Authors:
Jamie Torrance School of Psychology, Swansea University, UK
School of Psychology, University of Chester, UK
School of Psychology, University Centre Shrewsbury, UK

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Conor Heath School of Psychology, University of Chester, UK
School of Psychology, University Centre Shrewsbury, UK

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Maira Andrade School of Psychology, University of East London, UK
School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, UK

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Philip Newall School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, UK
Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQ University, Australia

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Abstract

Background & aims

The gamblification of UK football has resulted in a proliferation of in-game marketing associated with gambling and gambling-like products such as cryptocurrencies and financial trading apps. The English Premier League (EPL) has in response banned gambling logos on shirt-fronts from 2026 onward. This ban does not affect other types of marketing for gambling (e.g., sleeves and pitch-side hoardings), nor gambling-like products. This study therefore aimed to assess the ban's implied overall reduction of different types of marketing exposure.

Methods

We performed a frequency analysis of logos associated with gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading across 10 broadcasts from the 2022/23 EPL season. For each relevant logo, we coded: the marketed product, associated brand, number of individual logos, logo location, logo duration, and whether harm-reduction content was present.

Results

There were 20,941 relevant logos across the 10 broadcasts, of which 13,427 (64.1%) were for gambling only, 2,236 (10.7%) were for both gambling and cryptocurrency, 2,014 (9.6%) were for cryptocurrency only, 2,068 (9.9%) were for both cryptocurrency and financial trading, and 1,196 (5.7%) were for financial trading only. There were 1,075 shirt-front gambling-associated logos, representing 6.9% of all gambling-associated logos, and 5.1% of all logos combined. Pitch-side hoardings were the most frequent marketing location (52.3%), and 3.4% of logos contained harm-reduction content.

Discussion & Conclusions

Brand logos associated with gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading are common within EPL broadcasts. Approximately 1 in 20 gambling and gambling-like logos are subject to the EPL's voluntary ban on shirt-front gambling sponsorship.

Abstract

Background & aims

The gamblification of UK football has resulted in a proliferation of in-game marketing associated with gambling and gambling-like products such as cryptocurrencies and financial trading apps. The English Premier League (EPL) has in response banned gambling logos on shirt-fronts from 2026 onward. This ban does not affect other types of marketing for gambling (e.g., sleeves and pitch-side hoardings), nor gambling-like products. This study therefore aimed to assess the ban's implied overall reduction of different types of marketing exposure.

Methods

We performed a frequency analysis of logos associated with gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading across 10 broadcasts from the 2022/23 EPL season. For each relevant logo, we coded: the marketed product, associated brand, number of individual logos, logo location, logo duration, and whether harm-reduction content was present.

Results

There were 20,941 relevant logos across the 10 broadcasts, of which 13,427 (64.1%) were for gambling only, 2,236 (10.7%) were for both gambling and cryptocurrency, 2,014 (9.6%) were for cryptocurrency only, 2,068 (9.9%) were for both cryptocurrency and financial trading, and 1,196 (5.7%) were for financial trading only. There were 1,075 shirt-front gambling-associated logos, representing 6.9% of all gambling-associated logos, and 5.1% of all logos combined. Pitch-side hoardings were the most frequent marketing location (52.3%), and 3.4% of logos contained harm-reduction content.

Discussion & Conclusions

Brand logos associated with gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading are common within EPL broadcasts. Approximately 1 in 20 gambling and gambling-like logos are subject to the EPL's voluntary ban on shirt-front gambling sponsorship.

Introduction

UK gambling marketing is particularly noticeable within the national sport of football (soccer) (Goulding, 2022; Roderique-Davies, Torrance, Bhairon, Cousins, & John, 2020; Sharman, 2022). There is a positive association between gambling marketing exposure, intentions to gamble, and increased gambling participation (Binde & Romild, 2019; Bouguettaya et al., 2020; Syvertsen, Erevik, Hanss, Mentzoni, & Pallesen, 2022). Therefore, considerable attention has been paid to the role of marketing in the ‘gamblification’ of football and its potential negative impacts upon public health (Lopez-Gonzalez & Griffiths, 2018; McGee, 2020; van Schalkwyk et al., 2021). Gambling marketing is often shown during commercial breaks in televised football games (Newall, Ferreira, Sharman, & Payne, 2022; Newall, Thobhani, Walasek, & Meyer, 2019) and via social media (Houghton, McNeil, Hogg, & Moss, 2019; Houghton & Moss, 2022). However, the top two men's professional leagues, the English Premier League (EPL) and Championship, also have gambling marketing embedded within the game via shirt sponsorship and pitch-side hoardings (Bunn et al., 2019; Cassidy & Ovenden, 2017; Djohari, Weston, Cassidy, & Kulas-Reid, 2021; Purves, Critchlow, Morgan, Stead, & Dobbie, 2020; Sharman, Ferreira, & Newall, 2023). During the 2022/23 season, 8 out of 20 EPL teams had a gambling shirt sponsor and all teams were affiliated with an official betting partner. The EPL recently volunteered to ban all shirt-front gambling sponsorship from 2026 onwards. However, the EPL's voluntary ban will not apply to shirt-sleeve sponsorship, pitch-side hoardings, or other gambling logos that are visible during matches. It is therefore important to assess the implied reduction in gambling marketing exposure that the ban would have if implemented today.

