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Rafael Ballester-Arnal Department of Basic and Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain

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Jesús Castro-Calvo Department of Personality, Assessment, and Psychological Treatments, University of Valencia-Estudi General, Valencia, Spain

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Marta García-Barba Department of Basic and Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain

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Juan Enrique Nebot-García Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia-Estudi General, Valencia, Spain

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María Dolores Gil-Llario Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia-Estudi General, Valencia, Spain

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Abstract

Background and aims

Despite the inclusion of Compulsive Sexual Behavior (CSB) as a diagnostic entity in the ICD-11 and the increasing number of studies addressing psychological factors leading to its onset and maintenance, little is known about the role of hormonal factors when accounting for this clinical condition (especially in women). This study aimed to provide insights into the association between testosterone levels (i.e., the androgen more intimately linked to sexual desire and arousability) and CSB in both men and women.

Methods

A total of 80 participants (40 men [Mage = 22.31; SD = 2.93] and 40 women [Mage = 21.79; SD = 2.06]) provided a saliva sample for the estimation of the level of free testosterone and completed a battery of measures assessing CSB and other related sexual domains (sexual sensation seeking and online/offline sexual behavior).

Results

In men, salivary testosterone had a positive and significant correlation with three scales assessing CSB (r between 0.316 and 0.334). In women, these correlations were small and non-significant (r between 0.011 and 0.079). In both men and women, the level of salivary testosterone had small non-significant correlations with the other domains of sexual behavior assessed.

Discussion and conclusions

Individuals' level of testosterone may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of CSB, but only in men. In women, alternative psychological –i.e., motivational, behavioral, or cognitive– processes may be playing a more central role in the expression of this condition.

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite the inclusion of Compulsive Sexual Behavior (CSB) as a diagnostic entity in the ICD-11 and the increasing number of studies addressing psychological factors leading to its onset and maintenance, little is known about the role of hormonal factors when accounting for this clinical condition (especially in women). This study aimed to provide insights into the association between testosterone levels (i.e., the androgen more intimately linked to sexual desire and arousability) and CSB in both men and women.

Methods

A total of 80 participants (40 men [Mage = 22.31; SD = 2.93] and 40 women [Mage = 21.79; SD = 2.06]) provided a saliva sample for the estimation of the level of free testosterone and completed a battery of measures assessing CSB and other related sexual domains (sexual sensation seeking and online/offline sexual behavior).

Results

In men, salivary testosterone had a positive and significant correlation with three scales assessing CSB (r between 0.316 and 0.334). In women, these correlations were small and non-significant (r between 0.011 and 0.079). In both men and women, the level of salivary testosterone had small non-significant correlations with the other domains of sexual behavior assessed.

Discussion and conclusions

Individuals' level of testosterone may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of CSB, but only in men. In women, alternative psychological –i.e., motivational, behavioral, or cognitive– processes may be playing a more central role in the expression of this condition.

Introduction

For some individuals, excessive and uncontrolled involvement in different sexual activities may become problematic and associated with severe problems in various aspects of daily living (Walton, Cantor, Bhullar, & Lykins, 2017), in many cases requiring the provision of mental healthcare to gain control over their sexual impulses (Antons et al., 2022). After a long discussion around the precise clinical formulation and categorization of this clinical presentation, the World Health Organization officially included the new category of “compulsive sexual behavior disorder” (CSBD) as an impulse-control disorder in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) (Kraus et al., 2018). However, the dispute around its nosology and etiopathogenesis remains (Castro-Calvo et al., 2022).

The recognition of Compulsive Sexual Behavior (CSB)1 as an impulse-control disorder in the ICD-11 has been long debated since a competitive view is that this condition should rather be classified as a sexual disorder (Reed et al., 2022). According to this view, CSB represents the upper end of a continuum of sexual drive (i.e., a goal-oriented motivational state of wanting to have a sexual experience that leans individuals toward or pushes them away from sexual behavior [Levine, 2003; White & Acevedo, 2023]), in which hypoactive sexual desire constitutes the polar opposite. This was the approach behind the failed attempt to include CSB –operationalized as “Hypersexual Disorder”– as a sexual disorder in the DSM-5 (Kafka, 2010), or behind the outdated category of “excessive sexual drive” from the ICD-10 (unlike the current ICD approach, also categorizing CSB in the chapter on sexual dysfunctions) (Briken, 2020). At a theoretical level, three models capture this view: the «Dual Control Model» (Bancroft & Vukadinovic, 2004), the «Sexhavior Cycle» (Walton et al., 2017), and the more recent «Integrated Model of CSBD» (Briken, 2020). The Dual Control Model proposes that CSB is the result of an increased sexual excitation together with a decreased sexual inhibition. Similarly, the Sexhavior Cycle suggests that a biologically heightened sexual urge constitutes the substrate triggering subsequent stages in the cycle of out-of-control sexual behavior. Finally, the Integrated Model of CSBD argues that individuals with CSB experience an imbalance between sexual inhibition and excitation attributable to multiple pathways (among which testosterone is considered as a prerequisite for CSB) (Briken, 2020). Recent attempts to identify cohesive subcomponents of CSB have concluded that this condition comprises two correlated but distinguishable dimensions: problematic sexuality (including essential features of CSB such as the lack of control over sexual behavior or the use of sex as a coping mechanism) and sexual drive (related to high sexual excitement and more erotophilic tendencies) (Knight & Du, 2021). Even when this approach recognizes the presence of different pathways to CSB, an increased expression of sexual arousal and desire is still considered a primary component of CSB.

