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Pedro Romero Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar

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Andrea Czakó Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

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Wim van den Brink Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Zsolt Demetrovics Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

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Abstract

Gambling disorder is a severe mental health and behavioural problem with harmful consequences, including financial, relationship and mental health problems. The present paper initiates discussion on the use of psychedelics combined with psychotherapeutic support as a potential treatment option for people living with a gambling disorder. Recent studies have shown promising results using psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) to treat anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and various substance use disorders. Considering the similarities in the underlying psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms of gambling disorder and other addictive disorders, the authors suggest that psychedelic-assisted therapy could be effective in treating gambling disorder. The paper also underscores the need for further research into the viability and effectiveness of psychedelic-assisted therapy for gambling disorder.

Abstract

Gambling disorder is a severe mental health and behavioural problem with harmful consequences, including financial, relationship and mental health problems. The present paper initiates discussion on the use of psychedelics combined with psychotherapeutic support as a potential treatment option for people living with a gambling disorder. Recent studies have shown promising results using psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) to treat anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and various substance use disorders. Considering the similarities in the underlying psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms of gambling disorder and other addictive disorders, the authors suggest that psychedelic-assisted therapy could be effective in treating gambling disorder. The paper also underscores the need for further research into the viability and effectiveness of psychedelic-assisted therapy for gambling disorder.

Early experiences with the therapeutic use of classic psychedelics

Classic psychedelics (5HT2A-agonists), such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are powerful psychoactive substances that alter perception, mood, and cognition. They are generally considered physiologically safe and do not cause abuse or dependence (Nichols, 2016), especially when used in clinical settings. Some of these compounds have been used for millennia by humans for multiple purposes, not only for religious and spiritual ceremonies but also for medicinal purposes (Schultes, Hofmann, & Rätsch, 2001). Both direct and indirect evidence underlines the use of natural psychedelics from the Neolithic period and Ancient Indo-European, Egypt and pre-Columbian civilisations (Carod-Artal, 2013; Samorini, 2019; Wasson, Hofmann, & Ruck, 2008). In the 1950s and 1960s, LSD was widely researched with over a thousand studies involving 40,000 participants exploring its effectiveness in the treatment of multiple conditions (Daws et al., 2022). Political and legal issues stopped psychedelic research in the 1960s but it resurrected in the 1990s and blossomed in the last 20 years (Carhart-Harris & Goodwin, 2017).

Since then, there has been a renaissance in psychedelic research motivated by developments in neuroscience, political and social changes, the need for new mental health treatments, decriminalisation and regulation, and a better understanding of drug use safety. Recent research indicates the potential of psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) to treat treatment-resistant mental disorders, including various substance use disorders (Andersen, Carhart-Harris, Nutt, & Erritzoe, 2021). While atypical psychedelics (e.g., MDMA, ketamine) also show positive results (Mitchell et al., 2021; Sessa et al., 2021; Walsh et al., 2022), we will focus here on classic psychedelics, e.g. LSD, psilocybin, and DMT.

How do classic psychedelics work?

There are multiple, partly overlapping hypotheses on how psychedelics work. First, the Entropic Brain hypothesis (Carhart-Harris, 2018; Carhart-Harris et al., 2014) is based on the assumption that people living with mental disorders often show rigid cognitive processes. Psychedelics, by increasing the entropy of the brain, help to process information and emotions differently from the usual functioning and thereby help the person to gain new insights and facilitate the therapeutic process. Second, the Default Mode Network (DMN) hypothesis (Carhart-Harris & Friston, 2010) suggests that psychedelics disrupt the functioning of specific brain regions, allowing profound changes in emotion and perception. The disruption of this channel allows a different type of memories and provides new insights that can be integrated with already existing memories (Daws et al., 2022). Third, the psychedelic state model suggests that psychedelics create a different state of consciousness rather than disrupting the functioning of specific brain regions. This different state of consciousness is characterised by heightened introspection, emotions, creativity, insight into abstract thinking, and a sense of unity (Bayne & Carter, 2018; Carhart-Harris et al., 2014). The fourth model of Relaxed Beliefs Under Psychedelics (REBUS) (Carhart-Harris & Friston, 2019) suggests that the key mechanism by which psychedelics produce their effect is the reduction of the strength of prior beliefs and assumptions. Fifth, the Self-entropic broadening theory suggests that psychedelics can lower the person's self-focus, leading to positive changes in well-being (Dourron, Strauss, & Hendricks, 2022). In the sixth model, the 5-HT2A receptor hypothesis, the therapeutic effects of psychedelics are supposed to be mediated through their interaction with serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the brain, leading to a cascade of neural effects that may facilitate therapeutic insights and promote emotional processing in individuals with mental disorders (Vollenweider & Kometer, 2010). In the seventh model, increased neuroplasticity may also contribute to the (long-term) effectiveness of PAT as a systematic review (de Vos, Mason, & Kuypers, 2021) pointed out that the administration of a psychedelic produces rapid changes in plasticity. In a recent review, the different models are described at a biochemical, neural, and psychological dimension, offering the opportunity to understand these compounds at different conceptual levels (Van Elk & Yaden, 2022).

