), study addiction (as a sub-type of work addiction) (Atroszko, Andreassen, Griffiths, & Pallesen, 2016), dancing (as a sub-type of exercise addiction) (Maraz et al., 2015), and excessive selfie-taking (so called ‘selfitis’) (Balakrishnan & Griffiths, 2018) have been the focus of debate and criticism (Billieux, Flayelle, Rumpf, & Stein, 2019; Kardefelt-Winther et al., 2017; Starcevic, Billieux, & Schimmenti, 2018). However, very few of these behaviors fulfil my six criteria for addiction (i.e., salience, conflict, mood modification, tolerance, relapse, and withdrawal) outlined in the ‘addiction components model’ (Griffiths, 2005) and I have responded to these criticisms elsewhere (see Griffiths, 2017, 2018, 2019).

Other recent papers by Gola et al. (2022) and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both examined (in different ways), the extent to which excessive sexual behavior can be considered addictive, impulsive and/or compulsive. Sassover and Weinstein argued that the data supporting compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) as a behavioral addiction are limited and sparse, and that there are few largescale population-based studies. There are hundreds of published studies on problematic sexual behavior (see Grubbs et al. (2020) for a recent review) so the argument that the data are sparse is highly debatable. Maybe what Sassover and Weinstein really meant to say was that the number of studies with high-quality data are sparse. However, recent studies with high-quality data do appear to confirm that sex in its most excessive forms can be addictive, impulsive and/or compulsive using highly reliable and valid psychometric instruments (e.g., Andreassen, Pallesen, Torsheim, et al., 2018; Bőthe, Bartók, et al., 2018a, 2019a, 2019b, 2020, 2021) irrespective of definition or conceptualization of addiction. Previous reviews and comparative studies in the area have found support that problematic sex can be viewed as an addictive behavior and that there are similarities between sex as a behavioral addiction and psychoactive substance addictions in terms of studies from biological, psychological, epidemiological, sociological, and clinical perspectives (e.g., Konkolÿ Thege et al., 2016; Kraus, Voon, & Potenza, 2016; Sussman, Lisha, & Griffiths, 2011).

Sassover and Weinstein used my components model of addiction (Griffiths, 2005) to evaluate the existing literature about CSBD and concluded that most studies did not include all the six of my components of behavioral addiction in their CSBD definition. However, sex addiction and CSBD while overlapping are not the same construct. There are also studies that have developed psychometric instruments based solely on the addiction components model to assess sex addiction and problematic pornography consumption which clearly have assessed all six addiction components (e.g., Andreassen, Pallesen, Torsheim, et al., 2018; Bőthe, Tóth-Király, et al., 2018) which Sassover and Weinstein did acknowledge.

The recent papers by Brand, Rumpf, Demetrovics, et al. (2022), and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both make interesting additions to the place of behavioral addictions in the more general addictive behaviors field. While there is growing evidence that addictions to sex, pornography, social network sites, exercise, work, and buying/shopping may be genuine disorders among a minority of individuals, none of these behaviors is likely to be included in formal psychiatric manuals in the near future until there is further research collecting more high-quality data on all research fronts (e.g., epidemiological, neurobiological, psychological, and clinical).

Funding sources

None.

Authors’ contribution

MDG is responsible for all content in the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

MDG's university currently receives research funding from Norsk Tipping (the gambling operator owned by the Norwegian Government). MDG has also received funding for a number of research projects in the area of gambling education for young people, social responsibility in gambling and gambling treatment from Gamble Aware (formerly the Responsible Gambling Trust), and a charitable body which funds its research program based on donations from the gambling industry. MDG regularly undertakes consultancy for various gaming companies in the area of social responsibility in gambling. MDG has also been a member of the World Health Organization's expert groups on technology use and other advisory groups on behavioral addictions.

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  • Maraz, A. , Urbán, R. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2015). An empirical investigation of dance addiction. Plos One, 10(5), e0125988. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125988.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meshi, D. , Turel, O. , & Henley, D. (2020). Snapchat vs. Facebook: Differences in problematic use, behavior change attempts, and trait social reward preferences. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 12, 100294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100294.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monacis, L. , Griffiths, M. D. , Limone, P. , Sinatra, M. , & Servidio, R. (2020). Selfitis behavior: Assessing the Italian version of the scale and its mediating role in the relationship of dark traits with social media addiction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 5738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oates, W. (1968). On being a workaholic. Pastoral Psychology, 19(8), 1620. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01785472.