Several previous studies have examined the presence of gambling marketing within UK football. For example, Cassidy and Ovenden (2017) identified a total of 524 and 764 shots of gambling marketing across 3 EPL and 3 ‘Match of the day’ broadcasts respectively. Shots were defined as any instance in which gambling marketing for a given brand was visible, irrespective of the number of individual logos. A similar study was conducted by Purves et al. (2020) utilising a sample that, amongst other sports, contained five UK football broadcasts. Across these five football broadcasts, 2,595 shots of gambling marketing were identified that occurred at an average of 2.8 times per broadcast minute. Lastly, Ireland (2021) utilised a comparable method to examine the frequency of gambling marketing within five EPL football broadcasts from the 2019/20 season. Overall, 921 shots of gambling marketing were observed across the five broadcasts including pre-game, half-time, post-game, and commercial-break programming. These previously conducted studies demonstrate the high prevalence of gambling marketing within UK football broadcasts. However, there is a need to replicate these findings across subsequent football seasons and also extend their methodology. Specifically, when multiple identical marketing references were visible in the same location, these aforementioned studies counted them as one overall ‘shot’ or ‘instance’ of marketing. But viewers are likely impacted not just by the number of times that gambling logos are shown on the screen, but also the number of individual gambling logos that can be seen in any one shot (Janiszewski & Meyvis, 2001). These studies also did not assess an emerging trend of marketing potentially gambling-like products in football (Newall & Xiao, 2021).

Cryptocurrencies, cryptocasinos, and financial trading apps are conceptually-similar and partially-overlapping with gambling (D'Urso, 2022). Cryptocurrencies are decentralized digital assets that utilise encryption and operate as mediums of exchange (Conrad, Custovic, & Ghysels, 2018). As such, cryptocurrencies can be bought, sold, traded, and used as digital currency for the payment of goods and services, while affording its users a high degree of anonymity (Andrade & Newall, 2023). Unlike ‘fiat’ currencies, such as the US dollar, cryptocurrencies are highly volatile and not subject to regulatory oversight (Șcheau et al., 2020; Shen, Urquhart, & Wang, 2020). Since the creation of the first cryptocurrency (Bitcoin) in 2009 (Nakamoto, 2008), price volatility and anonymity have been some of the most cited reasons for regulatory challenges in several countries, including the United Kingdom (Treasury Committee, 2018). Cryptocasinos and cryptocurrency trading are two uses of cryptocurrencies that are significant due to their conceptual and actual overlap with gambling.

Cryptocasinos are an emergent gambling product that allow consumers to wager on modern online gambling platforms using cryptocurrency (Andrade & Newall, 2023). Gambling online with fiat currencies has a strong association with harm (Allami et al., 2021), but cryptocasinos pose additional risks. A recent study showed that cryptocasinos offered safer gambling tools to consumers at significantly lower rates than online traditional operators in the UK and Ireland (Andrade, Sharman, Xiao, & Newall, 2023). None of the cryptocasinos required identity verification for registration, and 37 out of 40 also facilitated cryptocurrency deposits (Andrade et al., 2023), thereby effectively facilitating online gambling for underage and self-excluded gamblers. Importantly, since the underlying asset in cryptocasinos is itself volatile, cryptocasinos could fundamentally expose users to greater risks than traditional online gambling operators. Cryptocasino brands such as ‘Stake’ and ‘Sportsbet.io’ in the present study are therefore related both to gambling and cryptocurrencies.

Cryptocurrency trading has more in common with financial trading (Kim, Hong, Hwang, Kim, & Han, 2020), and involves attempting to profit from cryptocurrencies' price movements. There are several risks associated with cryptocurrency trading that are also observable among those who experience gambling-related harm. For example, poor mental health, illusions of control, fear of missing out, and preoccupation/excessive engagement have been identified as potential risk factors associated with cryptocurrency trading (Delfabbro, King, & Williams, 2021; Johnson, Stjepanović, Leung, Sun, & Chan, 2023). There is also a positive relationship between engagement with cryptocurrency trading frequency and higher self-reported problem gambling scores (Delfabbro, King, & Williams, & Georgiou, 2021; Johnson et al., 2022; Mills & Nower, 2019; Oksanen, Hagfors, Vuorinen, & Savolainen, 2022). Consequently, cryptocurrency trading is commonly referred to as a 'gambling-like' activity within the emergent literature (Delfabbro & King, 2023; Newall & Xiao, 2021; Oksanen, Mantere, Vuorinen, & Savolainen, 2022).

