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Jin-Liang Wang Center for Mental Health Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China

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Xue-Qin Yin School of Literature and Journalism, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China

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Hai-Zhen Wang School of Preschool Education, Chongqing Youth Vocational & Technical College, Chongqing, China

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Daniel L. King College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

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Detlef H. Rost Department of Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany

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Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction has been linked to ADHD-related symptoms. However, the direction of the relationship and its potential for reciprocal relations is not well understood. This study examined the potential reciprocal relations between the three components of ADHD and Internet addiction, as well as the moderating effects of gender on these relations.

Methods

Using a longitudinal design, we collected data of 865 Chinese adolescents across three waves (Mage = 13.78, SD = 1.56 in wave 1), with a time interval of 6 months.

Results

Cross-lagged analyses revealed bidirectional associations between hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and Internet addiction over time. Multi-group analyses did not yield any significant gender differences in these relationships.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings enhance our understanding of the complex link between ADHD components and Internet addiction and have implications for interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of Internet addiction and ADHD.

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction has been linked to ADHD-related symptoms. However, the direction of the relationship and its potential for reciprocal relations is not well understood. This study examined the potential reciprocal relations between the three components of ADHD and Internet addiction, as well as the moderating effects of gender on these relations.

Methods

Using a longitudinal design, we collected data of 865 Chinese adolescents across three waves (Mage = 13.78, SD = 1.56 in wave 1), with a time interval of 6 months.

Results

Cross-lagged analyses revealed bidirectional associations between hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and Internet addiction over time. Multi-group analyses did not yield any significant gender differences in these relationships.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings enhance our understanding of the complex link between ADHD components and Internet addiction and have implications for interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of Internet addiction and ADHD.

Introduction

The phenomenon of Internet addiction has attracted significant research and clinical attention. Although not technically recognized as a disorder, Internet addiction is a widely used term used to refer to addictive use of the Internet, and is considered synonymous with Internet Addiction Disorder, Pathological Internet Use, and Problematic Internet Use (Douglas et al., 2008). Previous research have indicated that individuals with Internet addiction are more likely to report ADHD symptoms, with comorbidity rates reaching as high as 58% among children and adolescents (Ha et al., 2006) and 14% in adult populations (Bernardi & Pallanti, 2009), respectively. Individuals with ADHD exhibit consistent attentional deficiency, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which can have a negative impact on their cognitive functioning and development (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Despite the reported association between Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms in literature, there are still gaps that need to be addressed. Firstly, it remains unclear whether the association between Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms is unidirectional or reciprocal, due to the limitation of cross-sectional designs used in previous studies (see Koncz et al., 2023; Nikkelen, Valkenburg, Huizinga, & Bushman, 2014; Wang, Yao, Zhou, Liu, & Lv, 2017 for reviews). Recent longitudinal studies have mainly focused on gaming disorder rather than Internet addiction (Gentile, Swing, Lim, & Khoo, 2012; Lee, Bae, Kim, & Han, 2021; Marmet, Studer, Grazioli, & Gmel, 2018). Secondly, there is a paucity of studies using ADHD-specific measures that exclusively capture one or more of the core symptoms associated with ADHD (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, impulsivity) (Nikkelen et al., 2014). It is crucial to investigate the relationship between Internet addiction and these distinct components of ADHD given research indicating differential media effects for each symptoms domain (Marmet et al., 2018; Nikkelen et al., 2014; Yen, Chen, Tang, & Ko, 2009). For example, one longitudinal study reported that problematic social media use increased attention problems and impulsivity over time, rather than hyperactivity (Boer, Stevens, Finkenauer, & Eijnden, 2020). Additionally, the practice of using a composite ADHD variable rather than specific components may distort the observed relationship between Internet addiction and ADHD. For example, attentional deficiency has been found to be more closely associated with Internet addiction than impulsivity (Nikkelen et al., 2014; Yen et al., 2009). Therefore, it is imperative to differentiate ADHD-related behaviors and examine the potential associations between specific ADHD-related symptoms (namely, inattention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and Internet addiction. Furthermore, considering the increasing consensus that children's susceptibility to Internet-related effects depends on a range of person-based variables (such as age and sex), it is worthwhile to investigate whether there are any gender differences in these associations (Valkenburg & Peter, 2013).

The current study therefore aims to: (a) investigate the potential reciprocal relationships between Internet addiction and specific ADHD-related symptoms, and; (b) examine whether gender moderates the associations between ADHD symptoms and Internet addiction.

Internet addiction links to ADHD-related symptoms

Internet addiction refers to the inability to control one's Internet use, which results in psychological, social, academic and/or work-related difficulties (Spada, 2014). The literature has suggested that Internet addiction may serve as a predictor of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Boer et al., 2020; Kim, Lee, Lee, Namkoong, & Jung, 2017; Stockdale & Coyne, 2018). ADHD is a behavioral disorder characterized by attentional problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity among children and adolescents (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Considering the diverse nature of ADHD symptoms, this study used ADHD-related symptomatology to describe the continuous distribution of attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in the general population of adolescents as distinct from diagnosed cases (Nikkelen et al., 2014). Hyperactivity refers to excessive motor activity when it is not appropriate, or excessive fidgeting, tapping, or talkativeness (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Thus, hyperactivity can indicate low self-control. Impulsivity refers to hasty actions that occur in the moment without forethought and have high potential for harm to the individual (e.g., darting into the street without looking). Inattention manifests behaviorally in ADHD as mind wandering off task, lacking persistence, having difficulty sustaining focus, and being disorganized (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), which can result in reduced motivation for tasks requiring self-regulation skills like reading and academic work.

Researchers have proposed that frequent engagement in Internet activities, which are more stimulating or impulsive compared to other activities (e.g., schoolwork), may alter a child's desired level of external stimulation (Gentile et al., 2012). According to the arousal-habituation hypothesis, fast-paced and highly exciting content in the Internet can increase the physiological arousal, such as the elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance (Bushman & Huesmann, 2006), while frequent exposure to the Internet may habituate children to the arousal it provides (Nikkelen et al., 2014). Prolonged use of screen media can lead to a reduced experience arousal in less stimulating activities such as schoolwork, resulting in increased attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (Gentile et al., 2012). Boer et al. (2020) reported that addictive social media use increased ADHD-related symptoms over time.