Recent promising results

The new wave of psychedelic research has produced promising results, especially in treating hard-to-treat conditions (Schlag, Aday, Salam, Neill, & Nutt, 2022) such as (treatment-resistant) substance use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depressive disorders. In addition, psychedelics have shown remarkable effects in assisting patients with existential end-of-life distress (Kelmendi et al., 2016; Schimmers et al., 2022; Yaden et al., 2022).

A factor that may have contributed to the recent success of research with PAT is the carefully designed studies that also consider set (e.g., personality, expectations) and setting (e.g., physical environment, music, patient-therapist relation) and make use of preparation, and integration sessions (Guss, Krause, & Sloshower, 2020; Mithoefer, 2015). Preparation sessions allow participants to discuss their history and situation with clinicians, set their intentions, and understand what to expect during the psychedelic sessions. The limited number of dosing sessions take place in a safe and comfortable environment, with usually two clinicians present to provide a safe and holding environment. Finally, integration sessions help participants make sense of their psychedelic experience and integrate it into their lives. PAT uses a psychedelic compound to enhance the talking therapy's effectiveness.

Research in treating major depressive disorder with PAT has produced encouraging results. In a recent randomised, waiting list-controlled clinical trial with two psilocybin sessions, 71% of participants had clinically significant responses, with 54% in remission at week 4 (Davis et al., 2021). In a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial, a single moderate dose of psilocybin combined with psychotherapy led to an absolute decrease in symptoms, with 54% meeting remission criteria 14 days after the intervention (von Rotz et al., 2023). Similarly, in a double-blind randomized controlled trial, depressed patients treated with a single dose of 25 mg, 10 mg or 1 mg (placebo) psilocybin, the 25 mg group showed significant reductions in depression severity up to 6 weeks after the psilocybin session (Goodwin et al., 2022). In a recent RCT comparing 25 mg psilocybin with 100 mg niacin (placebo) similar positive results were obtained in patients with major depression (Raison et al., 2023).

Some of the most consistently encouraging outcomes of PAT have been obtained in patients with a substance use disorder. A meta-analysis of six randomised placebo control trials in patients with ‘alcoholism’ from the 1960s and 1970s, showed that a single dose of LSD had significant effects on reduced drinking and abstinence up to six months (Krebs & Johansen, 2012). In a small pre-post study (n = 15) with three psilocybin sessions for tobacco dependence, 80% of participants were still abstinent at six months follow-up (Johnson, 2022; Johnson, Garcia-Romeu, Cosimano, & Griffiths, 2014, 2017). Similarly, a small (n = 10) pre-post study with two psilocybin sessions in alcohol dependent patients showed reduced drinking lasting up to 6 months. Recently, the first randomised clinical trial in alcohol dependent patients comparing 12 weeks motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive behavioral therapy (MET/CGT) plus two psilocybin sessions with 12 weeks MET/CGT plus two diphenhydramine (placebo) sessions produced a robust decrease in alcohol intake lasting at least 6 months (Bogenschutz et al., 2022).

Overall, studies on PAT are very promising in the treatment of a range of mental health conditions, including substance use disorders, with the added benefit of being administered on a few occasions compared to many current long-term pharmacological treatments with high drop-out rates and persistent side effects (Arana, 2000; Bet, Hugtenburg, Penninx, & Hoogendijk, 2013; Dols et al., 2013). Contrary to popular belief, the use of psychedelics in clinical settings proved to be safe (Schlag et al., 2022). Nonetheless, there are also risks associated with PAT. Classic psychedelics can increase blood pressure and heart rate, presenting risks for those with heart conditions and there are contraindications for people with certain pre-existing conditions (e.g. psychosis, epilepsy, serious cardiovascular disorder) or taking certain medications (e.g. SSRIs, MAO-inhibitors). Participants may experience adverse effects such as anxiety, confusion, headaches, and fatigue. Rare but serious issues like psychotic episodes, depressive reactions, or Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD), which causes lasting perceptual disturbances, are also concerns. These risks highlight the importance of careful patient screening and monitoring in therapeutic settings (Ley et al., 2023; Schlag et al., 2022; Strassman, 1984).