Financial trading involves the buying and selling of financial assets such as stocks, bonds, or foreign currencies with the aim of making a profit. A new wave of mobile-based financial trading apps allow users to trade these conventional financial assets, and also often cryptocurrencies as well (therefore meaning that some financial trading apps are associated with cryptocurrencies as well). Frequent financial trading has also been positively correlated with problem gambling (Delfabbro, King, Williams et al., 2021; Grégoire et al., 2023; Mosenhauer, Newall, & Walasek, 2021; Oksanen, Hagfors, et al., 2022), and bears similarities with gambling in that the high transaction costs created by trading means that most high-frequency personal traders lose money over time, which is another core similarity with gambling (Newall & Weiss-Cohen, 2022). However, no empirical research has been conducted to examine the frequency of either cryptocurrency and financial trading app marketing exposure in UK football.

This study therefore examines:

  1. The total number of visual logos associated with gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading in EPL football.

  2. The proportion of these logos that are front-of-shirt gambling sponsors, to assess the implied impact of the EPL's voluntary ban.

Methods

Study design

This study involved a frequency analysis of in-play brand logos associated with gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading within EPL football, and follows the design of similar previous studies in the UK (Graham & Adams, 2014; Purves et al., 2017, 2020) and Australia (Kelly, Ireland, Alpert, & Mangan, 2015; Lindsay et al., 2013).

Selection of broadcasts

A purposive sample of 10 EPL football matches across the 2022/23 season were recorded digitally (see Table 1). The EPL has the highest global viewership of any football league in the world (Premier League, 2022). The sample contained 10 matches in which every qualifying team participated once from 6th August 2022 – 2nd April 2023. Each recording included only the broadcasted football match from kick-off until the final whistle. EPL football matches are often simultaneously broadcasted across numerous television channels and streaming services with varying commercial-break advertisements. Therefore, commercial-break broadcasting was not included, nor was any pre-game, half-time, or post-game broadcasting content for the sake of uniformity.

Table 1.

Sample of recorded English Premier League football matches

FixtureDate/time of broadcast (GMT)Duration of matcha
Fulham vs Liverpool6th August 2022 – 12:30pm97 min
Tottenham vs Leicester City17th September 2022 – 5:30pm96 min
Crystal Palace vs Leeds United9th October 2022 – 2:00pm100 min
Arsenal vs Nottingham Forest30th October 2022 – 2:00pm95 min
Wolverhampton Wanderers vs Brighton5th November 2022 – 3:00pm96 min
Everton vs Southampton14th January 2023 – 3:00pm96 min
Brentford vs Bournemouth14th January 2023 – 5:30pm95 min
West Ham vs Chelsea11th February 2023 – 12:30pm96 min
Manchester City vs Aston Villa12th February 2023 – 4:30pm97 min
Newcastle vs Manchester United2nd April 2023 – 4:30pm96 min

a Note: excluding pre-game/half-time/post-game broadcasting and commercial breaks.

Procedure and codebook evaluation

Gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading logos were defined as any brand emblem that was visible via in-play marketing or sponsorship for more than one second. As was conducted by Purves et al. (2020) and Ireland (2021), when multiple identical logos were visible in the same location, this was counted as one ‘shot’ of visible marketing. However, to add further context, we also counted the total number of individual logos within each of these shots via a separate variable. For example, if fifteen ‘Bet 365’ pitch-side hoarding logos were visible at one given time, this was counted as one shot of visible marketing that included fifteen individual logos. If multiple different logos were visible on screen (e.g. ‘FBS’ shirt sponsor logos and Bet365 pitch-side hoarding marketing in the same scene), they were counted separately. Relevant logos were counted every time they appeared on screen. If the camera angle changed and returned to the same shot, logos were counted again. Logos for some brands were coded across multiple product categories. For example, logos for the cryptocasino ‘Sportsbet.io’ were coded as gambling and cryptocurrency simultaneously. Another example includes logos for ‘Etoro’ that were coded as both cryptocurrency and financial trading given that both of these products are offered by this brand. Verbal references (e.g. from commentators) were not included within the current study given that <1% of televised UK football broadcasts contain such references (Purves et al., 2020).

Shots of visible marketing were categorised using a codebook (Table 2) that was adapted from Purves et al. (2020). Before the codebook was implemented across all 10 matches, JT and CH established inter-rater reliability by each coding the same 30 min of Fulham versus Liverpool. The levels of agreement for nominal variables were computed using Krippendorff's alpha. Subsequently, there was a very high level of agreement with all variables far exceeding the acceptable agreement threshold of α = 0.66 (Lombard, Snyder‐Duch, & Bracken, 2002): ‘Product referenced’ (α = 0.95), ‘Location’ (α = 0.98), ‘Format’ (α = 1.0), ‘Brand referenced’ (α =0.97), ‘Logo/name referenced’ (α = 1.0), and ‘Harm-reduction/age warning’ (α = 1.0). Using independent sample t-tests for the continuous variables, no significant coding differences were observed for ‘logos per shot’ (t (218) = −0.23, p = 0.819) and ‘Duration of shot’ (t (218) = 0.01, p = 0.989). In light of these results, JT and CH proceeded to independently code the rest of the sample (5 broadcasts each) with any uncertainties being regularly discussed. Data and the codebook are available from osf.io/3ts94/.