If these theoretical models were correct and sexual drive is playing a central role in the etiopathogenesis of CSB, then factors affecting the expression of an increased sexual excitation would be of relevance for the understanding of this condition. Among these factors, sex hormones –in particular, free testosterone (or the level of circulating bioavailable testosterone [Shea, Wong, & Chen, 2014])– may be playing a central role (Chatzittofis et al., 2022). Testosterone is an essential biomarker of sexual development and differentiation (particularly in men), but also one of the most important sex hormones during adulthood (Shea et al., 2014). The impact of testosterone in the expression of both normal and pathological sexual desire and arousability is well known (Bancroft, 2005). As CSB is characterized by an increased sexual drive that goes beyond individuals self-control (Knight & Du, 2021), thus testosterone would constitute a putative contributor to CSB (Briken, 2020). According to Chatzittofis et al. (2022), the level of free testosterone may influence on the etiopathogenesis of CSB through their role in the hypothalamus-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis: the HPG axis is crucial in the regulation of sexual desire, with testosterone acting directly and indirectly (through the conversion to estradiol) on its regulation. An imbalance in the level of free testosterone may result in a dysregulation of sexual desire, potentially leading to the symptoms of hypersexual desire and out-of-control sexual behavior that characterize CSB (Chatzittofis et al., 2022). However, to date, only two studies have explored the association between testosterone and CSB. Rodríguez-Nieto, Dewitte, Sack, and Schuhmann (2021) found correlations ranging from 0.34 to 0.51 between salivary testosterone and CSB in a sample of 69 healthy young men. On the other hand, Chatzittofis et al. (2020) did not find significant differences in the level of plasma testosterone after comparing 69 men with CSB and 39 healthy controls. However, correlations between plasma testosterone and CSB were near significance in the total sample (r = 0.24) and significant in the subsample of men with CSB (r = 0.28). A third study indirectly addressed the role of testosterone in CSB by testing the effect of testosterone suppression on its manifestation in a sample of men with pedophilic interests (Landgren, Olsson, Briken, & Rahm, 2022). These authors found that testosterone withdrawal had a significant impact on the reduction of CSB symptoms at ten weeks of initiating the treatment. However, this treatment also reduced sexual desire, rising questions about its specificity.

All the studies conducted so far providing insights into the association between the level of testosterone and symptoms of CSB comprised male samples, meaning that the association between testosterone and CSB in women remains unknown. Given this gender gap and the preliminary nature of available results, the aim of this research was to explore the association between testosterone levels and CSB in both men and women. This study may contribute to the development of a recent and promising area of research related to the neurochemical and hormonal contributors to CSB (Chatzittofis et al., 2022).

Methods

Participants and procedure

Data acquisition for this study took place over 2015–2016. Participants were recruited from a database of subjects that one year ago had taken part in a larger data collection effort examining the sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile of adults with and without CSB (Castro-Calvo, Gil-Llario, Giménez-García, Gil-Juliá, & Ballester-Arnal, 2020). A random sample of participants in this previous research was selected and received an invitation to participate in the present study. Those who expressed their interest and met the inclusion criteria (age between 18 and 30 years old and without medical conditions or pharmacological treatments that could affect testosterone levels) completed an in-lab assessment. A total of 40 men between 18 and 29 years old (M = 22.31) and 40 women between 18 and 28 years old (M = 21.79) participated in the study (see Table 1 for a description of sociodemographic and sexual characteristics).

Table 1.

Participants' characteristics

Men (n = 40)

% (n) or M (SD)
Women (n = 40)