The displacement hypothesis posits that time spent on the Internet may displace opportunities of impulse-control learning (Zimmerman & Christakis, 2007), as most online activities (e.g., Internet gaming) are characterized by attention-grabbing stimuli, fast pacing and rapid scene changes. Even though some Internet games could provide cognitive training and practice to enhance users' response inhibition (Leong, Yong, & Lin, 2022), most of them are designed to encourage quick responses and clicking rather than stimulate response inhibition abilities (Argyriou, Davison, & Lee, 2017). Therefore, excessive Internet use may have detrimental effects on cognitive abilities and be associated with increased impulsivity and lack of control (Cabelguen et al., 2021; Gentile et al., 2012). Empirically, the amount of time spent playing online video games has been found to be positively related to ADHD symptoms and inattention (Chan & Rabinowitz, 2006). Compared to normal users, adolescents who excessively engage in online gaming exhibit more severe ADHD symptoms and poorer impulse control (Stockdale & Coyne, 2018). Therefore, we hypothesized that Internet addiction may increase subsequent inattention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Individuals with ADHD-related symptoms tend to use Internet addictively

Studies have also examined ADHD as a risk factor, i.e., whether individuals with greater ADHD symptoms exhibit a higher likelihood of addictive Internet use (Weiss, Baer, Allan, Saran, & Schibuk, 2011; Werling, Kuzhippallil, Emery, Walitza, & Drechsler, 2022; Yen et al., 2009). For example, a longitudinal study examined the predictive effects of ADHD, hostility, depression, and social phobia on Internet addiction, the results indicated that ADHD problems was a powerful predictor of Internet addiction, after controlling for age and gender (Ko, Yen, Chen, Yeh, & Yen, 2009). Further, based on a representative sample of 3,034 children and adolescents, a three-year longitudinal study also reported reciprocal associations between amount of video gaming, attentional problems, and impulsivity (Gentile et al., 2012). However, these findings did not challenge the hypothesis about Internet addiction leading to ADHD-related symptoms since they are two sides of the same coin.

Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why users with ADHD symptoms may use the Internet excessively (Acevedo-Polakovich, Lorch, & Milich, 2007; Durkin, 2010). According to the attraction hypothesis, adolescents exhibiting ADHD-related behaviors tend to engage in stimulating activities as a means of compensating for low baseline arousal (Roberti, 2004). This tendency is primarily driven by boredom proneness and aversion to delayed rewards, which are considered core symptoms of ADHD (Li, Zhang, Xiao, & Nie, 2016). Engaging in Internet activities, particularly fast-paced video games, can serve as high-arousal compensation for individuals with ADHD due to their ability to provide quick response, instant stimulation and multi-task interfaces that may alleviate feeling of boredom. For individuals with hyperactivity, Internet activities that are stimulating may be appealing due to their ability to facilitate rapid clicking and browsing, which requires minimal self-regulation (Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2007).

ADHD is also linked to dysfunction in brain regions responsible for impulsivity, which manifests as a preference for immediate rewards or an inability to delay gratification (Rubia, Smith, Brammer, Toone, & Taylor, 2005). Internet activities provide adolescents with impulsive tendencies a sense of achievement through online features that offer instant feedback and social rewards. Furthermore, gaming has been observed to trigger striatal dopamine release, which can enhance gamers' focus and improve their performance (Koepp et al., 1998). Therefore, decreased self-control and heightened perceived success may serve as motivations for adolescents with ADHD symptoms, particularly those exhibiting impulsivity, to engage in online activities more frequently. As such, we hypothesized that hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity would increase subsequent Internet addiction.

Potential gender differences

Gender, as an important dispositional susceptibility variable, may impact the association between ADHD and Internet addiction (Valkenburg & Peter, 2013). Researchers have found that among individuals with depression, ADHD, social phobia, and hostility, ADHD was the most significant predictor of Internet addiction among females (Ko et al., 2009). Moreover, the association between inattention and Internet addiction was stronger in female students than males (Yen et al., 2009). However, evidence from a meta-analysis on the correlation between media use and ADHD-related behaviors showed that the positive association is more pronounced among males than females (Nikkelen et al., 2014). Therefore, we would examine the gender difference in the associations between Internet addiction and attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, to provide empirical evidence for the potential gender difference.

The present study

Based on the available research, there is a significant gap in our understanding of the potential reciprocal associations between ADHD and Internet addiction. Moreover, it is unclear whether distinct association patterns exist between Internet addition and the three subcomponents of ADHD symptoms. Further, there is emerging evidence that there may be gender differences in these relationships. To address these gaps, this study aimed to examine reciprocal associations between Internet addiction and inattention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and to test for possible gender differences in these associations.

Method

Sample and participant selection

In May 2019, participants were recruited for a three-wave panel study with a time interval of 6 months between waves (12 months from wave 1 to wave 3). The sample was adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years old who were selected from the seventh grade (i.e., middle school students) and tenth grade (i.e., high school students) at two schools in Guangxi Province in south China. A total of 1,020 students were invited to complete a paper and pencil survey that aims to investigate their Internet usage, and 922 participants completed all three waves survey. After excluding participants who reported nearly invariant responses on all items (n = 57), the final sample consisted of 865 individuals (Mage = 13.78, SD = 1.56 at the baseline). Within this sample, 49.2% were boys, and 50.6% were girls (2 participants failed to fill in their gender information).

During the survey, confidentiality was guaranteed by asking students to provide their identification data on separate forms and processing survey answers separately. Each respondent was also assigned a unique code to ensure that any identifying data could be deleted before processing. Based on the identification forms obtained during waves 1, 2 and 3, the respondents were tracked over time with an interval of 6 months between waves. We used a time interval of 6 months between waves because the extensive use of one semester (i.e., six months) as an time interval in prior research studying changes in behavioral patterns and mental health among adolescents (e.g., Teng et al., 2018). MANOVA was used to decide whether the missing data were conditional on key variables. Results revealed no significant difference in Internet addiction (F(1, 1019) = 0.51, p > 0.05) and ADHD behaviors (F(1, 1019) = 0.65, p > 0.05) between the adolescents who participated in wave one and those who participated in all three waves. The MANOVA results indicated the data were missing at random. Among the final 865 participants, missing data were replaced by their corresponding means and across the three waves, the missing items were between 0.1% and 2.1%.