Table 2.

Codebook variables and their definitions

VariablesDefinitions
FixtureThe match being observed e.g. West Ham vs Chelsea
Case/shot numberUsed chronologically for each shot (or instance) of marketing in each match (irrespective of how many individual logos are visible)
Product referencedWhether the logo relates to gambling, cryptocurrency, and/or financial trading. Logos can be coded across multiple labels e.g. ‘Stake’ (gambling and cryptocurrency) or ‘Libertex’ (financial trading and cryptocurrency).
LocationThe location where the logo is displayed. Labels include: 1) shirt sponsor (front), 2) shirt sponsor (sleeve), 3) pitch-side hoardings, 4) stadium crowd, 5) stadium structure, 6) other
FormatThe format in which the logo is displayed (within the location). Labels include: 1) branded merchandise (such as shirts/kit), 2) dynamic hoardings (full coverage), 3) dynamic hoardings (partial coverage), 4) static marketing, 5) fan/supporter, 6) other
Logos per shotThe total number of identical logos on display before the broadcast cuts to the next scene – e.g. if 7 players are depicted within one scene, all with ‘Dafabet’ (gambling brand) on their shirts, then this is categorised as 7 individual logos via this variable
Duration of referenceThe total amount of time the logo(s) are visible in seconds
Brand referencedThe brand name of the marketing product – e.g. ‘Bet365’ (gambling), ‘WhaleFin’,(cryptocurrency) or ‘Etoro’ (financial trading/cryptocurrency)
Harm-reduction or age warningWhether or not a harm-reduction message or age restriction warning accompanies the logo. Coded as yes/no

Data analysis

All of the data were analysed in SPSS version 28. For each broadcast, frequencies, percentages, and/or means were calculated for the variables outlined in Table 2. The average number of individual logos per broadcast minute was also calculated for each broadcast and across the 10 broadcasts combined. This was calculated by dividing the total number of individual logos divided by the length of the broadcast (in minutes).

Ethics

As this study does not involve human participants, ethical approval was not required. However, the study was authorised by the Universitty of Chester (University Centre Shrewsbury) ethics committee.

Results

Across the 10 EPL football matches, 3,023 visible shots of gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading marketing were identified. Within these shots, there was a total of 20,941 individual logos. 13,427 (64.1%) logos were solely related to gambling, 2,236 (10.7%) were associated with both gambling and cryptocurrency, 2,014 (9.6%) were solely related to cryptocurrency, 2,068 (9.9%) were associated with both cryptocurrency and financial trading, and 1,196 (5.7%) were solely related to financial trading.

On average, gambling-associated logos (n = 15,663) appeared 16 times per broadcast minute (every 3.8 s), cryptocurrency-associated logos (n = 6,318) appeared 7 times per broadcast minute (every 8.6 s), and financial trading-associated logos (n = 3,264) appeared 3 times per broadcast minute (every 20 s). A total of 1,075 individual shirt-front gambling-associated logos were identified, representing 6.9% of all individual gambling-associated logos and 5.1% of all other relevant logos combined. The most popular location across all relevant logos was pitch-side hoardings (52.3%) via the format of full-coverage dynamic displays (48.5%). There were 30 relevant brands observed in total. The most featured brands were ‘Betway’ (31.2%) for gambling-associated logos, the cryptocasino ‘Stake’ (28%) for cryptocurrency-associated logos, and ‘FBS’ (29.4%) for financial trading-associated logos. Harm-reduction content accompanied 4.4% of gambling-associated logos and 3.4% of all relevant logos combined. Harm-reduction content was not present in conjunction with cryptocurrency or financial trading-associated logos. See Tables 35 for details regarding the observations for gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading-associated marketing across the individual broadcasts.

Table 3.

Characteristics of gambling-associated marketing across individual broadcasts

Broadcast
Fulham vs LiverpoolTottenham vs Leicester CityCrystal Palace vs Leeds UnitedArsenal vs Nottingham ForestWolverhampton Wanderers vs BrightonEverton vs SouthamptonBrentford vs BournemouthWest Ham vs ChelseaManchester City vs Aston VillaNewcastle vs Manchester United
Gambling reference characteristic
Total shots of visible marketing2741822755624730827154223161
Total number of individual logos1,5471,2651,6512192,1612,0172,1393,522268874
Average number of individual logos per broadcast minute16131722321233739
Most frequent location (%)Pitch-side hoardings (57.3)Pitch-side hoardings (100)Pitch-side hoardings (68)Pitch-side hoardings (98.2)Pitch-side hoardings (57.5)Stadium structure (42.5)Pitch-side hoardings (58.7)Stadium structure (39.1)Pitch-side hoardings (95.7)Pitch-side hoardings (41.6)
Most frequent format (%)Dynamic pitch-side full (53.3)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)Dynamic pitch-side full (56.4)Dynamic pitch-side full (78.6)Dynamic pitch-side full (57.5)Static or fixed (45.8)Dynamic pitch-side full (57.5)Static or fixed (39.1)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)Dynamic pitch-side full (39.1)
Most popular brand (%)W88 (64.6)FUN88 (61.5)SBOTOP (32.4)Sportsbetio (100)12BET (36.8)Stake (85.4)Hollywood bets (35.8)Betway (100)LeoVegas (60.9)FUN88 (97.5)
Harm-reduction or age restriction message (%)806.2011.7012.5000
Table 4.