% (n) or M (SD)
Inferential statisticSize effect
Sociodemographic data
 Age (range 18–29)22.31 (2.93)21.79 (2.06)t = −0.89d = 0.20
 Steady partner (yes)
  Single38.5% (15)7.7% (3)X2 = 12.26**V = 0.39
  Steady partner48.7% (19)84.6% (33)
  Casual relationships12.8% (5)7.7% (3)
 Sexual orientation
  Straight84.6% (33)89.7% (35)X2 = 10.05**V = 0.36
  Bisexual0% (0)10.3% (4)
  Gay/lesbian15.4% (6)0% (0)
Testosterone
 Salivary testosterone (pg mL−1)63.59 (27.09)38.68 (17.81)t = 4.79***d = 1.08
Compulsive Sexual Behavior
 HBI Total score (range 19–95)37.38 (15.17)28.26 (11.01)t = 3.04**d = 0.68
 CSB diagnosis according to the HBI cut-off scorea17.1% (7)5.1% (2)X2 = 3.14V = 0.20
 SCS Total score (range 10–40)16.28 (6.52)12.67 (4.56)t = 2.83**d = 0.64
 CSB diagnosis according to the SCS cut-off scoreb15.4% (6)5.1% (2)X2 = 2.22V = 0.17
 SAST Total score (range 0–25)6.33 (4.91)2.49 (3.50)t = 3.97***d = 0.90
 CSB diagnosis according to the SAST cut-off scorec15.4% (6)5.1% (2)X2 = 2.22V = 0.17
 ISST Total score (range 0–25)9.49 (4.32)4.44 (3.11)t = 5.91***d = 1.34
Sexual dispositional traits
 SSSS Total Score (range 11–44)28.62 (6.86)24.28 (6.64)t = 2.83**d = 0.64
Offline and online sexual behavior
 Lifetime number of sexual partners7.54 (7.96)4.82 (4.65)t = 1.82d = 0.41
 Frequency of sexual activity (including masturbation)
  <6 times per year2.6% (1)0% (0)X2 = 19.03**V = 0.464
  Around 1 time per month0% (0)2.6% (1)
  2 or 3 times per week0% (0)2.6% (1)
  1 time per week2.6% (1)23.1% (9)
  2 or 3 times per week17.9% (7)38.5% (15)
  >3 times per week76.9% (30)33.3% (13)
  Average frequency among those reporting >3 times per weekd7.70 (4.85)6.46 (2.66)t = 0.86d = 0.31
  Minutes per week devoted to online sexual activities133.07 (113.30)26.15 (37.17)t = 5.59***d = 1.26

Note: Some of the variables included missing data, thus explaining that the sum of participants' responses in some variables do not add up to 40. HBI: Hypersexual Behavior Inventory; SCS: Sexual Compulsivity Scale; SAST: Sexual Addiction Screening Test; ISST: Internet Sex Screening Test; SSSS: Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale; a = HBI score ≥53 (Reid et al., 2011); b = SCS score ≥24 (Parsons, Bimbi, & Halkitis, 2001); c = SAST score >13 (Carnes, 1989); d = participants reporting a sexual frequency >3 times per week were asked to report the exact number of orgasms achieved per week (total sexual outlet); *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

To avoid variations due to natural daily oscillations of testosterone, participants were assessed between 09:00–11:00 am. At arrival, participants signed consent form, completed a paper-and-pencil assessment battery, and provided a saliva sample. To ensure the reliability and validity of testosterone measurements, participants were asked to refrain from using alcohol or coffee for 12 h before the collection of saliva sample, as well as from eating, smoking, drinking, chewing gum, or brushing their teeth for 60 min before. Average time to complete the study was around one hour and participants received 10€ as compensation.

Measures

Salivary testosterone

To measure endogenous levels of testosterone, participants provided a saliva sample (approximately 1 mL) via passive drool into a DiaMetra saliva collection device. Saliva samples were frozen immediately after collection and stored at −20 ºC until the end of the data collection period. After approximately one month of storage at −20 ºC, samples were packed on dry ice and shipped to an independent laboratory for the analysis of salivary free testosterone. Samples were assayed using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay technique (DiaMetra ELISA kit). The DiaMetra ELISA kit allows for the determination of testosterone in a range from 10 pg mL−1 to 1,000 pg mL−1. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were ≤8% and ≤13.2% respectively. As for its analytical sensitivity, the lowest detectable concentration of testosterone distinguishable from zero was 2.96 pg mL−1. The validity of this method was further supported by its correlation with the results from another commercially available ELISA method (the DRG ELISA kit [r = 0.983]). All the assays passed the laboratory control and provided reliable results.

Questionnaires

Compulsive sexual behavior was assessed through the Spanish version of the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI, Ballester-Arnal, Castro-Calvo, Gil-Juliá, Giménez-García, & Gil-Llario, 2019, α = 0.95 [Spanish version]; Reid, Garos, & Carpenter, 2011 [English version]), the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS, Ballester-Arnal, Gómez-Martínez, Gil-Llario, & Salmerón-Sánchez, 2013, α = 0.91 [Spanish version]; Kalichman & Rompa, 1995 [English version]), and the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST, Carnes, 1983 [English version]; Castro-Calvo, Ballester-Arnal, Billieux, Gil-Juliá, & Gil-Llario, 2018, α = 0.88 [Spanish version]). Participants also completed the Internet Sex Screening Test (ISST, Ballester-Arnal, Gil-Llario, Gómez-Martínez, & Gil-Juliá, 2010, α = 0.84 [Spanish version]; Delmonico, Miller, & Miller, 2003 [English version]), a scale measuring out-of-control online sexual behavior. Participants' tendency towards sexual excitement and novel sexual experiences was measured by the Spanish adaptation of the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS, Ballester-Arnal, Ruiz-Palomino, Espada, Morell-Mengual, & Gil-Llario, 2018, α = 0.87 [Spanish version]; Kalichman & Rompa, 1995 [English version]). Finally, participants were asked to report: (a) frequency of solo and partnered sexual activity (7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 [“Less than 6 times per year”] to 7 [“More than three times per week”]); (b) exact frequency among those who answered “more than three times per week” in previous question; and (c) time online for sexual activities (minutes per week).

