View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Christiesgt 12, NO-5020, Bergen, Norway
  • 2 Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Oslo, Norway
Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

A long existing notion is that the presence of music might affect gambling behavior. In spite of this, little empirical research on the subject exists. The main aim of the present study was to corroborate and elaborate on the existing findings concerning gambling and music through a laboratory based experiment.

Methods

A nonclinical sample of 101 undergraduate students (72 females, 29 males) played a computerized gambling task in which either a high-tempo or a low-tempo musical soundtrack was present. Persistence in gambling, reaction time and evaluation of the game comprised the outcome variables.

Results

Low-tempo music was associated with increased gambling persistence in terms of overall number of bets placed, whereas high-tempo music was associated with intensified gambling in terms of faster reaction time per placed bet. Type of soundtrack was not associated with game evaluation.

Discussion

Our findings add to the existing knowledge by showing that both low-tempo and high-tempo music can be associated with more risky gambling behavior, the former by increasing gambling persistence and the latter by reducing reaction time for bets placed.

Conclusions

In sum, the existing studies provide compelling evidence that music can affect various aspects of gambling behavior. These findings may have clinical implications by educating gamblers on the effects of structural mechanisms in gambling on behavior.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • A Blaszczynski L Sharpe M Walker 2001 The assessment of the impact of the reconfiguration on electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for problem gambling Report for the Gaming Industry Operators Group University of Sydney Sydney.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A Blaszczynski L Sharpe M Walker K Shannon M-J Coughlan 2005 Structural characteristics of electronic gaming machines and satisfaction of play among recreational and problem gamblers International Gambling Studies 5 187 198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C Caldwell S A Hibbert 1999 Play that one again: The effect of music tempo on consumer behaviour in a restaurant European Advances in Consumer Research 4 58 62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M Chóliz 2010 Experimental analysis of the game in pathological gamblers: Effect of the immediacy of the reward in slot machines Journal of Gambling Studies 26 249 256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • L Dixon R Trigg M Griffiths 2007 An empirical investigation of music and gambling behaviour International Gambling Studies 7 315 326.

  • F V Garlin K Owen 2006 Setting the tone with the tune: A meta-analytic review of the effects of background music in retail settings Journal of Business Research 59 755 764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M D Griffiths 1990 The acquisition, development, and maintenance of fruit machine gambling in adolescents Journal of Gambling Studies 6 193 204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M D Griffiths 1990 Addiction to fruit machines: A preliminary study among young males Journal of Gambling Studies 6 113 126.

  • M D Griffiths 1991 Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines Journal of Adolescence 14 53 73.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M Hansen I Rossow 2010 Limited cash flow on slot machines: effects of prohibition of note acceptors on adolescent gambling behaviour International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 8 70 81.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A Johansson K G Gotestam 2003 Gambling and problematic gambling with money among Norwegian youth (12–18 years) Nordic journal of psychiatry 57 317 321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C I Karageorghis D-L Priest 2011 Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part I) International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 5 44 66.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C I Karageorghis D-L Priest 2011 Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part II) International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 5 67 84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J I Kassinove M L Schare 2001 Effects of the “near miss” and the “big win” on persistence at slot machine gambling Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 15 155 158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H R Lesieur S B Blume 1993 Revising the South Oaks Gambling Screen in different settings Journal of Gambling Studies 9 213 223.

  • J Linnet K Rømer Thomsen A Møller M B Callesen 2010 Event frequency, excitement and desire to gamble, among pathological gamblers International Gambling Studies 10 177 188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H H C Marmurek K Finlay V Kanetkar J Londerville 2007 The influence of music on estimates of at-risk gambling intentions: An analysis by casino design International Gambling Studies 7 113 122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R A Mentzoni J C Laberg G S Brunborg H Molde M D Griffiths 2012 Effects of sequential win occurrence on subsequent gambling behaviour and urges Gambling Research 24 31 38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R A Mentzoni J C Laberg G S Brunborg H Molde S Pallesen 2012 Tempo in electronic gaming machines affects behavior among at-risk gamblers Journal of Behavioral Addictions 1 135 139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A C North A Shilcock D J Hargreaves 2003 The effect of musical style on restaurant customers’ spending Environment and Behavior 35 712 718.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • T Noseworthy K Finlay 2009 A comparison of ambient casino sound and music: Effects on dissociation and on perceptions of elapsed time while playing slot machines Journal of Gambling Studies 25 331 342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J P Quinn 1969 Gambling and gambling devices Patterson Smith New Jersey.

  • F H Rauscher G L Shaw C N Ky 1993 Music and spatial task performance Nature 365 611.

  • E G Schellenberg 2005 Music and cognitive abilities Current Directions in Psychological Science 14 317 320.

  • J Spenwyn D Barrett M Griffiths 2010 The role of light and music in gambling behaviour: An empirical pilot study International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 8 107 118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J N Weatherly J M Sauter B M King 2004 The “big win” and resistance to extinction when gambling The Journal of Psychology 138 495 504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2020 0 9 4
Jul 2020 12 0 0
Aug 2020 6 9 3
Sep 2020 0 32 25
Oct 2020 0 27 32
Nov 2020 0 28 12
Dec 2020 0 0 0