Characteristics of cryptocurrency-associated marketing across individual broadcasts

Broadcast
Fulham vs LiverpoolTottenham vs Leicester CityCrystal Palace vs Leeds UnitedArsenal vs Nottingham ForestWolverhampton Wanderers vs BrightonEverton vs SouthamptonBrentford vs BournemouthWest Ham vs ChelseaManchester City vs Aston VillaNewcastle vs Manchester United
Cryptocurrency reference characteristic
Total shots of visible marketing11722910118830821406711
Total number of individual logos15462555821,6822,01725676680223
Average number of individual logos per broadcast minute<163618213<172
Most frequent location (%)Stadium crowd (100)Shirt front (74.4)Pitch-side hoardings (100)Pitch-side hoardings (99)Pitch-side hoardings (45.7)Stadium structure (42.5)Pitch-side hoardings (100)Shirt sleeve (100)Pitch-side hoardings (97)Pitch-side hoardings (100)
Most frequent format (%)Fan/supporter (100)Branded merchandise (74.4)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)Dynamic pitch-side full (76.2)Dynamic pitch-side full (45.7)Static or fixed (45.8)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)Branded merchandise (100)Dynamic pitch-side full (97)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)
Most popular brand (%)FxPro (100)FBS (74.4)eToro (86.2)Sportsbetio (55.4)Astropay (100)Stake (85.4)Coinjar (100)WhaleFin (100)OKX (82.1)eToro (100)
Harm-reduction or age restriction message (%)0000000000
Table 5.

Characteristics of financial trading-associated marketing references across individual broadcasts

Broadcast
Fulham vs LiverpoolTottenham vs Leicester CityCrystal Palace vs Leeds UnitedArsenal vs Nottingham ForestWolverhampton Wanderers vs BrightonEverton vs SouthamptonBrentford vs BournemouthWest Ham vs ChelseaManchester City vs Aston VillaNewcastle vs Manchester United
Financial trading reference characteristic
Total shots of visible marketing1717229454400368111
Total number of individual logos10154625536380800136832223
Average number of individual logos per broadcast minute1634800192
Most frequent location (%)Pitch-side hoardings (94.1)Shirt front (74.4)Pitch-side hoardings (100)Pitch-side hoardings (100)Pitch-side (100)N/AN/AShirt sleeve (66.7)Pitch-side hoardings (97.5)Pitch-side hoardings (100)
Most frequent format (%)Dynamic pitch-side full (94.1)Branded merchandise (74.4)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)Dynamic pitch-side full (73.3)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)N/AN/ABranded merchandise (66.7)Dynamic pitch-side full (97.5)Dynamic pitch-side full (100)
Most popular brand (%)Baraka (76.5)FBS (74.4)eToro (86.2)eToro (100)Trade Nation (100)N/AN/AScope Market (100)OKX (67.9)eToro (100)
Harm-reduction or age restriction message (%)0000000000

Discussion

This is the first study to collectively examine the presence of gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading marketing in EPL football broadcasts. Gambling-associated logos appeared the most across the 10 matches observed, appearing 16 times per broadcast minute on average. Only a minority of gambling logos occurred via front of shirt sponsorship (n = 1,075), representing 6.9% of all individual gambling logos (n = 15,652) and 5.1% of all other relevant logos combined (n = 20,491). Compared to shirt fronts, we identified an array of alternative locations in which gambling-associated logos were visible such as shirt sleeves, the stadium structure, and dynamic pitch-side hoarding. Consequently, the EPL's voluntary ban on front of shirt gambling sponsorship (to be imposed by 2026), will apply to approximately 1 in 20 gambling and gambling-like logos. Similarly, cryptocurrency (that is not also gambling-related) and financial trading marketing will not be subject to this ban. Logos associated with these products occurred at a lesser degree but were still prevalent across the majority of matches observed (n = 7,514). Specifically, cryptocurrency and financial trading brand logos appeared at an average of 7 and 3 times per broadcast minute respectively, which is indicative of their emergent presence within the EPL (Reynolds, 2022).