Data analysis

All analyses were performed using SPSS (version 26.0) and G*Power (version 3.1). Descriptive analyses were first conducted to profile participants according to sociodemographic data, level of salivary testosterone, CSB, sexual sensation seeking, and online/offline sexual behavior. Student t-tests and chi-square tests were then used to investigate differences according to the biological sex in continuous and categorical variables. Cohen's d and Cramer's V were computed to estimate effect size of these differences. Correlational analyses (Pearson's r) were finally used to determine the association between the measures of sexual behavior collected and the level of salivary testosterone. Confidence Intervals (CI) for r’ estimates were based on 1,000 bootstrapped samples.

Ethics

This study was approved by the ethics committee of the Jaume I University. Participants were informed about the study aim and provided informed consent.

Results

Figure 1 shows correlations between salivary testosterone level and the different aspects of sexual behavior assessed, disaggregated by the biological sex. In men, scores on three measures of CSB had a positive and significant correlation with salivary testosterone: HBI (r = 0.322; p = 0.046), SCS (r = 0.334; p = 0.038), and SAST (r = 0.316; p = 0.050). As the CI for r intersected with zero in the correlations with the HBI (95% CI: −0.046, 0.610) and SAST (95% CI: −0.067, 0.630), these results should be interpreted with caution: although normal theory estimated p value was significant, bootstrapped CI suggests that the correlation between testosterone and these two measures of CSB may not be significant. The level of salivary testosterone had small non-significant correlations with the other domains of sexual behavior assessed (r between −0.016 and 0.192).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Correlations between levels of salivary testosterone and the different aspects of sexual behavior assessed

Citation: Journal of Behavioral Addictions 12, 3; 10.1556/2006.2023.00047

In women, the level of salivary testosterone did not significantly correlate with any of the aspects of sexual behavior assessed (r between −0.150 and 0.079).

Discussion

This research aimed to explore the association between testosterone and CSB, an aspect that may contribute to the characterization of the factors leading to this condition. In line with previous observations, men scoring higher on CSB showed increased levels of salivary testosterone (r between 0.316 and 0.334). These figures resonate with those obtained by Rodríguez-Nieto et al. (2021) in a sample of healthy young men (r between 34 and 0.51) and by Chatzittofis et al. (2020) in a sample of men with CSB (r = 0.28), meaning that both the proneness to experience out-of-control sexual behaviors in men without CSB and the severity of the condition in clinical patients may be heightened by the presence of this hormonal disposition. As the levels of salivary testosterone did not correlate with other domains of sexual behavior intimately linked to CSB (e.g., sexual sensation seeking or sexual frequency), we may infer that the contribution of this sex hormone when accounting for out-of-control sexual behavior is specific (i.e., our results support the unique contribution of testosterone to CSB proneness without the intervention in other sexual domains). This specificity resonates with contemporary approaches to the characterization of CSB, distinguishing two relatively independent subcomponents comprising this condition (Knight & Du, 2021): a subcomponent of “problematic sexuality” (as measured by most available screening scales, such as the SCS, HBI, and SAST) related to the level of salivary testosterone and a dimension of “sexual drive” (as measured by aspects such as sexual frequency or sexual sensation seeking) unrelated to the level of testosterone. This finding may seem paradoxical, as someone may expect that testosterone (a sex hormone intimately linked to sexual desire and arousability [Bancroft, 2005]) should be associated with sexual drive rather than with symptoms of lack control over sexual behavior. However, as pointed out by Chatzittofis et al. (2022), the HPG axis may interact with other endocrine systems (such as the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis [HPA], highly influenced by the effect of cortisol), thus explaining why testosterone –a priori linked to high sexual desire– may play a significant role in the expression of symptoms of sexual disinhibition. Supporting this point, previous studies have found that testosterone is associated with CSB symptoms in the presence of low levels of cortisol (Chatzittofis et al., 2016, 2020).

That said, it is important to note that these results should be interpreted with caution: confidence intervals of the association between CSB and testosterone were wide, and in some cases (in particular, the association between testosterone and HBI and SAST scores), intersected with zero. This means that despite the significant association between testosterone and CSB, the influence of the former on the etiopathogenesis of CSB would be limited and unstable. Thus, in the best scenario (i.e., assuming that testosterone has an unquestionable positive association with CSB), testosterone should be considered one of the risk factors that, in conjunction with multiple other biopsychosocial factors, leads to the onset and maintenance of this condition (Briken, 2020). This observation warrants the exploration of the interaction between testosterone and other risk factors when it comes to explaining the clinical expression of CSB.