  • Oates, W. (1971). Confessions of a workaholic. New York: World.

  • Orosz, G. , Benyó, M. , Berkes, B. , Nikoletti, E. , Gál, É. , Tóth-Király, I. , & Bőthe, B. (2018). The personality, motivational, and need-based background of problematic Tinder use. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7, 301316. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.21.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orosz, G. , Tóth-Király, I. , Bőthe, B. , & Melher, D. (2016). Too many swipes for today: The development of the Problematic Tinder Use Scale (PTUS). Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(3), 518523. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.016.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pakpour, A. H. , Lin, C.-Y. , Lin, C.-K. , Imani, V. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Evaluation of the Selfitis Behavior Scale across two Persian-speaking countries, Iran and Afghanistan: Advanced psychometric testing in a largescale sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 18, 222235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00124-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. , De La Cruz, J. J. , & Wrench, J. S. (2017). Investigating the relationships among college students' satisfaction, addiction, needs, communication apprehension, motives, and uses & gratifications with Snapchat. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 870875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sassover, E. , & Weinstein, A. (2022). Should compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) be considered as a behavioral addiction? A debate paper presenting the opposing view. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 11(2), 166179. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00055.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, J. P. (1994). Sex addiction: Controversy within mainstream addiction medicine, diagnosis based on the DSM-III-R, and physician case histories. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 1(1), 1944. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720169408400025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sicilia, A. , Paterna, A. , Alcaraz-Ibáñez, M. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2021). Theoretical conceptualizations of problematic exercise in psychometric assessment instruments: A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 10, 420. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starcevic, V. , Billieux, J. , & Schimmenti, A. (2018). Selfitis, selfie addiction, Twitteritis: Irresistible appeal of medical terminology for problematic behaviours in the digital age. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 408409. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867418763532.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sussman, S. , Lisha, N. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Prevalence of the addictions: A problem of the majority or the minority? Evaluation and the Health Professions, 34, 356. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278710380124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szabo, A. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). Morbid exercise behavior: Addiction or psychological escape? In M. Wegner , & H. Budde (Eds.),Exercise and mental health: Neurobiological mechanisms (pp. 277311). New York: Taylor & Francis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van den Eijnden, R. J. , Lemmens, J. S. , & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The social media disorder scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 478487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.038.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (2019). ICD-11 for mortality and morbidity statistics. 2019 (06/17) http://id.who.int/icd/entity/129180281.

  • Yang, Z. , Griffiths, M. D. , Yan, Z. , & Xu, W. (2021). Can watching online videos be addictive? A qualitative exploration of online video watching among Chinese young adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(14), 7247. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147247.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, L. T. , & Cassany, D. (2020). Making sense of danmu: Coherence in massive anonymous chats on Bilibili.com. Discourse Studies, 22(4), 483502. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445620940051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X. , Wu, Y. , & Liu, S. (2019). Exploring short-form video application addiction: Socio-technical and attachment perspectives. Telematics and Informatics, 42, 101243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2019.101243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, Y. M. , & Lee, S. H. (2021). A study on the influencing factors on flow & addiction of Tiktok service users. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 12(3), 125132. https://doi.org/10.15207/JKCS.2021.12.3.125.

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  • de Alarcón, R. , de la Iglesia, J. I. , Casado, N. M. , & Montejo, A. L. (2019). Online porn addiction: What we know and what we don’t — A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(1), 91. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010091.

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  • Andreassen, C. S. , Billieux, J. , Griffiths, M. D. , Kuss, D. J. , Demetrovics, Z. , Mazzoni, E. , & Pallesen, S. (2016). The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30, 252262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000160.

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  • Andreassen, C. S. , Pallesen, S. , Griffiths, M. D. , Torsheim, T. , & Sinha, R. (2018b). The development and validation of the Bergen-Yale Sex Addiction Scale with a large national sample. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 144. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00144.