The frequency of logos varied between matches and was largely influenced by team sponsorship. Consequently, a small number of additional future deals could radically change the frequency of in-play logos within EPL broadcasts. As of July 2023, only four clubs have officially released information on sponsorships for the 2023–24 season. Chelsea F.C have pulled out of talks over a sponsorship deal for the 2023/24 season with the cyptocasino ‘Stake’ following pressure from supporters (Kinsella, 2023). Conversely, Aston Villa F.C recently announced their new sponsorship deals for both front of shirt with ‘BK8’ (online casino) and sleeves with ‘Trade Nation’ (cryptocurrency/financial trading platform) respectively (Aston Villa Football Club, 2023; Reuters, 2023). Their previous shirt sponsors were not related to either gambling or financial trading apps (SportsPro, 2020). Furthermore, Newcastle United has ended its front of shirt deal with the online casino ‘FUN88’ but kept the brand as an official betting partner (Newcastle United Football Club, 2023). For the 2023/24 season, Wolverhampton Wanderers have agreed to keep a gambling sponsorship deal for their shirt sleeves, but with a new gambling operator (SportBusiness, 2023). Cryptocurrency and financial trading platforms have been increasing their presence as EPL team sponsors over the last three years (SportsPro, 2020, 2022). During the 2020/21 EPL season, only West Ham United were sponsored by a brand associated with these gambling-like products (‘Scope Markets’). However, this has increased to five teams within the 2022/23 EPL season (Buckingham, 2023). The gambling shirt ban may increase the number of teams available to partner with these products, or decrease the perceived riskiness of these products to viewers in comparison to gambling (Newall & Xiao, 2021).

Only 3.4% of all relevant brand logos featured harm-reduction or age-restrictive content. Such content was localised to one gambling brand (‘Unibet’) that included the tagline ‘set your limits’. Research has indicated that such messages are ineffective in reducing harmful gambling (Newall, Hayes, et al., 2023; Newall, Weiss-Cohen, Singmann, Walasek, & Ludvig, 2022). Despite subsequent calls for improvements in the quality, visibility, and frequency of harm-reductive messaging in gambling marketing (Newall, Rockloff, et al., 2023), there appears to have been no substantial increase or improvement in such messaging within English football since 2020 (Purves et al., 2020).

No harm-reduction messaging accompanied cryptocurrency and financial trading logos. The UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has recently stated that cryptocurrency advertising will need to include ‘risk warnings’ from October 2023 (Milmo, 2023). All risk warnings will be required to follow a template developed by the FCA – “Don't invest unless you're prepared to lose all the money you invest. This is a high-risk investment, and you should not expect to be protected if something goes wrong” (Financial Conduct Authority, 2023a). However, the FCA has also clarified that these new rules will not apply to ‘image advertisement’, defined as ads that only include a company's logo, name, contact or activity (Financial Conduct Authority, 2023b). Considering that most, if not all, in-play marketing would fall under ‘image advertisement’, it seems unlikely that football clubs will be required to include any risk warnings for cryptocurrency-related marketing. There has been a significant growth in the number of UK adults who first hear about cryptocurrency trading through traditional media advertising (Aju & Burrell, 2023). Therefore, policymakers should consider if cryptocurrency-based companies should be allowed to reach global audiences and to legitimise itself through mainstream media such as televised sports broadcasts.

This study is subject to various limitations. First, we examined a purposive sample of 10 out of 380 potential matches from the 2022/23 EPL season which did not include commercial-break broadcasting. Although we ensured that the sample included each qualifying team for the sake of uniformity, the current study only provides a snapshot of in-play gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading logos across these 10 EPL matches. Therefore, including commercial-break broadcasting could have offered more insight (Rossi, Wheaton, Moxey, & Tozzi, 2023), and.the findings may not generalise to other EPL broadcasts, other football leagues (e.g. Scottish Premier League), or sports (e.g., Australian Football League). Second, the sociodemographic data relating to the viewership for each broadcast was not collected. As a result, we cannot provide insight regarding the number of young or vulnerable individuals who viewed or downloaded these broadcasts. Third, this study of logo prevalence cannot draw any conclusions regarding potential causal effects of logo exposure on behaviour.

Conclusions

Brand logos associated with gambling appear at an average of 16 times per minute within EPL football broadcasts. Approximately 1 in 20 gambling and gambling-like logos are subject to the EPL's voluntary ban on shirt-front gambling sponsorship. Brand logos associated with cryptocurrency and financial trading appeared less frequently compared to gambling logos. However, these gambling-like products have a noticeable presence within EPL football appearing at an average of 7 and 3 s per broadcast minute respectively, which could continue to increase in future. Further research is needed on logo prevalence going forward and research designs that can attempt to uncover any potential causal effects on behaviour.

Funding sources

Funding for this study was provided by the University of Chester via an internal QR grant (QR735). The University of Chester funding panel had no role in the study design, collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.

Authors' contribution

PN conceptualised the study and assisted in the design and methodology. PN also contributed to writing the manuscript (review and editing) whilst also supervising the project. JT carried out data collection, validation, data analysis, data curation, and writing the original manuscript. JT also provided project administration and acquired the funding for the project. CH carried out data collection, validation, data analysis, and data curation. CH also assisted with writing the manuscript (review and editing). MA also assisted with writing the manuscript (review and editing).