Measures

Internet Addiction Scale

Internet addiction was assessed by the Internet Addiction Test-Adolescence Version (Teo & Kam, 2014). This scale consists of three aspects of Internet addiction, including loss of control (eleven items), dereliction of duty (six items), and excessive use (four items). Participants were asked to answer each item on a 5-point scale, ranging from 1 = “rarely” to 5 = “always”. Sample items were “How often do you feel that you stay online longer than you intend” and “How often do you neglect homework to spend more time online”. Two items in the subscale of dereliction of duty (“how often do you form new relationships with fellow online users?” and “how often do you check your e-mail before something else that you need to do?”) were deleted due to factor loading below 0.40 in three time points, and remined 18 items. The items were summarized and averaged, with higher scores representing higher Internet addiction. The adapted Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test has been used in a study by Lai et al. (2013), who reported good reliability in Chinese sample (Lai et al., 2013). The Cronbach's α coefficient for the present sample in Time 1 to Time 3 were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.93, respectively.

ADHD Scale

ADHD-related symptoms was measured using the subscales of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which is applicable to individuals ranging from 4 to 16 years (Goodman, 1997). Participants responded to a 5-item questionnaire assessing three dimensions of ADHD symptoms, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attentional problems. Each item was rated on a 3-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 = “not true” to 2 = “certainly true”. Specifically, hyperactivity and inattention symptoms were assessed by two items, respectively (hyperactivity symptoms: “Restless, overactive, cannot stay still for long” and “Constantly fidgeting or squirming”; inattention symptoms: “Sees tasks through to the end, good attention span (reversed)”, and “Easily distracted, concentration wanders"). The assessment of impulsivity symptoms was conducted using a single item (“Thinks things out before acting” (reversed)). This scale has been adapted in a study among Chinese sample and has an acceptable reliability in Chinese sample (Zhang et al., 2009). In the present study, the Cronbach's α coefficient in Time 1 to Time 3 were 0.67, 0.69 and 0.70, respectively.

Analytic strategy

Data analysis in the current study consisted of preliminary analysis and main analysis. The preliminary analysis was conducted using SPSS 22.0 to assess normality and to generate descriptive statistics. A normal distribution test of the variables showed that the skewness values for all variables ranged from 0.07 to 0.88, and the kurtosis values ranged from −0.68 to 0.75, which were well within in the range of ±1.0 (Muthen & Kaplan, 1985), suggesting that study variables listed in Table 1 were normally distributed.

Table 1.

Gender differences on Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms at three waves

All sample (N = 865)Boys (n = 397)Girls (n = 468)tpd
M (SD)SkewnessKurtosisM (SD)M (SD)
T1 Internet addiction2.21 (0.73)0.810.662.24 (0.74)2.20 (0.72)0.800.423−0.06
T2 Internet addiction2.21 (0.82)0.63−0.072.24 (0.82)2.18 (0.81)1.19235−0.07
T3 Internet addiction2.21 (0.73)0.600.192.24 (0.73)2.18 (0.73)1.050.295−0.08
T1 ADHD0.71 (0.40)0.460.060.74 (0.40)0.69 (0.40)1.590.111−0.13
T2 ADHD0.74 (0.43)0.37−0.210.77 (0.44)0.72 (0.41)1.660.097−0.12
T3 ADHD0.70 (0.41)0.33−0.020.71 (0.43)0.70 (0.39)0.440.657−0.17
T1 Hyperactivity0.50 (0.52)0.78−0.140.58 (0.54)0.43 (0.50)4.35***<0.001−0.29
T2 Hyperactivity0.52 (0.58)0.88−0.090.59 (0.61)0.46 (0.55)3.50***<0.001−0.23
T3 Hyperactivity0.53 (0.55)0.830.020.58 (0.57)0.48 (0.53)2.71**0.007−0.18
T1 Impulsivity0.81 (0.60)0.10−0.410.82 (0.60)0.79 (0.59)0.630.527−0.05
T2 Impulsivity0.90 (0.65)0.11−0.680.89 (0.66)0.90 (0.65)−0.180.8590.02
T3 Impulsivity0.77 (0.60)0.13−0.470.74 (0.62)0.80 (0.57)−1.390.1660.10
T1 Inattention0.88 (0.52)0.16−0.380.85 (0.54)0.91 (0.50)−1.650.1000.12
T2 Inattention0.89 (0.53)0.07−0.340.88 (0.55)0.90 (0.51)−0.380.7070.04
T3 Inattention0.84 (0.51)0.130.280.82 (0.52)0.86 (0.51)−1.220.2240.08

Note: M = mean. SD = standard deviations. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.

AMOS version 21.0 was used to examine the potential reciprocal relationships between Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms. Specifically, we first conducted a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis grouped by time points (i.e., longitudinal measurement invariance analysis) to test the invariance of Internet addiction scale across the three waves. We did not analyze the longitudinal invariance analysis of the three components of ADHD symptoms, due to the fact that ADHD scale comprises only 5 items across three factors, with each factor containing fewer than three items, it failed to meet the minimum requirement for measurement model identification (Bollen, 1989). For testing the longitudinal measurement invariance of Internet addiction, we constructed a series of multi-group models across three points, and each model was tested through three sequential steps wherein increasingly restrictive constraints were incrementally applied. In the first step, an unconstrained model was tested for configural invariance (Model 1); this was followed by testing a multi-group model with constrained factor loadings (Model 2 and Model 3). Thereafter, scalar invariance was tested by constraining the factor loadings and intercepts (Model 4). Last, the unique variance was tested by constraining the factor loadings, intercepts, and error residuals (Model 5 and Model 6).

Secondly, we explored the longitudinal associations between the three components of ADHD and Internet addiction, followed by a test of possible gender differences. During this phase, we constructed three separate cross-lagged models via AMOS to examine the relationship between Internet addiction (measured by loss of control, dereliction of duty, and excessive use) and each component of ADHD symptoms. Given that the three components of ADHD-related symptoms were assessed by five items, we used hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attentional problems as observed variables in the cross-lagged model. The multi-group SEM analyses allows for the examination of gender differences in the estimated path coefficients between hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and Internet addiction. Initially, a multi-group SEM model was conducted with freely estimated structural paths across gender groups while all other parameters were constrained (i.e., factor loadings, intercepts and item variance). Subsequently, we ran a model where all parameters were set equal across genders.