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  • Andreassen, C. S. , Pallesen, S. , Torsheim, T. , Demetrovics, Z. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2018a). Tanning addiction: Conceptualization, assessment, and correlates. British Journal of Dermatology, 179, 345352. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.16480.

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  • Atroszko, P. A. , Andreassen, C. S. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Pallesen, S. (2016). The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study. Journal of Behavioral Addiction, 5, 708714. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.076.

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  • Balakrishnan, J. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social media addiction: What is the role of content in YouTube? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6, 364377. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.058.

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  • Balakrishnan, J. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). An exploratory study of ‘selfitis' and the development of the Selfitis Behavior ScaleInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 16, 722736. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-017-9844-x.

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  • de Bérail, P. , Guillon, M. , & Bungener, C. (2019). The relations between YouTube addiction, social anxiety and parasocial relationships with YouTubers: A moderated-mediation model based on a cognitive-behavioral framework. Computers in Human Behavior, 99, 190204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.05.007.

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  • Billieux, J. , Flayelle, M. , Rumpf, H. J. , & Stein, D. J. (2019). High involvement versus pathological involvement in video games: A crucial distinction for ensuring the validity and utility of gaming disorder. Current Addiction Reports, 6(3), 323330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-019-00259-x.

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  • Billieux, J. , Schimmenti, A. , Khazaal, Y. , Maurage, P. , & Heeren, A. (2015). Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioural addiction research. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4, 119123. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.4.2015.009.

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  • Bonilla-Zorita, G. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Kuss, D. J. (2021). Online dating and problematic use: A systematic review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19, 22452278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00318-9.

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  • Bőthe, B. , Bartók, R. , Tóth-Király, I. , Reid, R. C. , Griffiths, M. D. , Demetrovics, Z. , & Orosz, G. (2018a). Hypersexuality, gender, and sexual orientation: A largescale psychometric survey study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47, 22652276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-018-1201-z.

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  • Bőthe, B. , Tóth-Király, I. , Zsila, Á. , Griffiths, M. D. , Demetrovics, Z. , & Orosz, G. (2018b). The development of the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (PPCS). Journal of Sex Research, 55, 395406. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2017.1291798.

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  • Bőthe, B. , Kovács, M. , Tóth-Király, I. , Reid, R. C. , Griffiths, M. D. , Orosz, G. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2019a). The psychometric properties Hypersexual Behavior Inventory using a large-scale nonclinical sample. Journal of Sex Research, 56, 180190. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2018.1494262.

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  • Bőthe, B. , Tóth-Király, I. , Potenza, M. N. , Griffiths, M. D. , Orosz, G. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2019b). Revisiting the role of impulsivity and compulsivity in problematic sexual behaviors. Journal of Sex Research, 56, 166179. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2018.1480744.

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  • Bőthe, B. , Potenza, M. N. , Griffiths, M. D. , Kraus, S. W. , Klein, V. , Fuss, J. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2020). The development of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale (CSBD-19): An ICD-11 based screening measure across three languages. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 9, 247258. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00034.

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  • Bőthe, B. , Tóth-Király, I. , Griffiths, M. D. , Potenza, M. N. , Demetrovics, Z. , & Orosz, G. (2021). Are sexual functioning problems associated with frequent pornography use and/or problematic pornography use? Results from a large community survey including men and women. Addictive Behaviors, 112, 106603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106603.

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  • Brand, M. , Rumpf, H. J. , Demetrovics, Z. , Müller, A. , Stark, R. , King, D. L. , …, Potenza, M. N. (2022). Which conditions should be considered as disorders in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) designation of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”? Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 11(2), 150159. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00035.

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  • Fernandez, D. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2021). Psychometric instruments for problematic pornography use: A systematic review. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 44, 111141. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278719861688.

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  • Gola, M. , Lewczuk, K. , Potenza, M. N. , Kingston, D. A. , Grubbs, J. B. , Stark, R. , & Reid, R. C. (2022). What should be included in the criteria for compulsive sexual behavior disorder? Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 11(2), 160165. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00090.