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. In the last three years, JT has received; 1) PhD funding from GambleAware, 2) Open access publication funding from GREO, 3) Paid consultancy fees from Channel 4, 4) Conference travel and accommodation funding from the Academic Forum for the Study of Gambling (AFSG), 5) A minor exploratory research grant from the ASFG and Gambling Research Exchange Ontario (GREO). PN is a member of the Advisory Board for Safer Gambling – an advisory group of the Gambling Commission in Great Britain, and in 2020 was a special advisor to the House of Lords Select Committee Enquiry on the Social and Economic Impact of the Gambling Industry. In the last three years, PN has contributed to research projects funded by the Academic Forum for the Study of Gambling (AFSG), Clean Up Gambling, Gambling Research Australia, NSW Responsible Gambling Fund, and the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. PN has received travel and accommodation funding from Alberta Gambling Research Institute and received open access fee funding from Gambling Research Exchange Ontario (GREO).

References

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  • Allami, Y., Hodgins, D. C., Young, M., Brunelle, N., Currie, S., Dufour, M., … Nadeau, L. (2021). A meta‐analysis of problem gambling risk factors in the general adult population. Addiction, 116(11), 29682977. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrade, M., & Newall, P. (2023). Cryptocurrencies as gamblified financial assets and cryptocasinos: Novel risks for a public health approach to gambling. Risks, 11(3), 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/risks11030049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrade, M., Sharman, S., Xiao, L. Y., & Newall, P. (2023). Safer gambling and consumer protection failings among 40 frequently visited cryptocurrency-based online gambling operators. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 37(3), 545557. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000885.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aston Villa Football Club (2023). Aston Villa announce trade nation as new partner. https://www.avfc.co.uk/news/2023/june/22/aston-villa-announce-trade-nation-as-new-partner/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binde, P., & Romild, U. (2019). Self-reported negative influence of gambling advertising in a Swedish population-based sample. Journal of Gambling Studies, 35, 709724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-018-9791-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouguettaya, A., Lynott, D., Carter, A., Zerhouni, O., Meyer, S., Ladegaard, I., … O’Brien, K. S. (2020). The relationship between gambling advertising and gambling attitudes, intentions and behaviours: A critical and meta-analytic review. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 31, 89101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2020.02.010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buckingham, P. (2023). Analysed: Every Premier League club’s shirt sponsorship deal. https://theathletic.com/4167575/2023/02/12/premier-league-shirt-sponsors/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bunn, C., Ireland, R., Minton, J., Holman, D., Philpott, M., & Chambers, S. (2019). Shirt sponsorship by gambling companies in the English and Scottish premier leagues: Global reach and public health concerns. Soccer & Society, 20(6), 824835. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2018.1425682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassidy, R., & Ovenden, N. (2017). Frequency, duration and medium of advertisements for gambling and other risky products in commercial and public service broadcasts of English Premier League football. SocArXiv Papers. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/f6bu8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Conrad, C., Custovic, A., & Ghysels, E. (2018). Long-and short-term cryptocurrency volatility components: A GARCH-MIDAS analysis. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 11(2), 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm11020023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D'Urso, J. (2022). How the crypto crash has impacted each Premier League Club. The Athletic. https://theathletic.com/3378407/2022/06/28/crypto-crash-premier-league/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delfabbro, P., & King, D. (2023). The evolution of young gambling studies: Digital convergence of gaming, gambling and cryptocurrency technologies. International Gambling Studies, 114. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2023.2171469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delfabbro, P., King, D. L., & Williams, J. (2021). The psychology of cryptocurrency trading: Risk and protective factors. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 10(2), 201207. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00037.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delfabbro, P., King, D., Williams, J., & Georgiou, N. (2021). Cryptocurrency trading, gambling and problem gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 122, 107021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Djohari, N., Weston, G., Cassidy, R., & Kulas-Reid, I. (2021). The visibility of gambling sponsorship in football related products marketed directly to children. Soccer & Society, 22(7), 769777. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2020.1860028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Financial Conduct Authority (2023a). GC23/1: Guidance on cryptoasset financial promotions. https://www.fca.org.uk/publications/guidance-consultations/gc23-1-cryptoasset-financial-promotions-guidance-firms.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Financial Conduct Authority (2023b). Promotion of restricted mass market investments COBS 4.12A. https://www.handbook.fca.org.uk/handbook/COBS/4/12A.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goulding, S. (2022). Gambling advertising within professional football in the United Kingdom and the emotional impacts it has on adult male football fans Dublin. National College of Ireland.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, A., & Adams, J. (2014). Alcohol marketing in televised English professional football: A frequency analysis. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 49(3), 343348. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agt140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grégoire, P., Dixon, M. R., Giroux, I., Jacques, C., Goulet, A., Eaves, J., & Sévigny, S. (2023). Gambling on the stock market: The behavior of at-risk online traders. Review of Behavioral Finance, 10(3), 683689. https://doi.org/10.1108/RBF-05-2022-0143(ahead-of-print).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houghton, S., McNeil, A., Hogg, M., & Moss, M. (2019). Comparing the Twitter posting of British gambling operators and gambling affiliates: A summative content analysis. International Gambling Studies, 19(2), 312326. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2018.1561923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houghton, S. P. B., & Moss, M. (2022). Assessing the bets advertised on Twitter by gambling operators and gambling affiliates–an observational study incorporating simulation data to measure bet success. International Gambling Studies, 114. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2022.2114527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ireland, R. (2021). Commercial determinants of health in sport. In The example of the English Premier League. University of Glasgow.