At a theoretical level, these findings support models proposing that one of the core features explaining CSB is the presence of an increased sexual drive (Bancroft & Vukadinovic, 2004; Briken, 2020; Walton et al., 2017). However, as this study is correlational (and therefore, causality cannot be stablished), we cannot discard that heightened levels of testosterone are the result –and not the cause– of CSB. Supporting this alternative explanation, some studies have found that previous exposition to sexual stimuli may alter subsequent testosterone levels (Redouté et al., 2000). At a clinical level, our results should not be interpreted as a foundation for the use of testosterone suppression in CSB: whereas the level of testosterone has a direct and specific effect on CSB, the impact of testosterone suppression on reducing symptoms of CSB is mediated by an even more pronounced reduction of sexual interest in general (Landgren et al., 2022). As the therapeutic aim of treatments for CSB should be the recovery of normal sexual functioning rather than its suppression, antiandrogen therapy do not seem to constitute an advised therapeutic approach in patients without concomitant paraphilic or sexual-offending tendencies (Chatzittofis et al., 2022).

In women, salivary testosterone level did not correlate with CSB (r between 0.011 and 0.079). This finding dismisses the hypothesis of this sex hormone as a precursor of CSB in women, meaning that alternative psychological –i.e., motivational, behavioral, or cognitive– processes may be playing a more central role in the expression of this condition. This conclusion goes in line with the findings from recent systematic reviews showing that certain predisposing factors increasing the likelihood of CSB (e.g., the level of impulsivity or the presence of a previous sexual dysfunction) play a more relevant role in men (Kowalewska, Gola, Kraus, & Lew-Starowicz, 2020). Unfortunately, little is known about neurobiological and neurocognitive mechanisms leading to CSB in women (Kowalewska et al., 2018), but it may be also the case of testosterone. More generally, this conclusion resonates with alternative conceptualizations of female sexuality advocating for a limited role of biological underpinnings on females' sexual desire (Basson, 2000). Supporting this limited influence of sex hormones in women's sexual behavior, literature exploring the influence of testosterone in women's seems to be inconsistent and pointing out a limited impact (Bancroft, 2005).

This study is not without limitations. First, free testosterone level was measured using saliva samples. While research suggest that salivary testosterone is correlated with serum testosterone, this method is limited in several ways (Granger, Shirtcliff, Booth, Kivlighan, & Schwartz, 2004). Also related to testosterone measurement, female participants were not asked to report the phase of the menstrual cycle during the testosterone measurement. In women, salivary testosterone may vary depending on the menstrual cycle (with higher levels observed during mid-cycle) (Bui et al., 2013). While this aspect has a significant impact on the level of free testosterone, the size of its influence is limited (in the range between ± 0.3 pg mL−1) (Salonia et al., 2008), leading some experts to conclude that “the elevation of mid-cycle testosterone concentrations is statistically significant, although not clinically relevant” (Bui et al., 2013, p. 96). This means that research replication controlling for the menstrual phase is warranted, yet major changes should not be expected in the study findings. Furthermore, the limited sample size prevents us to provide definitive conclusions on the relationship between CSB and testosterone, meaning that further research is required (especially in women). Finally, the low number of participants meeting the threshold for a CSBD diagnosis (between 5.1% and 17.1%) calls into question the generalizability of the results in clinical samples. As taxometric studies conclude that differences in out-of-control sexual behavior are dimensional (Graham, Walters, Harris, & Knight, 2016), we may expect that the same pathways –and variables– leading to higher levels of CSB would be involved in its pathological expression. However, studies with larger clinical samples are warranted to confirm this point.

Conclusion

Individuals' level of testosterone may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of CSB, but only in men. In women, alternative psychological –i.e., motivational, behavioral, or cognitive– processes may be playing a more central role in the expression of this condition.

Funding sources

This research was supported by grant P1.1B2012-49 and P1.1B2015-82 of the University Jaume I of Castellón and grant PSI2011-27992/11 I 384 of the Ministry of Science and Innovation (Spain).