In all analyses, the default estimation of method of maximum likelihood was used. Model fit was assessed with χ2/df, a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), a comparative fit index (CFI), a Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and a standardized root mean square residual (SRMR). The recommended range for χ2/df is greater than 1 and smaller than 5 (Salisbury, Chin, Gopal, & Newsted, 2002). The CFI and TLI should be greater than 0.90 (Salisbury et al., 2002). For the RMSEA and the SRMR, values less than 0.08 represent an acceptable fit (Byrne, 2001).

When reporting the evidence of invariance, two criteria were used. Firstly, the multi-group models must show an acceptable fit to the data. Secondly, given that model chi-square tests are sensitive to sample size, the CFI difference should be considered as a more robust evaluation criteria (e.g., Cheung & Rensvold, 2002; Little, 1997; Vandenberg & Lance, 2000). Therefore, we used χ2 difference tests and assessed the changes in CFI and RMSEA between competing models to determine whether further restrictions significantly impaired model fit. Invariance was established if the χ2 difference was not significant, or if the decrease in CFI values between models was less than 0.01 and change in RMSEA was less than 0.015 (Cheung & Rensvold, 2002; Dimitrov, 2010).

Ethics

All procedures in this study were in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of the the Southwest University China. All adolescents and their school teachers, and parents were informed about the study and all provided informed consent.

Results

Preliminary analysis

Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics for the entire sample, as well as separately for boys and girls. To test the gender differences in the study variable across three waves, t-test was conducted. As shown in Table 1, boys reported higher scores of hyperactivity than girls in all three waves (ps<0.01). No significant gender differences were found in Internet addiction and other two ADHD symptoms. The zero-order correlations among the study variables for the whole sample are presented in Table 2, which indicated that Internet addiction was positively correlated to hyperactivity, attentional problems and impulsivity at all three time points (ps<0.001). Correlations between variables for boys and girls can be found in Appendix Table A1.

Table 2.

The zero-order correlations between all study variables (N = 865)

Variables123456789101112
1. T1 Internet addiction
2. T2 Internet addiction0.74***
3. T3 Internet addiction0.72***0.74***
4. T1 Hyperactivity0.42***0.39***0.34***
5. T2 Hyperactivity0.31***0.42***0.33***0.52***
6. T3 Hyperactivity0.31***0.31***0.36***0.50***0.51***
7. T1 Impulsivity0.21***0.15***0.20***0.14***0.09**0.10**
8. T2 Impulsivity0.17***0.18***0.21***0.15***0.14***0.18***0.42***
9. T3 Impulsivity0.14***0.17***0.22***0.16***0.12***0.16***0.39***0.39***
10. T1 Inattention0.45***0.37***0.38***0.37***0.26***0.28***0.34***0.25***0.28***
11. T2 Inattention0.41***0.47***0.45***0.32***0.41***0.39***0.28***0.37***0.30***0.54***
12. T3 Inattention0.38***0.39***0.48***0.30***0.26***0.40**0.29***0.26***0.40***0.54***0.55***

Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

Phase 1: measurement invariance test for Internet Addiction Scale

A second-order factor model comprising of three first-order factors of Internet addiction was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) at each of the three time points. The factor loadings for each item ranged from 0.47 to 0.78 at T1, 0.54 to 0.80 at T2, and 0.46 to 0.78 at T3. Additionally, we also presented all specific factor loadings of Internet addiction in appendix (see Appendix Table A2). The goodness-of-fit indexes in Table 3 showed a very good model fit for each wave, demonstrating configural invariance of the CFA models over time.

Table 3.

Fit statistics for measurement models of Internet addiction

ModelML χ2dfCFITLIRMSEASRMRComparison△ χ2p△ CFI△ RMSEA
M11,859.753870.9310.9180.0380.037
M21,898.154170.9310.9240.0370.038M2-M138.400.1400.000−0.001
M31,904.644210.9300.9240.0370.038M3-M26.500.165−0.0010.000
M42,039.804570.9260.9250.0370.038M4-M3135.160.000−0.0040.000
M52,047.564630.9260.9260.0360.038M5-M47.760.2560.000−0.001
M62,175.675050.9220.9290.0360.039M6-M5128.110.000−0.0020.000

Note: M1 = configural invariance model in which none parameters were constrained to be equal; M2 = first-order factor loadings were constrained to be equal; M3 = first-order and second-order factor loadings were constrained to be equal; M4 = first-order and second-order factor loadings, and item intercepts were constrained to be equal; M5 = first-order and second-order factor loadings, item intercepts, and first-order factor disturbances were constrained to be equal; M6 = first-order and second-order factor loadings, item intercepts, first-order factor disturbances, and item residual variance were constrained to be equal.

Testing for factorial invariance was conducted using the sequence of nested models as previously described (Model 1-Model 6). As shown in Table 3, all models have good fit. The chi-square differences in Table 3 shows that these nested constrained models provide direct evidence of invariant first-order (M2-M1) and second-order factor loadings (M3-M2), as well as first-order disturbances (M5-M4), with no significant chi-square differences observed (ps > 0.05). However, the other chi-square differences for the comparisons of models (M4-M3 and M6-M5) were significant (ps < 0.05), suggesting that invariances did not hold. However, considering that difference in chi-square is sensitive to sample size and our study has a large sample, we relied on changes in CFI and RMSEA as indicators of invariance.

According to prior research (Cheung & Rensvold, 2002; Dimitrov, 2010), only the decrease of CFI larger than 0.01 (i.e., △ CFI < −0.01) and the change of RMSEA larger than 0.015 (i.e., △ RMSEA > 0.015) indicate a lack of invariance. As shown in Table 3, the decreases in CFI between M2-M1, M4-M3 and M6-M5 are all less than 0.01, and the changes of RMSEA are below 0.015. Therefore, it can be concluded that first-order loadings, item intercepts and item residual variance are invariant. In summary, the longitudinal factorial invariance of the second-order CFA of Internet scales across the three waves is supported by the invariance of first- and second-order factor loadings, item intercepts, first-order factor disturbances and item residual variances.