Although these results are promising, we need to be mindful that the number of participants in these studies is small and additional research is needed in this field.

The use of classic psychedelics in gambling disorder

Gambling disorder (GD) is a serious mental and behavioural problem with a lifetime prevalence of 0.4%–1% (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The harmful consequences of GD include financial problems, relationship difficulties, mental health issues, and heightened morbidity and mortality rates (Cowlishaw & Kessler, 2016). Individuals with GD exhibit significantly higher suicidality than the general population (Karlsson & Håkansson, 2018). The prevalence of comorbid disorders in GD is very high, with 64% of people with GD having three or more co-occurring conditions. The most common comorbid disorders linked to harmful and disordered gambling include anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders (Fong, 2005; Gartner, Bickl, Härtl, Loy, & Häffner, 2022; Kessler et al., 2008; Moreira, Azeredo, & Dias, 2023).

The currently available psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic options for GD (Dowling et al., 2015) are similar to those for the treatment of substance use disorders. The most common treatments include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive therapy, exposure therapy, imaginal desensitisation, motivation enhancement therapy (MET), and couple's therapy. CBT is more effective, in addressing thoughts and behaviours associated with gambling. Pharmacological treatments like nalmefene and naltrexone may reduce gambling severity, but they have higher dropout rates than the various psychotherapies (Eriksen et al., 2023; Ioannidis et al., 2023; Ribeiro, Afonso, & Morgado, 2021). Although probably effective, many patients do not respond to these interventions. Current therapeutic options have low to moderate effectiveness, with treatment dropout rates up to 51% (Roberts, Murphy, Turner, & Sharman, 2020) and one-year relapse rates reaching 58% (Müller et al., 2017). For this reason, exploring novel approaches to treating GD could improve the prognosis for people affected by harmful gambling.

Based on the above summary, psychedelic-assisted therapy presents an intriguing approach that has so far shown promising results in addressing substance use disorders that share many symptoms and etiological features with GD (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Rash, Weinstock, & Van Patten, 2016; Wareham & Potenza, 2010). Considering the similarities in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms in these disorders and the existence of proposals to integrate psychedelic-assisted therapy for GD (Re et al., 2019) it seems realistic that PAT could be effective in the treatment of gambling disorder as well as other behavioural addictions, such as gaming disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, and eating disorders (Johnson, 2022; Peck et al., 2023; Richard & Garcia-Romeu, 2023; Zafar et al., 2023). Moreover, PAT's potential to target disorders frequently comorbid with GD also supports the above position. Future research should study this potential, including different gambler populations with different background characteristics and comorbid histories. While atypical psychedelics are not the focus of this position paper, we would like to mention that encouraging results are seen in the treatment of patients with different substance use disorders (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis) using ketamine or MDMA (e.g., Dakwar et al., 2020; Sessa et al., 2021; Walsh et al., 2022). Of special interest for this report is the case study of a 44-year-old man with chronic GD, who after 4 sessions of intravenous ketamine recovered, and this improvement continued for the subsequent 6 months with no gambling behaviour and only fleeting thoughts of gambling (case of ketamine including a case study for GD and MDMA) (Grant & Chamberlain, 2020). With this in mind, we certainly should be open to exploring the application of (classic) psychedelics for the treatment of gambling problems.

Funding sources

ZD's contribution was supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (KKP126835).

Authors’ contribution

All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript, commented on the first draft of the manuscript, and revised and approved the final version.

Conflict of interest

The University of Gibraltar receives funding from the Gibraltar Gambling Care Foundation, an independent, not-for-profit charity. ELTE Eötvös Loránd University receives funding from Szerencsejáték Ltd. (the gambling operator of the Hungarian government) to maintain a telephone helpline service for problematic gambling. PR provides training and consultancy for gambling operators as an independent consultant. He is also Chief of Safer Gambling partnerships for the Scottish charity betblocker.org which provides free gambling blocking software for people living with gambling problems. Betblocker is mainly funded by UKGC LCCP RET and donations from operators in licensed jurisdictions. PR is also a former Non-Executive Director for ESG Gaming not-for-profit, registered and regulated Community Interest Company. None of the above-listed funding sources are related to this article. ZD is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Behavioral Addictions.