Authors' contribution

RBA, MDGL and JCC contributed to study design, obtaining funding, and/or study supervision. RBA, JCC, MGB and JENG participated in recruiting participants and collecting data. RBA and JCC contributed to analysis/interpretation of data, and/or writing of the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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  • Castro-Calvo, J., Gil-Llario, M. D., Giménez-García, C., Gil-Juliá, B., & Ballester-Arnal, R. (2020). Ocurrence and clinical characteristics of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD): A cluster analysis in two independent community samples. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 9(12), 446468. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzittofis, A., Arver, S., Öberg, K., Hallberg, J., Nordström, P., & Jokinen, J. (2016). HPA axis dysregulation in men with hypersexual disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 247253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzittofis, A., Boström, A. E., Öberg, K. G., Flanagan, J. N., Schiöth, H. B., Arver, S., & Jokinen, J. (2020). Normal testosterone but higher luteinizing hormone plasma levels in men with hypersexual disorder. Sexual Medicine, 8(2), 243250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2020.02.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzittofis, A., Boström, A. D. E., Savard, J., Öberg, K. G., Arver, S., & Jokinen, J. (2022). Neurochemical and hormonal contributors to compulsive sexual behavior disorder. Current Addiction Reports, 9(1), 2331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-021-00403-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delmonico, D. L., Miller, J., & Miller, J. A. (2003). The Internet sex screening test: A comparison of sexual compulsives versus non-sexual compulsives. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 261276. https://doi.org/10.1080/1468199031000153900.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, F. J., Walters, G. D., Harris, D. A., & Knight, R. A. (2016). Is hypersexuality dimensional or categorical? Evidence from male and female college samples. The Journal of Sex Research, 53(2), 224238. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.1003524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Granger, D. A., Shirtcliff, E. A., Booth, A., Kivlighan, K. T., & Schwartz, E. B. (2004). The “trouble” with salivary testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(10), 12291240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.02.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kafka, M. P. (2010). Hypersexual disorder: A proposed diagnosis for DSM-V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(2), 377400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-009-9574-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. (1995). Sexual sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity scales: Reliability, validity, and predicting HIV risk behavior. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65(3), 586601. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6503_16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knight, R. A., & Du, R. (2021). The structure, covariates, and etiology of hypersexuality: Implications for sexual offending. Current Psychiatry Reports, 23(50), 111. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-021-01260-w.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalewska, E., Gola, M., Kraus, S. W., & Lew-Starowicz, M. (2020). Spotlight on compulsive sexual behavior disorder: A systematic review of research on women. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 16, 20252043. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S221540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalewska, E., Grubbs, J. B., Potenza, M. N., Gola, M., Draps, M., & Kraus, S. W. (2018). Neurocognitive mechanisms in compulsive sexual behavior disorder. Current Sexual Health Reports, 10, 255264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11930-018-0176-z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraus, S. W., Krueger, R. B., Briken, P., First, M. B., Stein, D. J., Kaplan, M. S., … Reed, G. M. (2018). Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder in the ICD-11. World Psychiatry, 17(1), 109110. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landgren, V., Olsson, P., Briken, P., & Rahm, C. (2022). Effects of testosterone suppression on desire, hypersexuality, and sexual interest in children in men with pedophilic disorder. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 112. https://doi.org/10.1080/15622975.2021.2014683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levine, S. B. (2003). The nature of sexual desire: A clinician’s perspective. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32(3), 279285.

  • Parsons, J. T., Bimbi, D. S., & Halkitis, P. N. (2001). Sexual compulsivity among gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise on the Internet. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8(2), 101112. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720160127562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Redouté, J., Stoléru, S., Grégoire, M. C., Costes, N., Cinotti, L., Lavenne, F., … Pujol, J. F. (2000). Brain processing of visual sexual stimuli in human males. Human Brain Mapping, 11(3), 162177. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0193(200011)11:3<162::AID-HBM30>3.0.CO;2-A.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, G. M., First, M. B., Billieux, J., Cloitre, M., Briken, P., Achab, S., … Bryant, R. A. (2022). Emerging experience with selected new categories in the ICD-11: Complex PTSD, prolonged grief disorder, gaming disorder, and compulsive sexual behaviour disorder. World Psychiatry, 21(2), 189213. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reid, R. C., Garos, S., & Carpenter, B. N. (2011). Reliability, validity, and psychometric development of the hypersexual behavior inventory in an outpatient sample of men. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 18(1), 3051. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720162.2011.555709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodríguez-Nieto, G., Dewitte, M., Sack, A. T., & Schuhmann, T. (2021). Individual differences in testosterone and self-control predict compulsive sexual behavior proneness in young males. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(December), 110. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.723449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salonia, A., Pontillo, M., Nappi, R. E., Zanni, G., Fabbri, F., Scavini, M., … Montorsi, F. (2008). Menstrual cycle-related changes in circulating androgens in healthy women with self-reported normal sexual function. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(4), 854863. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1743-6109.2008.00791.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shea, J. L., Wong, P. Y., & Chen, Y. (2014). Free testosterone. Clinical utility and important analytical aspects of measurement. In Advances in clinical chemistry (1st ed., Vol. 63). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800094-6.00002-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walton, M. T., Cantor, J. M., Bhullar, N., & Lykins, A. D. (2017). Hypersexuality: A critical review and introduction to the “Sexhavior cycle”. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4622312251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0991-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, K. P., & Acevedo, E. C. (2023). Sexual desire and disgust. In T. K. Shackelford (Ed.), Encyclopedia of sexual psychology and behavior (pp. 15). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-08956-5_183-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
1

Note that the clinical diagnosis of CSBD represents the upper end of a continuum of severity and impairment, but taxometric studies have demonstrated that individual differences in out-of-control sexual behavior are dimensional (i.e., a matter of degree instead of a matter of kind) (Graham et al., 2016). This finding suggests that data derived from self-report scales of CSB, particularly when administered in community samples (as in this research), are better treated from a dimensional approach and may be understood as an indicator of the proneness to display out-of-control sexual behaviors. Therefore, in this study, we use the term CSB instead of its pathological counterpart to refer to this dimensional approach to the study of out-of-control sexual behavior in a community sample.