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  • Griffiths, M. D. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use, 10, 191197. https://doi.org/10.1080/14659890500114359.

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  • Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Facebook addiction: Concerns, criticisms and recommendations. Psychological Reports, 110, 518520. https://doi.org/10.2466/01.07.18.PR0.110.2.518-520.

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  • Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Behavioural addiction and substance addiction should be defined by their similarities not their dissimilarities. Addiction, 112, 17181720. http://doi.org/10.1111/add.13828.

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  • Griffiths, M. D. (2018). ‘Behavioural addiction’ and ‘selfitis’ as constructs – The truth is out there! Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 730731. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867418782423.

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  • Griffiths, M. D. (2019). The evolution of the ‘components model of addiction’ and the need for a confirmatory approach in conceptualizing behavioral addictions. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 32, 179184. https://doi.org/10.14744/DAJPNS.2019.00027.

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  • Griffiths, M. D. , Demetrovics, Z. , & Atroszko, P. A. (2018). Ten myths about work addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7, 845857. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.05.

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  • Grubbs, J. B. , Hoagland, K. C. , Lee, B. N. , Grant, J. T. , Davison, P. , Reid, R. C. , & Kraus, S. W. (2020). Sexual addiction 25 years on: A systematic and methodological review of empirical literature and an agenda for future research. Clinical Psychology Review, 82, 101925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101925.

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  • Kardefelt-Winther, D. , Heeren, A. , Schimmenti, A. , van Rooij, A. , Maurage, P. , Carras, M. , … Billieux, J. (2017). How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours? Addiction, 112(10), 17091715. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13763.

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  • Kircaburun, K. (2016). Effects of gender and personality differences on Twitter Addiction among Turkish undergraduates. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(24), 3342. http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP.

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  • Kırcaburun, K. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Instagram addiction and the big five of personality: The mediating role of self-liking. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7, 158170. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.15.

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  • Kırcaburun, K. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). Problematic Instagram use: The role of perceived feeling of presence and escapism. International Journal of Mental Health and Addictions, 17, 909921. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9895-7.

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  • Klobas, J. E. , McGill, T. J. , Moghavvemi, S. , & Paramanathan, T. (2018). Compulsive YouTube usage: A comparison of use motivation and personality effects. Computers in Human Behavior, 87, 129139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.05.038.

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  • Konkolÿ Thege, B. , Hodgins, D. C. , & Wild, T. C. (2016). Co-occurring substance-related and behavioral addiction problems: A person-centered, lay epidemiology approach. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(4), 614622. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.079.

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  • Kraus, S. W. , Voon, V. , & Potenza, M. N. (2016). Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction? Addiction, 111, 20972106. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13297.

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  • Kun, B. , Takacs, Z. K. , Richman, M. J. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2020). Work addiction and personality: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Behavioral Addiction, 9, 945966. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00097.

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  • Kuss, D. J. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social networking sites and addiction: Ten lessons learned. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14, 311. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030311.

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  • Kuss, D. J. , Pontes, H. M. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Neurobiological correlates in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 166. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00166.

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  • Little, J. C. (1969). Athletic neurosis: A deprivation crisis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 45, 187197. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1969.tb10373.x.

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  • Liu, J. , Ahmed, M. Z. , Ahmed, O. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Chen, L. (2021). Development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Problematic QQ Use Scale among adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 6744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136744.

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  • Maraz, A. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2016). The prevalence of compulsive buying in non-clinical populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction, 111, 408419.

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    • Export Citation
  • Maraz, A. , Urbán, R. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2015). An empirical investigation of dance addiction. Plos One, 10(5), e0125988. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125988.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meshi, D. , Turel, O. , & Henley, D. (2020). Snapchat vs. Facebook: Differences in problematic use, behavior change attempts, and trait social reward preferences. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 12, 100294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100294.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monacis, L. , Griffiths, M. D. , Limone, P. , Sinatra, M. , & Servidio, R. (2020). Selfitis behavior: Assessing the Italian version of the scale and its mediating role in the relationship of dark traits with social media addiction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 5738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oates, W. (1968). On being a workaholic. Pastoral Psychology, 19(8), 1620. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01785472.