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  • Ribeiro, E. O., Afonso, N. H., & Morgado, P. (2021). Non-pharmacological treatment of gambling disorder: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 105. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03097-2.

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  • Richard, Jérémie & Garcia-Romeu, Albert. (2023, October 5). Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Gambling Disorder: Rationale and Potential Mechanisms [Poster Presentation] Futures of Gambling Studies.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts A., Murphy R., Turner J., & Sharman S. (2020 Mar). Predictors of dropout in disordered gamblers in UK residential treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 36(1), 373386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09876-7. Erratum in: Journal of Gambling Studies. 2019 Nov 14;: PMID: 31302803; PMCID: PMC7026303.

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  • Samorini, G. (2019). The oldest archeological data evidencing the relationship of Homo sapiens with psychoactive plants: A worldwide overview. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 3(2), 6380. https://doi.org/10.1556/2054.2019.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schimmers, N., Breeksema, J. J., Smith-Apeldoorn, S. Y., Veraart, J., van den Brink, W., & Schoevers, R. A. (2022). Psychedelics for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and existential distress in patients with a terminal illness: A systematic review. Psychopharmacology, 239(1), 1533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-06027-y.

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  • Schlag, A. K., Aday, J., Salam, I., Neill, J. C., & Nutt, D. J. (2022). Adverse effects of psychedelics: From anecdotes and misinformation to systematic science. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 36(3), 258272. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811211069100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultes, R. E., Hofmann, A., & Rätsch, C. (2001). Plants of the Gods: Their sacred, healing, and hallucinogenic powers. Inner Traditions/Bear.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sessa, B., Higbed, L., O’Brien, S., Durant, C., Sakal, C., Titheradge, D., … Nutt, D. J. (2021). First study of safety and tolerability of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in patients with alcohol use disorder. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 35(4), 375383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881121991792.

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  • Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577595. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198410000-00001.

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  • Van Elk, M., & Yaden, D. B. (2022). Pharmacological, neural, and psychological mechanisms underlying psychedelics: A critical review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 140, 104793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2022.104793.

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  • Vollenweider, F. X., & Kometer, M. (2010). The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: Implications for the treatment of mood disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(9), 642651. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2884.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • von Rotz, R., Schindowski, E. M., Jungwirth, J., Schuldt, A., Rieser, N. M., Zahoranszky, K., … Vollenweider, F. X. (2023). Single-dose psilocybin-assisted therapy in major depressive disorder: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised clinical trial. eClinicalMedicine, 56, 101809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101809.

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  • Walsh, Z., Mollaahmetoglu, O. M., Rootman, J., Golsof, S., Keeler, J., Marsh, B., … Morgan, C. J. A. (2022). Ketamine for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders: Comprehensive systematic review. BJPsych Open, 8(1), e19. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.1061.

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  • Wareham, J. D., & Potenza, M. N. (2010). Pathological gambling and substance use disorders. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 242247. https://doi.org/10.3109/00952991003721118.

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  • Wasson, R. G., Hofmann, A., & Ruck, C. A. P. (2008). The road to eleusis: Unveiling the secret of the mysteries. North Atlantic Books.

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  • Re, T., Penazzi, G., Bragazzi, N. L., Khabbache, H., Neri, B., Simíµes, M., … Firenzuoli, F. (2019). Integrating psilocybin and existential-humanistic psychotherapy for pathological gambling treatment: A new perspective. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 15(2), 2.

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  • Ribeiro, E. O., Afonso, N. H., & Morgado, P. (2021). Non-pharmacological treatment of gambling disorder: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 105. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03097-2.

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  • Richard, Jérémie & Garcia-Romeu, Albert. (2023, October 5). Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Gambling Disorder: Rationale and Potential Mechanisms [Poster Presentation] Futures of Gambling Studies.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts A., Murphy R., Turner J., & Sharman S. (2020 Mar). Predictors of dropout in disordered gamblers in UK residential treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 36(1), 373386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09876-7. Erratum in: Journal of Gambling Studies. 2019 Nov 14;: PMID: 31302803; PMCID: PMC7026303.