  • Antons, S., Engel, J., Briken, P., Krüger, T. H. C., Brand, M., & Stark, R. (2022). Treatments and interventions for compulsive sexual behavior disorder with a focus on problematic pornography use: A preregistered systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 11(3), 643666. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2022.00061.

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  • Ballester-Arnal, R., Castro-Calvo, J., Gil-Juliá, B., Giménez-García, C., & Gil-Llario, M. D. (2019). A validation study of the Spanish version of the hypersexual behavior inventory (HBI): Pencil and paper versus online administration. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 45(4), 283302. https://doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2018.1518886.

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  • Ballester-Arnal, R., Gil-Llario, M. D., Gómez-Martínez, S., & Gil-Juliá, B. (2010). Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction. Psicothema, 22(4), 10481053.

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  • Ballester-Arnal, R., Ruiz-Palomino, E., Espada, J. P., Morell-Mengual, V., & Gil-Llario, M. D. (2018). Psychometric properties and validation of the sexual sensation seeking scale in Spanish adolescents: Brief screening method for use in research and clinical practice. Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 4754. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PAID.2017.10.006.

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  • Bancroft, J., & Vukadinovic, Z. (2004). Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model. Journal of Sex Research, 41(3), 225234. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490409552230.

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  • Basson, R. (2000). The female sexual response: A different model. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 26(1), 5165. https://doi.org/10.1080/009262300278641.

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  • Briken, P. (2020). An integrated model to assess and treat compulsive sexual behaviour disorder. Nature Reviews Urology, 17(7), 391406. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41585-020-0343-7.

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  • Bui, H. N., Sluss, P. M., Blincko, S., Knol, D. L., Blankenstein, M. A., & Heijboer, A. C. (2013). Dynamics of serum testosterone during the menstrual cycle evaluated by daily measurements with an ID-LC-MS/MS method and a 2nd generation automated immunoassay. Steroids, 78(1), 96101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.010.

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    • Export Citation
  • Castro-Calvo, J., Flayelle, M., Perales, J. C., Brand, M., Potenza, M. N., & Billieux, J. (2022). Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder should not be classified by solely relying on component/symptomatic features. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 11(2), 210215. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2022.00029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castro-Calvo, J., Gil-Llario, M. D., Giménez-García, C., Gil-Juliá, B., & Ballester-Arnal, R. (2020). Ocurrence and clinical characteristics of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD): A cluster analysis in two independent community samples. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 9(12), 446468. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzittofis, A., Arver, S., Öberg, K., Hallberg, J., Nordström, P., & Jokinen, J. (2016). HPA axis dysregulation in men with hypersexual disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 247253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzittofis, A., Boström, A. E., Öberg, K. G., Flanagan, J. N., Schiöth, H. B., Arver, S., & Jokinen, J. (2020). Normal testosterone but higher luteinizing hormone plasma levels in men with hypersexual disorder. Sexual Medicine, 8(2), 243250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2020.02.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzittofis, A., Boström, A. D. E., Savard, J., Öberg, K. G., Arver, S., & Jokinen, J. (2022). Neurochemical and hormonal contributors to compulsive sexual behavior disorder. Current Addiction Reports, 9(1), 2331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-021-00403-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delmonico, D. L., Miller, J., & Miller, J. A. (2003). The Internet sex screening test: A comparison of sexual compulsives versus non-sexual compulsives. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 261276. https://doi.org/10.1080/1468199031000153900.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, F. J., Walters, G. D., Harris, D. A., & Knight, R. A. (2016). Is hypersexuality dimensional or categorical? Evidence from male and female college samples. The Journal of Sex Research, 53(2), 224238. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.1003524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Granger, D. A., Shirtcliff, E. A., Booth, A., Kivlighan, K. T., & Schwartz, E. B. (2004). The “trouble” with salivary testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(10), 12291240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.02.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kafka, M. P. (2010). Hypersexual disorder: A proposed diagnosis for DSM-V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(2), 377400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-009-9574-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. (1995). Sexual sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity scales: Reliability, validity, and predicting HIV risk behavior. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65(3), 586601. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6503_16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knight, R. A., & Du, R. (2021). The structure, covariates, and etiology of hypersexuality: Implications for sexual offending. Current Psychiatry Reports, 23(50), 111. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-021-01260-w.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalewska, E., Gola, M., Kraus, S. W., & Lew-Starowicz, M. (2020). Spotlight on compulsive sexual behavior disorder: A systematic review of research on women. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 16, 20252043. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S221540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalewska, E., Grubbs, J. B., Potenza, M. N., Gola, M., Draps, M., & Kraus, S. W. (2018). Neurocognitive mechanisms in compulsive sexual behavior disorder. Current Sexual Health Reports, 10, 255264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11930-018-0176-z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraus, S. W., Krueger, R. B., Briken, P., First, M. B., Stein, D. J., Kaplan, M. S., … Reed, G. M. (2018). Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder in the ICD-11. World Psychiatry, 17(1), 109110. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landgren, V., Olsson, P., Briken, P., & Rahm, C. (2022). Effects of testosterone suppression on desire, hypersexuality, and sexual interest in children in men with pedophilic disorder. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 112. https://doi.org/10.1080/15622975.2021.2014683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levine, S. B. (2003). The nature of sexual desire: A clinician’s perspective. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32(3), 279285.

