View More View Less
  • 1 Berks College, Pennsylvania State University, Reading, PA, USA
  • | 2 Dept. of Kinesiology, Penn State Berks, 114a BCC, Tulpehocken Rd., Reading, PA, 19610, USA
Open access


Background and aims

Extensive research has shown that male bodybuilders are at high risk for exercise dependence, but few studies have measured these variables in female bodybuilders. Prior research has postulated that muscular dysmorphia was more prevalent in men than women, but several qualitative studies of female bodybuilders have indicated that female bodybuilders show the same body image concerns. Only one study has compared female bodybuilders with control recreational female lifters on eating behaviors, body image, shape pre-occupation, body dissatisfaction, and steroid use. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise dependence and muscle dysmorphia measures between groups of female weight lifters.


Seventy-four female lifters were classified into three lifting types (26 expert bodybuilders, 10 or more competitions; 29 novice bodybuilders, 3 or less competitions; and 19 fitness lifters, at least 6 months prior lifting) who each completed a demographic questionnaire, the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS), the Drive for Thinness scale (DFT) of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale (BDS), and the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI).


Female bodybuilders scored higher than fitness lifters for EDS Total, BDS Training and Social Dependence, and on Supplement Use, Dietary Behavior, Exercise Dependence, and Size Symmetry scales of the MDI.

Discussion and conclusions

Female bodybuilders seem to be more at risk for exercise dependence and muscle dysmorphia symptoms than female recreational weight lifters.

  • B Allegre M Souville P Therme M Griffiths 2006 Definitions and measures of exercise dependence Addiction Research and Theory 14 631 646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association 1994 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th Edition Author Washington, DC.

  • K Berczik A Szabo M D Griffiths T Kurimay B Kun R Urban Z Demetovics 2012 Exercise addiction: Symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology Substance Use & Misuse 47 403 417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A G Blouin G S Goldfield 1995 Body image and steroid use in male bodybuilders International Journal of Eating Disorders 18 159 165.

  • A Bolin 1992 Flex appeal, food, and fat: Competitive bodybuilding, gender, and diet Play and Culture 5 378 400.

  • B Cook H Hausenblas J Rossi 2013 The moderating effect of gender on ideal-weight goals and exercise dependence symptoms Journal of Behavioral Addictions 2 1 51 55.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A R T Donders G J M G Van der Heijden T Stijnen K G M Moons 2006 Review: A gentle introduction to imputation of missing values Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 59 1087 1091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D M Garner 1991 Eating Disorder Inventory-2 manual Psychological Assessment Resources Odessa, FL.

  • G S Goldfield 2009 Body image, disordered eating, and anabolic steroid use in female bodybuilders Eating Disorders 17 200 210.

  • S R Guthrie S Castelnuovo 1992 Elite women bodybuilders: Models of resistance or compliance? Play and Culture 5 401 408.

  • B D Hale A Roth R DeLong M Briggs 2010 Exercise dependence and the drive for muscularity in male bodybuilders, power lifters, and fitness lifters Body Image 7 234 239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • B D Hale D Smith 2012 Bodybuilding T Cash Encyclopedia of body image and human performance Elsevier Oxford, UK.

  • H Hausenblas P Giacobbi 2004 Relationship between exercise dependence symptoms and personality Personality and Individual Differences 36 1265 1273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H Hausenblas D Symons Downs 2002 Exercise dependence: A systematic review Psychology of Sport and Exercise 3 89 123.

  • J Heaney A Ginty D Carroll A Phillips 2011 Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress International Journal of Psychophysiology 79 2 323 329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Hurst B D Hale D Smith 2000 Exercise dependence in bodybuilders and weight lifters British Journal of Sports Medicine 11 319 325.

  • A M Klein 1986 Pumping iron: Crisis and contradiction in bodybuilding subculture Society of Sport Journal 3 112 133.

  • A M Klein 1992 Man makes himself: Alienation and self-objectification in bodybuilding Play and Culture 5 326 337.

  • C D Lantz D J Rhea J L Mayhew 2001 The drive for size: A psycho-behavioral model of muscle dysmorphia International Sport Journal 5 71 85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J E Leone E J Sedory K A Gray 2005 Recognition and treatment of muscle dysmorphia and related body image disorders Journal of Athletic Training 40 352 359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R J A Little 1992 Regression with missing x's: A review Journal of the American Statistical Association 87 420 1227 1237.

  • D R McCreary D K Sasse 2000 An exploration of the drive for muscularity in adolescent boys and girls Journal of American College Health 48 297 304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H G Pope K A Phillips R Olivardia 2000 The Adonis complex: The secret crisis of male body obsession New York Free Press.

  • D J Rhea C D Lantz A E Cornelius 2004 Development of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI) The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 44 428 435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D Smith B D Hale 2004 Validity and factor structure of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale British Journal of Sports Medicine 38 177 181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D Smith B D Hale 2005 Exercise dependence in bodybuilding: Antecedents and reliability of measurement Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 45 401 408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D Smith B D Hale 2011 Exercise dependence L D T D The psychology of strength training and conditioning Routledge London, UK.

  • D K Smith B D Hale D J Collins 1998 Measurement of exercise dependence in bodybuilders Journal of Sport Medicine and Physical Fitness 38 66 74.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D Symons Downs H Hausenblas C R Nigg 2004 Factorial validity and psychometric examination of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science 8 183 201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A Terry A Szabo M Griffiths 2004 The Exercise Addiction Inventory: A new brief screening tool Addiction Research and Theory 12 489 499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J K Thompson L J Heinberg M Altabe S Tantleff-Dunn 1999 Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance American Psychological Association Washington, D.C..

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D Tod D Lavallee 2010 Towards a conceptual understanding of muscle dysmorphia development and sustainment International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 3 2 111 131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D Veale 1987 Exercise dependence British Journal of Addiction 82 735 740.

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Web of Science [Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch®)
  • Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
  • Social Sciences Citation Index®
  • Journal Citation Reports/ Social Sciences Edition
  • Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • GoogleScholar
  • PsycINFO
  • PubMed Central
  • Medline
  • CABI
Total Cites 4024
Impact Factor
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Total 74
Total 12
Scimago 47
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
Days from  38
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
to publication  
Acceptance 31%

Total Cites
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
Impact Factor
Article Influence
% Articles
Citable Items
Journal Rank
Scite Score
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)


Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 850 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
per Year
per Year
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • H. N. Alexander LOGEMANN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany)
  • Astrid MÜLLER (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Attila SZABÓ (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Róbert URBÁN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN (Ariel University, Israel)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. ABBOTT (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. ABOUJAOUDE (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat ADELI (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex BLASZCZYNSKI (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Kenneth BLUM (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Beáta BÖTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook CHOI (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan DENYS (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Heather HAUSENBLAS (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias HAYER (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung JEONG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel KUNTSCHE (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel LEJOXEUX (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Frederick GERARD MOELLER (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy PETRY (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. REID (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc TÚRY (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred UHL (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Johan VANDERLINDEN (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Kimberly YOUNG (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)


Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2021 0 123 136
Sep 2021 0 122 140
Oct 2021 0 126 133
Nov 2021 0 72 73
Dec 2021 0 70 74
Jan 2022 0 40 44
Feb 2022 0 0 0