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    • Export Citation
  • Samorini, G. (2019). The oldest archeological data evidencing the relationship of Homo sapiens with psychoactive plants: A worldwide overview. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 3(2), 6380. https://doi.org/10.1556/2054.2019.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schimmers, N., Breeksema, J. J., Smith-Apeldoorn, S. Y., Veraart, J., van den Brink, W., & Schoevers, R. A. (2022). Psychedelics for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and existential distress in patients with a terminal illness: A systematic review. Psychopharmacology, 239(1), 1533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-06027-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schlag, A. K., Aday, J., Salam, I., Neill, J. C., & Nutt, D. J. (2022). Adverse effects of psychedelics: From anecdotes and misinformation to systematic science. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 36(3), 258272. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811211069100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultes, R. E., Hofmann, A., & Rätsch, C. (2001). Plants of the Gods: Their sacred, healing, and hallucinogenic powers. Inner Traditions/Bear.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sessa, B., Higbed, L., O’Brien, S., Durant, C., Sakal, C., Titheradge, D., … Nutt, D. J. (2021). First study of safety and tolerability of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in patients with alcohol use disorder. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 35(4), 375383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881121991792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577595. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198410000-00001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Elk, M., & Yaden, D. B. (2022). Pharmacological, neural, and psychological mechanisms underlying psychedelics: A critical review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 140, 104793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2022.104793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vollenweider, F. X., & Kometer, M. (2010). The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: Implications for the treatment of mood disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(9), 642651. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von Rotz, R., Schindowski, E. M., Jungwirth, J., Schuldt, A., Rieser, N. M., Zahoranszky, K., … Vollenweider, F. X. (2023). Single-dose psilocybin-assisted therapy in major depressive disorder: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised clinical trial. eClinicalMedicine, 56, 101809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101809.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, Z., Mollaahmetoglu, O. M., Rootman, J., Golsof, S., Keeler, J., Marsh, B., … Morgan, C. J. A. (2022). Ketamine for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders: Comprehensive systematic review. BJPsych Open, 8(1), e19. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.1061.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wareham, J. D., & Potenza, M. N. (2010). Pathological gambling and substance use disorders. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 242247. https://doi.org/10.3109/00952991003721118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wasson, R. G., Hofmann, A., & Ruck, C. A. P. (2008). The road to eleusis: Unveiling the secret of the mysteries. North Atlantic Books.

  • Yaden, D. B., Nayak, S. M., Gukasyan, N., Anderson, B. T., & Griffiths, R. R. (2022). The potential of psychedelics for end of life and palliative care. In F. S. Barrett, & K. H. Preller (Eds.), Disruptive psychopharmacology (pp. 169184). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2021_278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zafar, R., Siegel, M., Harding, R., Barba, T., Agnorelli, C., Suseelan, S., … Erritzoe, D. (2023). Psychedelic therapy in the treatment of addiction: The past, present and future. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1183740. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1183740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5713
Journal Impact Factor 7.8
Rank by Impact Factor

Psychiatry (SCIE) 18/155
Psychiatry (SSCI) 13/144

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7.2
5 Year
Impact Factor
8.9
Journal Citation Indicator 1.42
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 35/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
69
Scimago
Journal Rank
1.918
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology Q1
Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11.1
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 10/292 (96th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 30/531 (94th PCTL)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 25/309 (92th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.966

 

 
2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5223
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7,130
5 Year
Impact Factor
9,026
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
56
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,951
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
Scopus
SNIP
2,184

2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
submission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 990 EUR/article for articles submitted after 30 April 2023 (850 EUR for articles submitted prior to this date)
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%.
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Stephanie ANTONS (Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Ruth J. van HOLST (Amsterdam UMC, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Gyöngyi KÖKÖNYEI (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. ABBOTT (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. ABOUJAOUDE (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat ADELI (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex BLASZCZYNSKI (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Kenneth BLUM (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook CHOI (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan DENYS (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Heather HAUSENBLAS (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias HAYER (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung JEONG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel KUNTSCHE (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel LEJOXEUX (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Astrid MÜLLER  (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Frederick GERARD MOELLER (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy PETRY (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. REID (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc TÚRY (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred UHL (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Róbert URBÁN  (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Johan VANDERLINDEN (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN  (Ariel University, Israel)
  • Kimberly YOUNG (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)

 

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