Phase 2: testing the hypothesized models of the relations between ADHD-related symptoms and Internet addiction

Figures 13 presents the associations between hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity symptoms and Internet addiction. In terms of the relation between hyperactivity and Internet addiction, the autoregressive cross-lagged model fit the data well, with χ2/df = 5.313, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.978, TLI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.071 (90% CI = [0.061, 0.081]), SRMR = 0.042. Hyperactivity at Time 1 was significantly related to Internet addiction at Time 2 (β = 0.07, p = 0.011), while hyperactivity at Time 2 was not related to Internet addiction at Time 3 (β = 0.00, p = 0.970; see Fig. 1). Besides, we also found that Internet addiction at a prior time point could positively predict the subsequent hyperactivity (ps < 0.001). In order to compare the strength of these relations, we further constrained structural parameters including auto-regression and cross-lagged coefficients to be equivalent across the two intervals, results indicated that the relations between Time1 and Time 2 were similar with those between Time2 and Time3, with △ χ2 (4) = 30.873, p < 0.001, △ CFI = −0.003 and △ RMSEA = 0.002. This finding indicated that there was no significant change in the strength of relationships over time.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reciprocal relation between hyperactivity and Internet addiction

Citation: Journal of Behavioral Addictions 13, 1; 10.1556/2006.2023.00080

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reciprocal relation between inattention and Internet addiction

Citation: Journal of Behavioral Addictions 13, 1; 10.1556/2006.2023.00080

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reciprocal relation between impulsivity and Internet addiction

Note: Values reflect standardized coefficients. Dashed lines are nonsignificant. dd = dereliction of duty; eu = excessive use; lc = loss of control. For all cross-lagged models, we allowed the measurement error of each indicator across time and the residual variance between variables within time to be correlated. For clarity, error terms and covariances are not shown. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001

Citation: Journal of Behavioral Addictions 13, 1; 10.1556/2006.2023.00080

Figure 2 presents the baseline model for inattention and Internet addiction, which fits the data well, with χ2/df = 6.433, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.974, TLI = 0.953, RMSEA = 0.079 (90% CI = [0.070, 0.089]), SRMR = 0.047. Internet addiction at earlier time points were found to predict inattention at later time points, with β = 0.25, p < 0.001 and β = 0.22, p < 0.001, respectively. Moreover, inattention could positively predict subsequent Internet addition, but that was only significant at Time 3 (β = 0.12, p < 0.001). We then used a constrained model that set auto-regression and cross-lagged relations to be equivalent across two intervals for the comparison of standardized effect sizes. Results revealed that the strength of above relations were not significantly different, with △ χ2 (4) = 29.338, p < 0.001, △ CFI = −0.004 and △ RMSEA = 0.001, suggesting little change in these relations strength over time.

Regarding the link between impulsivity and Internet addition, the baseline model showed a good fit to the data, with χ2/df = 5.213, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.978, TLI = 0.960, RMSEA = 0.070 (90% CI = [0.060, 0.080]), SRMR = 0.043. Figure 3 illustrates that Internet addiction at earlier time points positively predicted impulsivity at later time points, with β = 0.10, p = 0.010 and β = 0.12, p < 0.001, respectively. We also found that impulsivity at Time 2 was positively related to Internet addiction at Time 3 (β = 0.09, p < 0.001), indicating a reciprocal relation between impulsivity and Internet addition. Further constrained model indicated that these auto-regression and cross-lagged paths coefficients between Time 1 and Time 2 did not significantly differ from those between Time 2 and Time 3, with △ χ2 (4) = 38.050, p < 0.001, △ CFI = −0.005 and △ RMSEA = 0.003.

Taken together, results from cross-lagged models revealed that there were significant cross-lagged associations between Internet addiction and three components of ADHD symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attentional problems, and impulsivity). These results suggest that Internet addiction and hyperactivity, attentional problems, as well as impulsivity can be reciprocally related over time.

Multi-group differences across gender

To examine the gender difference in the models aforementioned, we conducted a multi-group analysis grouped by gender. We first established three unconstrained models separately for hyperactivity, attentional problems, and impulsivity, allowing the structural paths to be freely estimated between different genders, and the model fit indexes and corresponding regression coefficients were presented in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. As shown in Table 4, these unconstrained cross-lagged models fit data well. Then we constructed three equal models that constrained the structural weights to be equivalent, which also demonstrated excellent model fits (see Table 4). Finally, we compared freely estimated model with equal model to determine whether there was a gender difference. The results showed that imposing the equality constrains did not significantly deteriorate the fits of models, with all △ χ2 ≥ 5.239, ps > 0.05, △ CFI < 0.01, and △ RMSEA <0.015 (See Table 4). Hence, we concluded that the cross-lagged models between Internet addiction and hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity were equivalent across gender.

Table 4.

Fit statistics for multi-group SEM Models across gender

ModelML χ2dfCFITLIRMSEASRMR△ χ2p△ CFI△ RMSEA
Hyperactivity
 Betas freely estimated368.5221130.9610.9570.0530.050
 Equality model390.5081210.9610.9590.0520.05410.8880.20800.001
Inattention
 Betas freely estimated407.7321130.9620.9570.0550.049
 Equality model413.0171210.9620.9610.0530.0505.2390.73200.002
Impulsivity
 Betas freely estimated382.3011130.9620.9580.0530.052
 Equality model391.0511210.9620.9600.0510.0518.5530.38100.002

Table 5 presents the subtle differences in the strength of relationships on the unconstrained models for boys and girls. In the model of hyperactivity, hyperactivity at Time 1 was positively related to boys' Internet addiction at Time 2 (β = 0.08, p = 0.016), which in turn could positively predict their increased hyperactivity at Time 3 (β = 0.14, p = 0.003). While for girls, the paths from Internet addiction to hyperactivity were significant across two intervals, β = 0.16, p < 0.001 and β = 0.15, p = 0.001, respectively. No significant path from hyperactivity to Internet addiction was observed for girls across two intervals (β = 0.07, p = 0.097, and β = −0.04, p = 0.266).

Table 5.