  • Parsons, J. T., Bimbi, D. S., & Halkitis, P. N. (2001). Sexual compulsivity among gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise on the Internet. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8(2), 101112. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720160127562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Redouté, J., Stoléru, S., Grégoire, M. C., Costes, N., Cinotti, L., Lavenne, F., … Pujol, J. F. (2000). Brain processing of visual sexual stimuli in human males. Human Brain Mapping, 11(3), 162177. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0193(200011)11:3<162::AID-HBM30>3.0.CO;2-A.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, G. M., First, M. B., Billieux, J., Cloitre, M., Briken, P., Achab, S., … Bryant, R. A. (2022). Emerging experience with selected new categories in the ICD-11: Complex PTSD, prolonged grief disorder, gaming disorder, and compulsive sexual behaviour disorder. World Psychiatry, 21(2), 189213. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reid, R. C., Garos, S., & Carpenter, B. N. (2011). Reliability, validity, and psychometric development of the hypersexual behavior inventory in an outpatient sample of men. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 18(1), 3051. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720162.2011.555709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodríguez-Nieto, G., Dewitte, M., Sack, A. T., & Schuhmann, T. (2021). Individual differences in testosterone and self-control predict compulsive sexual behavior proneness in young males. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(December), 110. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.723449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salonia, A., Pontillo, M., Nappi, R. E., Zanni, G., Fabbri, F., Scavini, M., … Montorsi, F. (2008). Menstrual cycle-related changes in circulating androgens in healthy women with self-reported normal sexual function. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(4), 854863. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1743-6109.2008.00791.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shea, J. L., Wong, P. Y., & Chen, Y. (2014). Free testosterone. Clinical utility and important analytical aspects of measurement. In Advances in clinical chemistry (1st ed., Vol. 63). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800094-6.00002-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walton, M. T., Cantor, J. M., Bhullar, N., & Lykins, A. D. (2017). Hypersexuality: A critical review and introduction to the “Sexhavior cycle”. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4622312251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0991-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, K. P., & Acevedo, E. C. (2023). Sexual desire and disgust. In T. K. Shackelford (Ed.), Encyclopedia of sexual psychology and behavior (pp. 15). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-08956-5_183-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5713
Journal Impact Factor 7.8
Rank by Impact Factor

Psychiatry (SCIE) 18/155
Psychiatry (SSCI) 13/144

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7.2
5 Year
Impact Factor
8.9
Journal Citation Indicator 1.42
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 35/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
69
Scimago
Journal Rank
1.918
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology Q1
Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11.1
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 10/292 (96th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 30/531 (94th PCTL)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 25/309 (92th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.966

 

 
2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5223
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7,130
5 Year
Impact Factor
9,026
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
56
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,951
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
Scopus
SNIP
2,184

2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
submission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 990 EUR/article for articles submitted after 30 April 2023 (850 EUR for articles submitted prior to this date)
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%.
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Stephanie ANTONS (Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Ruth J. van HOLST (Amsterdam UMC, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Gyöngyi KÖKÖNYEI (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)

Editorial Board

  • Sophia ACHAB (Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (St Andrews University, United Kingdom)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Maria BELLRINGER (Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Damien BREVERS (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Julius BURKAUSKAS (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Silvia CASALE (University of Florence, Florence, Italy)
  • Luke CLARK (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Geert DOM (University of Antwerp, Belgium)
  • Nicki DOWLING (Deakin University, Geelong, Australia)
  • Hamed EKHTIARI (University of Minnesota, United States)
  • Jon ELHAI (University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA)
  • Ana ESTEVEZ (University of Deusto, Spain)
  • Fernando FERNANDEZ-ARANDA (Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Sally GAINSBURY (The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia)
  • Belle GAVRIEL-FRIED (The Bob Shapell School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University, Israel)
  • Biljana GJONESKA (Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Republic of North Macedonia)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Joshua GRUBBS (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Zsolt HORVÁTH (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Susana JIMÉNEZ-MURCIA (Clinical Psychology Unit, Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Chih-Hung KO (Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan)
  • Shane KRAUS (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Bernadette KUN (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Katerina LUKAVSKA (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Gemma MESTRE-BACH (Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, La Rioja, Spain)
  • Astrid MÜLLER (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Ståle PALLESEN (University of Bergen, Norway)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Michael SCHAUB (University of Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Hermano TAVARES (Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN (Ariel University, Israel)
  • Anise WU (University of Macau, Macao, China)

 

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