  • Oates, W. (1971). Confessions of a workaholic. New York: World.

  • Orosz, G. , Benyó, M. , Berkes, B. , Nikoletti, E. , Gál, É. , Tóth-Király, I. , & Bőthe, B. (2018). The personality, motivational, and need-based background of problematic Tinder use. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7, 301316. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.21.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orosz, G. , Tóth-Király, I. , Bőthe, B. , & Melher, D. (2016). Too many swipes for today: The development of the Problematic Tinder Use Scale (PTUS). Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(3), 518523. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.016.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pakpour, A. H. , Lin, C.-Y. , Lin, C.-K. , Imani, V. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Evaluation of the Selfitis Behavior Scale across two Persian-speaking countries, Iran and Afghanistan: Advanced psychometric testing in a largescale sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 18, 222235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00124-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. , De La Cruz, J. J. , & Wrench, J. S. (2017). Investigating the relationships among college students' satisfaction, addiction, needs, communication apprehension, motives, and uses & gratifications with Snapchat. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 870875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sassover, E. , & Weinstein, A. (2022). Should compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) be considered as a behavioral addiction? A debate paper presenting the opposing view. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 11(2), 166179. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00055.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, J. P. (1994). Sex addiction: Controversy within mainstream addiction medicine, diagnosis based on the DSM-III-R, and physician case histories. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 1(1), 1944. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720169408400025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sicilia, A. , Paterna, A. , Alcaraz-Ibáñez, M. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2021). Theoretical conceptualizations of problematic exercise in psychometric assessment instruments: A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 10, 420. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starcevic, V. , Billieux, J. , & Schimmenti, A. (2018). Selfitis, selfie addiction, Twitteritis: Irresistible appeal of medical terminology for problematic behaviours in the digital age. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 408409. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867418763532.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sussman, S. , Lisha, N. , & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Prevalence of the addictions: A problem of the majority or the minority? Evaluation and the Health Professions, 34, 356. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278710380124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szabo, A. , Griffiths, M. D. , & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). Morbid exercise behavior: Addiction or psychological escape? In M. Wegner , & H. Budde (Eds.),Exercise and mental health: Neurobiological mechanisms (pp. 277311). New York: Taylor & Francis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van den Eijnden, R. J. , Lemmens, J. S. , & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The social media disorder scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 478487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.038.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (2019). ICD-11 for mortality and morbidity statistics. 2019 (06/17) http://id.who.int/icd/entity/129180281.

  • Yang, Z. , Griffiths, M. D. , Yan, Z. , & Xu, W. (2021). Can watching online videos be addictive? A qualitative exploration of online video watching among Chinese young adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(14), 7247. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147247.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, L. T. , & Cassany, D. (2020). Making sense of danmu: Coherence in massive anonymous chats on Bilibili.com. Discourse Studies, 22(4), 483502. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445620940051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X. , Wu, Y. , & Liu, S. (2019). Exploring short-form video application addiction: Socio-technical and attachment perspectives. Telematics and Informatics, 42, 101243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2019.101243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, Y. M. , & Lee, S. H. (2021). A study on the influencing factors on flow & addiction of Tiktok service users. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 12(3), 125132. https://doi.org/10.15207/JKCS.2021.12.3.125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

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WoS
5223
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7,130
5 Year
Impact Factor
9,026
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
56
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,951
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
Scopus
SNIP
2,184

2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
submission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 850 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Luke CLARK (University of British Columbia, Canada)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • H. N. Alexander LOGEMANN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Astrid MÜLLER (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Attila SZABÓ (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Róbert URBÁN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN (Ariel University, Israel)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. ABBOTT (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. ABOUJAOUDE (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat ADELI (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex BLASZCZYNSKI (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Kenneth BLUM (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook CHOI (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan DENYS (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Heather HAUSENBLAS (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias HAYER (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung JEONG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel KUNTSCHE (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel LEJOXEUX (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Frederick GERARD MOELLER (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy PETRY (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. REID (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc TÚRY (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred UHL (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Johan VANDERLINDEN (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Kimberly YOUNG (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)

 

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