Path coefficients in betas freely estimated models for boys and girls groups

ParameterBoys (n = 397)Girls (n = 468)
bβSEpbβSEp
Hyperactivity model
Auto-regression
 T2 Internet addiction ← T1 Internet addiction0.860.760.05<0.0010.860.770.05<0.001
 T3 Internet addiction ← T2 Internet addiction0.690.790.04<0.0010.690.810.04<0.001
 T2 hyperactivity ← T1 hyperactivity0.560.500.05<0.0010.450.410.04<0.001
 T3 hyperactivity ← T2 hyperactivity0.460.480.04<0.0010.380.400.04<0.001
Cross-lagged
 T2 hyperactivity ← T1 Internet addiction0.080.080.050.0930.140.160.04<0.001
 T3 hyperactivity ← T2 Internet addiction0.110.140.040.0030.110.150.040.001
 T2 Internet addiction ← T1 hyperactivity0.110.080.050.0160.070.050.040.097
 T3 Internet addiction ← T2 hyperactivity0.030.020.040.471−0.04−0.040.040.266
Inattention model
Auto-regression
 T2 Internet addiction ← T1 Internet addiction0.900.780.05<0.0010.900.790.05<0.001
 T3 Internet addiction ← T2 Internet addiction0.640.740.04<0.0010.620.730.04<0.001
 T2 inattention ← T1 inattention0.430.430.04<0.0010.400.400.04<0.001
 T3 inattention ← T2 inattention0.400.430.04<0.0010.440.440.04<0.001
Cross-lagged
 T2 inattention ← T1 Internet addiction0.240.280.04<0.0010.190.240.04<0.001
 T3 inattention ← T2 Internet addiction0.140.190.04<0.0010.170.230.03<0.001
 T2 Internet addiction ← T1 inattention0.030.030.040.4460.020.010.040.654
 T3 Internet addiction ← T2 inattention0.130.120.04<0.0010.140.120.04<0.001
Impulsivity model
Auto-regression
 T2 Internet addiction ← T1 Internet addiction0.920.800.05<0.0010.920.800.05<0.001
 T3 Internet addiction ← T2 Internet addiction0.680.790.03<0.0010.660.770.03<0.001
 T2 impulsivity ← T1 impulsivity0.400.380.04<0.0010.480.430.04<0.001
 T3 impulsivity ← T2 impulsivity0.300.340.04<0.0010.360.390.03<0.001
Cross-lagged
 T2 impulsivity ← T1 Internet addiction0.150.140.050.0040.060.060.050.209
 T3 impulsivity ← T2 Internet addiction0.100.120.040.0190.100.120.040.007
 T2 Internet addiction ← T1 impulsivity−0.01−0.010.030.679−0.03−0.030.040.332
 T3 Internet addiction ← T2 impulsivity0.070.070.030.0130.100.100.03<0.001

Note: b = unstandardized coefficient; β = standardized coefficient; SE = standard error.

In terms of the Inattention model, whether for boys or girls, Internet addiction at earlier time points were found to be positively related to attention problems at the latter points (ps < 0.001). Meanwhile, inattention symptoms at Time 2 predicted increased Internet addiction at Time 3 for both boys (β = 0.12, p < 0.001) and girls (β = 0.12, p < 0.001). These links further confirmed that the relationship between internet addiction and inattention was similar for both boys and girls. That is, Internet addiction could positively predict their increased attention problems, which in turn was positively related to Internet addiction in the future.

As for impulsivity symptoms, we found that Internet addiction at earlier time points could positively predict impulsivity symptoms at the latter time points for boys (β = 0.14, p = 0.004, and β = 0.12, p = 0.019), but for girls, only Internet addiction at Time 2 could predict the increased impulsivity at Time 3 (β = 0.12, p = 0.007). Further, impulsivity at Time 2 could increase Internet addiction at Time 3 for both boys (β = 0.07, p = 0.013) and girls (β = 0.10, p < 0.001; see Table 4). These results indicated that reciprocal association between Internet addiction and impulsivity was similar on both boys and girls.

Discussion

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential longitudinal associations between three components of ADHD and Internet addiction among adolescents. Further, we examined gender differences in these paths. The longitudinal design allowed the present study to provide stronger evidence regarding the directionality of effects compared to cross-sectional studies. Results from this sample revealed reciprocal associations between ADHD total score, hyperactivity, inattention problems, impulsivity, and Internet addiction. However, no significant gender differences were revealed in the relationships between hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and Internet addiction.

A reciprocal relationship between hyperactivity and Internet addiction was found. The initial wave hyperactivity could predict Internet addiction symptoms over time, and Internet addiction was associated with subsequent increases in hyperactivity symptoms. The significant path from hyperactivity to Internet addiction supported the strength model of self-control. This model proposes that individuals with lower self-control may frequently engage in stimulating internet activities that do not require exertion of self-control (Baumeister et al., 2007). The rapid and effortless navigation characteristic of the Internet may align with the cognitive style of children exhibiting more hyperactive symptoms. Our finding in terms of the paths from Internet addiction to hyperactivity also support the displacement hypothesis. Addictive Internet users tend to spend a large amount time on Internet, which reduces the time for other activities that could facilitate the development of cognitive functions relevant to hyperactivity (Zimmerman, Frederick, & Christakis, 2007). Hence it is possible that the self-control ability among addictive Internet users would decrease over time.

The cross-lagged model of Internet addition and impulsivity also revealed a reciprocal relationship. This finding indicates that Internet addiction may aggravate impulsivity problems across time, and impulsivity may further lead to more Internet addiction symptoms. The predictive effect of impulsivity on Internet addiction has also been reported in a recent study by Jo, Na, and Kim (2018), suggesting that impulsivity may be one of the factors contributing to smartphone addiction proneness (Jo et al., 2018). Impulsivity may involve a preference for immediate rewards or an inability to delay gratification, and the Internet provides an environment where users can satisfy their various needs instantly (Foregger, 2008). Our finding is also consistent with other prior research reporting positive associations between impulsivity and addictive gaming (Argyriou et al., 2017; Billieux et al., 2011; Mann, 2017; Nuyens et al., 2016) and others forms of behavioral addiction (Billieux et al., 2012; Grant & Chamberlain, 2014). Impulsivity is, to some extent, caused by the impaired inhibition control function, which is a fundamental aspect of executive function. Individuals with impaired inhibition control system tend to be unable to resist the disruption of addiction relevant cues, and may consequently spend excessive time on Internet activities like gaming. In other words, high levels of impulsivity can lead to poor self-regulation and lack of control over Internet use (Argyriou et al., 2017). It is worth noting that despite the separate assessment of impulsivity and hyperactivity in the present study, their respective relationships with Internet addiction provide evidence for Baumeister et al.’s (2007) strength model of self-control, suggesting that poor self-regulation is at the core of all types of addiction and impulse control disorders.