  • Janiszewski, C., & Meyvis, T. (2001). Effects of brand logo complexity, repetition, and spacing on processing fluency and judgment. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1), 1832. https://doi.org/10.1086/321945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, B., Co, S., Sun, T., Lim, C. C., Stjepanović, D., Leung, J., … Chan, G. C. (2022). Cryptocurrency trading and its associations with gambling and mental health: A scoping review. Addictive Behaviors, 107504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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  • McGee, D. (2020). On the normalisation of online sports gambling among young adult men in the UK: A public health perspective. Public Health, 184, 8994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.04.018.

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  • Newall, P., Hayes, T., Singmann, H., Weiss-Cohen, L., Ludvig, E. A., & Walasek, L. (2023). Evaluation of the ‘take time to think’safer gambling message: A randomised, online experimental study. Behavioural Public Policy, 118. https://doi.org/10.1017/bpp.2023.2.

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  • Newall, P., Rockloff, M., Hing, N., Thorne, H., Russell, A. M., Browne, M., & Armstrong, T. (2023). Designing improved safer gambling messages for race and sports betting: What can be learned from other gambling formats and the broader public health literature? Journal of Gambling Studies, 116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-023-10203-4.

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  • Newall, P., Thobhani, A., Walasek, L., & Meyer, C. (2019). Live-odds gambling advertising and consumer protection. PloS One, 14(6), e0216876. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216876.

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  • Newall, P., & Weiss-Cohen, L. (2022). The gamblification of investing: How a new generation of investors is being born to lose. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095391.

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  • Newall, P., Weiss-Cohen, L., Singmann, H., Walasek, L., & Ludvig, E. A. (2022). Impact of the “when the fun stops, stop” gambling message on online gambling behaviour: A randomised, online experimental study. The Lancet Public Health, 7(5), e437e446. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00279-6.

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  • Newall, P., & Xiao, L. Y. (2021). Gambling marketing bans in professional sports neglect the risks posed by financial trading apps and cryptocurrencies. Gaming Law Review, 25(9), 376378. https://doi.org/10.1089/glr2.2021.0027.

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  • Newcastle United Football Club (2023). FUN88 become official Asian betting partner. Newcastle United Football Club. https://www.nufc.co.uk/news/latest-news/fun88-become-official-asian-betting-partner/.

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  • Oksanen, A., Hagfors, H., Vuorinen, I., & Savolainen, I. (2022). Longitudinal perspective on cryptocurrency trading and increased gambling problems: A 3 wave national survey study. Public Health, 213, 8590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2022.10.002.

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  • Oksanen, A., Mantere, E., Vuorinen, I., & Savolainen, I. (2022). Gambling and online trading: Emerging risks of real-time stock and cryptocurrency trading platforms. Public Health, 205, 7278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2022.01.027.

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  • Purves, R., Critchlow, N., Morgan, A., Stead, M., & Dobbie, F. (2020). Examining the frequency and nature of gambling marketing in televised broadcasts of professional sporting events in the United Kingdom. Public Health, 184, 7178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.02.012.

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  • Purves, R. I., Critchlow, N., Stead, M., Adams, J., & Brown, K. (2017). Alcohol marketing during the UEFA EURO 2016 football tournament: A frequency analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), 704. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070704.

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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

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  • Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
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  • Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • EBSCO
  • GoogleScholar
  • PsycINFO
  • PubMed Central
  • SCOPUS
  • Medline
  • CABI
  • CABELLS Journalytics

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5713
Journal Impact Factor 7.8
Rank by Impact Factor

Psychiatry (SCIE) 18/155
Psychiatry (SSCI) 13/144

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7.2
5 Year
Impact Factor
8.9
Journal Citation Indicator 1.42
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 35/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
69
Scimago
Journal Rank
1.918
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology Q1
Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11.1
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 10/292 (96th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 30/531 (94th PCTL)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 25/309 (92th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.966

 

 
2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5223
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7,130
5 Year
Impact Factor
9,026
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
56
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,951
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
Scopus
SNIP
2,184

2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
submission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 990 EUR/article for articles submitted after 30 April 2023 (850 EUR for articles submitted prior to this date)
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%.
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Stephanie ANTONS (Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Ruth J. van HOLST (Amsterdam UMC, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Gyöngyi KÖKÖNYEI (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. ABBOTT (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. ABOUJAOUDE (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat ADELI (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex BLASZCZYNSKI (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Kenneth BLUM (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook CHOI (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan DENYS (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Heather HAUSENBLAS (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias HAYER (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung JEONG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel KUNTSCHE (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel LEJOXEUX (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Astrid MÜLLER  (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Frederick GERARD MOELLER (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy PETRY (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. REID (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc TÚRY (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred UHL (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Róbert URBÁN  (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Johan VANDERLINDEN (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN  (Ariel University, Israel)
  • Kimberly YOUNG (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)

 

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