Additionally, Internet addiction was found to be associated with more impulsive symptoms over time. It is plausible that video game addiction creates biological changes in the neural network, which impair cognitive functioning and impulse control (Stockdale & Coyne, 2018). Additionally, prior fMRI studies have demonstrated an association between Internet addiction disorders and impulsivity, indicating that the excessive use of Internet gaming may lead to lower grey matter volume in certain brain regions, which is believed to underline deficits in inhibition control (Dong, DeVito, Du, & Cui, 2012).

Inattention symptoms and Internet addiction

A ‘vicious cycle’ was found in terms of the relationship between inattention symptoms and Internet addiction. The addictive use of Internet can increase greater inattention problems over time, which may further induce more subsequent Internet addiction symptoms. These findings are consistent with previous research (Boer et al., 2020; Gentile et al., 2012). Adolescents with attention deficits tend to experience boredom during tasks requiring sustained cognition engagement, yet exhibit heightened engagement when participating in stimulating online activities and when afforded the opportunity to switch between tasks promptly. Even though engaging in online activities may alleviate boredom and facilitate task-switching, such behaviors can impede adolescents' ability to maintain attentional focus, resulting in diminished performance (Xie, Rost, Wang, Wang, & Monk, 2021).

Despite the significant relationship between ADHD-relevant symptoms and Internet addiction, it should be noted that hyperactivity at Time 2 did not predict Internet addiction at Time 3, and inattention and impulsivity at Time 1 did not predict Internet addiction at Time 2. This may indicate that the predictive effects of ADHD-relevant symptoms on Internet addiction were not robust and consistent. A possible explanation for these insignificant findings is that a 6-month interval may not be sufficient to observe the effects. Another possibility is that varying levels of academic stress experienced by Chinese adolescents during different semesters could be a confounding factor in relation to Internet addiction.

Our findings of multi-group analyses for three cross-lagged SEM models across gender suggest that the reciprocal relationship between ADHD and Internet addiction is similar across boys and girls. Similarly, some prior research has reported that gender had no effect on the relationships between ADHD and disruptive disorders (Bauermeister et al., 2007) or substance use disorder (Elkins et al., 2018; Ottosen, Petersen, Larsen, & Dalsgaard, 2016). While this finding is not consistent with other study reporting a stronger association between inattention and Internet addiction among females than in males (Yen et al., 2009). This might be due to the fact that gender differences in Internet use have disappeared as the Internet has become integrated into our daily lives (CNNIC, 2023). Specifically, prior research indicated that both girls and boys were motivated to use Internet to escape real life problems (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014). Males and females with ADHD symptoms may face comparable risks of excessive Internet use, which in turn could equally exacerbate their ADHD symptoms. However, it is possible that boys and girls with ADHD symptoms may engage in different online activities; for example, boys might be more prone to excessive Internet gaming, while girls may excessively use social media (Su, Han, Yu, Wu, & Potenza, 2020). Hence, gender differences may exist in the relationship between ADHD and specific Internet addiction, instead of general Internet addiction that we measured in the present study.

Limitations and future directions

Several limitations of this study should be noted. Firstly, this study used a relatively homogeneous sample recruited from two schools through convenience sampling, which may not be representative of a broader population of Chinese adolescents. Secondly, the measures of Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms could be improved in the future: On the one hand, Internet addiction in this study was not measured by the complete adolescent version of the Internet Addiction Test (Teo & Kam, 2014) due to the exclusion of two items, which might limit the comparison of the results with other studies using the same scale. On the other hand, the longitudinal invariances of the ADHD subscales were not assessed in our study, as they did not meet the criteria for latent variables due to insufficient items for certain subscales, especially for impulsivity, which was measured by a single item. This may lead to less accurate estimation in the models (e.g. underestimation of the relationships). Therefore, future researchers are recommended to choose a ADHD measure with more items (e.g., the Conners Rating Scale – Revised, CRS-R; Conners, 1997) that enables them to specify ADHD symptoms as latent variables in order to further validate findings in our study. Additionally, it is recommended that future research use specific problematic Internet use constructs to enhance generalizability our findings. The present study focused on the relationship between general Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms, which may differ from those associated with specific Internet activities (e.g., social media use; Boer et al., 2020). Thirdly, future studies can enhance the accuracy of estimating the relationships between Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms by employing more advanced statistical methods for handling missing data (e.g., full information maximum likelihood; Lee & Shi, 2021) instead of mean imputation method used in this study which may underestimate the associations among variables. Although all the study variables exhibited normal distribution in the current sample, the problem of non-normal distribution might be unavoidable in practice. Therefore, future studies are recommended to replace ML estimation with robust ML estimation procedure as so to provide more accurate estimations for the relationships between Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms (Schermelleh-Engel, Moosbrugger, & Müller, 2003). Moreover, cross-lagged models hinder us to separate the within-person effects from between-person effects in longitudinal associations between Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the causal effects between variables, future research could consider utilizing random intercept cross-lagged analysis to address the current limitation (Hamaker, Kuiper, & Grasman, 2015). Finally, our cross-lagged models did not control for potential confounding factors (e.g., depression, anxiety) which have been shown to be related to both Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms (e.g., Morita et al., 2022; Yen, Ko, Yen, Wu, & Yang, 2007). To understand the reciprocal relationship between Internet addiction and ADHD symptoms, future research may benefit from including these confounding variables.

Conclusions

The present study significantly contributes to our understanding of the relationships between Internet addiction and ADHD components. Reciprocal relationships exist between ADHD components and Internet addiction, even though no significant gender difference is revealed. Our findings indicate that Internet addition may increase adolescents' hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity and undermine their self-control ability, which in turn leads to more Internet related activities, forming a vicious cycle. Therefore, preventing Internet addiction may help in reducing the likelihood of developing ADHD-related behaviors. Adolescents exhibiting ADHD symptoms require special attention as they are at a higher risk of developing Internet addiction. Teachers and parents can provide alternative activities to compensate for their lower baseline arousal levels, such as engaging in healthy sporting activities. Therefore, effective interventions aimed at reducing the likelihood of technology addiction should acknowledge ADHD components as a significant risk factor.

Funding sources

This work was supported by the “The Influence of Cu-mulative risk factors on mental health of left-behind children in urban- rural areas of Chongqing and the related Interventions (2021WT03)”.

Authors' contribution

Jin-Liang Wang and Xue-Qin Yin: conceptualization, methodology, formal analysis, writing (writing – original draft, and writing – editing), visualization. Hai-Zhen Wang: conceptualization, and writing – review & editing. Daniel L. King: review & editing. Detlef H. Rost: review & editing. The authors would like to thank Xiao-Bing Liang for her helps in data collection.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest. Daniel L. King is an associate editor of the Journal of Behavioral Addictions.

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Appendix

Table A1.

Correlations between all study variables for boys and girls

Variables123456789101112
1. T1 Internet addiction0.73***0.71***0.39***0.32***0.31***0.27***0.16**0.15**0.45***0.40***0.40***
2. T2 Internet addiction0.75***0.73***0.34***0.45***0.29***0.20***0.18***0.20***0.38***0.48***0.42***
3. T3 Internet addiction0.73***0.76***0.26***0.29***0.35***0.26***0.24***0.22***0.39***0.44***0.50***
4. T1 Hyperactivity0.45***0.43***0.42***0.49***0.43***0.20***0.20***0.17***0.39***0.29***0.25***
5. T2 Hyperactivity0.30***0.39***0.37***0.53***0.46***0.11*0.16**0.020.27***0.40***0.22***
6. T3 Hyperactivity0.30***0.33***0.37***0.55***0.55***0.17***0.24***0.12**0.32***0.42***0.37***
7. T1 Impulsivity0.14**0.080.13**0.070.070.020.49***0.40***0.42***0.34***0.33***
8. T2 Impulsivity0.17**0.18***0.18***0.090.12*0.12*0.35***0.44***0.30***0.40***0.30***
9. T3 Impulsivity0.14**0.15**0.23***0.18***0.23***0.20***0.39***0.35***0.26***0.27***0.40***
10. T1 Attentional problems0.45***0.36***0.38***0.39***0.28***0.25**0.26***0.18***0.30**0.51***0.55***
11. T2 Attentional problems0.43***0.46***0.45***0.37***0.42***0.36***0.23***0.34***0.33***0.57***0.55***
12. T3 Attentional problems0.36***0.37***0.47***0.37***0.33***0.43***0.23***0.21***0.40***0.53***0.54***

Note: The lower right bottom presents correlations for boys (n = 397), and the upper right bottom presents correlations for girls (n = 468). * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

Table A2.

Factor loadings for Internet addiction at all time points

Factors/itemsFactor loading
T1T2T3
Factor 1: Lose of control0.890.940.89
 IA30.570.630.61
 IA50.570.620.62
 IA90.470.540.46
 IA100.590.660.65
 IA110.600.650.65
 IA120.620.680.70
 IA130.690.710.64
 IA150.750.770.72
 IA180.640.640.63
 IA190.630.690.63
 IA200.660.670.66
Factor 2: Dereliction of duty0.940.990.95
 IA20.730.700.72
 IA60.680.700.71
 IA80.600.620.63
 IA140.670.710.72
Factor 3: Excessive use0.940.930.96
 IA10.690.730.72
 IA160.740.750.72
 IA170.780.800.78

Note. All factor loadings were standardized. All indicators are significant at the 0.001 level. Item 4 and item 7 under the factor of dereliction of duty were deleted from final analysis due to factor loadings lower than 0.40.

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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

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  • EBSCO
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  • SCOPUS
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  • CABI
  • CABELLS Journalytics

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5713
Journal Impact Factor 7.8
Rank by Impact Factor

Psychiatry (SCIE) 18/155
Psychiatry (SSCI) 13/144

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7.2
5 Year
Impact Factor
8.9
Journal Citation Indicator 1.42
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 35/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
69
Scimago
Journal Rank
1.918
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology Q1
Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11.1
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 10/292 (96th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 30/531 (94th PCTL)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 25/309 (92th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.966

 

 
2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5223
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7,130
5 Year
Impact Factor
9,026
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
56
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,951
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
Scopus
SNIP
2,184

2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
submission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 990 EUR/article for articles submitted after 30 April 2023 (850 EUR for articles submitted prior to this date)
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%.
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Stephanie ANTONS (Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Ruth J. van HOLST (Amsterdam UMC, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Gyöngyi KÖKÖNYEI (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)

Editorial Board

  • Sophia ACHAB (Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (St Andrews University, United Kingdom)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Maria BELLRINGER (Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Damien BREVERS (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Julius BURKAUSKAS (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Silvia CASALE (University of Florence, Florence, Italy)
  • Luke CLARK (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Geert DOM (University of Antwerp, Belgium)
  • Nicki DOWLING (Deakin University, Geelong, Australia)
  • Hamed EKHTIARI (University of Minnesota, United States)
  • Jon ELHAI (University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA)
  • Ana ESTEVEZ (University of Deusto, Spain)
  • Fernando FERNANDEZ-ARANDA (Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Sally GAINSBURY (The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia)
  • Belle GAVRIEL-FRIED (The Bob Shapell School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University, Israel)
  • Biljana GJONESKA (Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Republic of North Macedonia)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Joshua GRUBBS (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Zsolt HORVÁTH (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Susana JIMÉNEZ-MURCIA (Clinical Psychology Unit, Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Chih-Hung KO (Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan)
  • Shane KRAUS (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Bernadette KUN (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Katerina LUKAVSKA (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Gemma MESTRE-BACH (Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, La Rioja, Spain)
  • Astrid MÜLLER (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Ståle PALLESEN (University of Bergen, Norway)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Michael SCHAUB (University of Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Hermano TAVARES (Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN (Ariel University, Israel)
  • Anise WU (University of Macau, Macao, China)

 

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